"Notes." by Amelia Ann Blanford Edwards (1831-1892)
NOTE 1, page 5. –Dr. Birch's calculation was based upon the supposition, then universally accepted, that embalmment was not practised in ancient Egypt till after 2000 B.C., no earlier specimens of embalmed and bandaged mummies having been discovered at the time when he wrote. See Birch's Guide to the First and Second Egyptian Rooms of the British Museum, 1878. When, however, the Pyramid of King Pepi (Sixth Dynasty, circa 3500 B.C.) was opened in 1880, the mummied remains of that very ancient king were not only found to be impressed by bandages, but portions of these actual bandages were found strewn on the floor of the sepulchral chamber.
"On a mis au jour les sépultures du dernier roi de la Vme Dynastie, Ounas, et de plusieurs rois de la VIme, Teti, Pepi Ier, Merenra, Pepi II. La momie de Merenra a été trouvée dépouillée de ses bandelettes, qui avaient été arrachées à une époque ancienne; mais la trace de ces bandelettes, imprimée en relief sur la peau, est restée parfaitement visible et prouve que les procédés d'embaumement déjà constatés pour les époques postérieures, étaient en usage dès la VIme Dynastie."See M. Maspero's paper on Egyptian Exploration, addressed to the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres, in the Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, vol. iv., No. 4, 1881. See also "Lying in State in Cairo," by Amelia B. Edwards, Harper's Monthly Magazine, July, 1882
NOTE 2, page 5. –For some particulars respecting the shipping of mummies for manure during the reign of the Khedive Ismail, see MacCoan's Egypt as It Is, chap viii., p 168.
NOTE 3, page 18.–The colossal seated statue of Rameses II. in black granite, and the remarkable headless sphinx here referred to, are now in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston, U. S. A.
NOTE 4, page 23.–Many of these interesting fragments are preserved in the Museum of the Louvre.
NOTE 5, page 24.–Ancient Egyptian flint weapons and implements have been found in large numbers in various parts of Egypt, but they do not indicate what is understood as a Stone Age, since they all belong to historic times. Flint saws, flint fruit-scoops, etc., have recently been found in large numbers by Mr. Petrie, in the Twelfth Dynasty town of Kahun. Flint chisels are also found in large quantities in the turquoise mines of Wady Maghara, dating apparently from the earliest to the latest time at which these mines were worked, thus showing that flint was not superseded by bronze where flint was equally effectual. See Chabas's L'Antiquité Historique, chap. v; also Lord's Peninsula of Sinai, p. 433, et seq.
NOTE 6, page 30.–By such as desire to become better acquainted with the styles and devices of these fascinating amulets, Mr. Petrie's illustrated Hand-book of Historical Scarabs will be thoroughly appreciated.
NOTE 7, page 31.–For illustrations of the various stages of the lotus pattern on the potsherds of Naukratis, see the plates to Naukratis Part I., by Mr Petrie and the plates to Naukratis Part II., by Mr. Earnest A. Gardner. See also Prof. W. H. Goodyear's paper on "The Origin of the Ionic Capital and the Anthemion in Greek Art," published in the American Journal of Archæology, vol. iii. (1888); also Mr. Goodyear's important forthcoming work, entitled The Grammar of the Lotus. [Page 302]
NOTE 8, page 31.–"Amasis was partial to the Greeks, and, among other favors which he granted them, gave to such as liked to settle in Egypt the city of Naukratis for their residence. To those who only wished to trade upon the coast, and did not want to fix their abode in the country, he granted certain lands where they might set up altars and erect temples to the Gods. Of these temples the grandest and most famous, which is also the most frequented, is called 'The Hellenium.' It was built conjointly by the Ionians, Dorians, and Æolians, the following cities taking part in the work: the Ionian States of Chios, Teos, Phocæa, and Klazomenæ; Rhodes, Cnidus, Halicarnassus, Phaselis of the Dorians, and Mytilêne of the Æolians. These are the States to whom the temple belongs, and they have a right of appointing the governors of the factory; the other cities which claim a share in the building claim what in no sense belongs to them. Three nations, however, consecrated for themselves separate temples–the Eginetans one to Zeus, the Samians to Hera, and the Milesians to Apollo."--Herodotus, Book II., chap. clxxviii.
NOTE 9, page 36.–See Naukratis, Part II., by Ernest A. Gardner.
NOTE 10, page 38.–The Great Sphinx is attributed by Mariette to the mythic ages before the advent of Mena, the first king of the First Dynasty; and Maspero considers it to be, if not actually prehistoric, at all events the oldest monument in Egypt. The Sphinx has been several times cleared from the ever-drifting sands of the desert. The first occasion of which we have any record was in the time of Thothmes IV., that king having celebrated the fact by a votive tablet placed against the breast of the Sphinx, and which yet remains in situ. He therein relates that, having been upon one of his hunting expeditions, he lay down to rest in the shadow of the huge image. He there fell asleep and dreamed a dream wherein the Sphinx conjured him to clear away the sand in which it was nearly buried. After this it was cleared again in the time of Pisebkhanu, a king of the Twenty-first Dynasty, who has also left a tablet on the spot; and it must have been cleared again in Roman times, when the paws and breast were repaired with slabs of limestone. From that time till the opening of the Suez Canal, the sand continued to accumulate without being disturbed; but it was once again cleared down to the paws in honor of the visit of the Emperor and Empress of the French in 1869.
NOTE 11, page 44.–Tum, or Atum, the God of the Setting Sun, was also worshipped at Heliopolis. He is represented as a man walking, with a head-dress composed of the lotus, with drooping calyx leaves, surmounted by two straight feathers.
NOTE 12, page 44. The hieroglyphic spelling of "Thukut," or "Sukut," has given rise to much discussion among Egyptologists, the initial hieroglyph of this name being capable of a twofold reading. M. Naville has, however, shown by analogy that this sign must have been used to express the sibilant S as well as the diphthong Th; as, notably, in the Greek transcription of the Egyptian name of the city of Thebnuter, which must have had the sibilant pronunciation, as it was transcribed Sebennytus by the Greeks. See The Store-City of Pithom and the Route of the Exodus, 3d edition (1888), by E. Naville.
NOTE 13, page 47.–The Septuagint was the official and authoritative Bible of Hellenistic Jews, accepted by the Jewish high-priest at Alexandria, and authorized by the high-priest at Jerusalem and the seventy elders. These latter were, in fact, responsible for the work, and are accredited with the performance of the task of selection and translation. According to a well-founded tradition, the Septuagint was undertaken by order of Ptolemy Philadelphus (286-247 B.C.), and begun, if not completed, at Alexandria, the law being the part first translated. We quote the following from the author of the article "Septuagint," in the Encyclopedia Britannica, 1886:
"From Ecclesiasticus it appears that about 130 B.C. not only the law but the 'prophets and other books' were extant in Greek. With this it agrees that the most ancient relics of Jewish-Greek literature all show acquaintance with the Septuagint. The later translations of prophets and other books were private enterprises, as appears from the prologue to Ecclesiasticus and the Colophon to Esther. It appears also that it was long before the whole Septuagint was finished and treated as a complete work. The work of translation was grad- [Page 303] ual, and not uniform. Philo, Josephus, and the New Testament writers use the Septuagint."
NOTE 14, page 50.–See Josephus's Antiquities of the Jews, xiii., 3.
NOTE 15, page 54.–See Tanis, Part I., chap. ii., by W. M Flinders Petrie. See also "Tanis," by Amelia B. Edwards, Harper's Monthly Magazine, October 1886.
NOTE 16, page 58.–See Goshen and the Shrine of Saft el Henneh (1887), by E. Naville.
NOTE 17, page 73.–For an admirable account of the methods of ancient Egyptian painting, see Maspero's Egyptian Archæology, chap. iv., pp. 164-201.
NOTE 18, page 75.–See Pliny's Historia Naturalis, Book XXXV., chap. iii. See also Woltmann's History of Painting, chap. i.
NOTE 19, page 75.–See Plinie's Naturall Historie, translated by Philemon Holland, Book XXXV., chap. iii., London, 1601.
NOTE 20, page 78.–See Les Origines de l'Historie d'apres la Bible, chap. xiii. Francois Lenormant. See also Note 27.
NOTE 21, page 79.–See "Les Attaques dirigées contre l'Egypte," Revue Archéologique, nouvelle sèr, Vol. XVI. by E. de Rougé.
NOTE 22, page 80.–For a full account of these discoveries, and fac-similes of the archaic alphabetic signs scratched on the potsherds of Kahun and Gurob, see Mr. Petrie's new volume, entitled Kahun, Gurob, and Hawara; Trübner & Co., 1890. Grébaut
NOTE 23, page 81.–Mr Lepage Renouf has recently cast grave doubts upon the usually accepted significance of the papyrus and lotus groups, which he maintains in no wise stand for Upper and Lower Egypt. It has also been suggested by M. Grébaut that another well-known group of hieroglyphs, signifying "the two lands" may refer not to Upper and Lower Egypt, but to the right and left banks of the Nile.
NOTE 24, page 83.–From the earliest date at which we have any knowledge of the manners and customs of the ancient people of Syria, we find them delighting in rich and picturesque raiment, after the fashion of the garments worn by the typical Syrian in our illustration. Joseph's coat of many colors was, we may be sure, a fringed and embroidered garment such as these; and that this kind of embroidery was carried to a point of great perfection at a later period is shown by the enumeration of the booty taken from Sisera in the "Song of Deborah," where we read of "a prey of divers colours of needle-work on both sides meet for the necks of them that take the spoil."–Judges, chap. v, verse 30. See also Psalm xiv., verses 13 and 14: "The King's daughter is all glorious within: her clothing is of wrought gold. She shall be brought unto the King in raiment of needle-work." See also the descriptions of the hangings of the tabernacle and the garments of the priests in the books of Exodus and Leviticus.
NOTE 25, page 84.–The Libyan tribe, called the Maatsaiu (thus spelled phonetically in the hieroglyphs), are represented by the Mâazehs of the present day. They were employed by the Pharaohs as gendarmes, or armed police. See "La Carrière administrative de deux hauts fonctionnaires Egyptiens," Journal Asiatique, Avril-Juin, 1890, by Professor Maspero.
NOTE 26, page 91.–Mr. Ernest Gardner, referring to this beautiful Sphinx plate in Naukratis, Part II., writes as follows:
"This is a plaque-painting rather than a vase design It is executed with the utmost delicacy and ease in four colours– yellow, brown, purple or red, and white; these are the typical four colours of early painting, and we can hardly doubt that they were the four that characterized the technique of Polygnotus and other early masters. Here, then, we have an example closely approaching to a panel picture, showing us exactly how these colours were used. Perhaps the most remarkable thing of all is the use of touches of white to bring out the high lights. Unfortunately it is hardly possible to see this now; but when the plate was first taken out of the ground such touches were distinctly visible in some places, especially on the front of the fore-legs and paws. The use of the other colours may be pretty clearly seen on the plate. The outlines are drawn in brown with a brush, but incised lines are also used, especially to indicate the [Page 304] plumage on the breast. Above the head of the sphinx two small holes were bored through the rim of the plate, clearly indicating that it was intended to be hung up, in all probability as a picture to decorate the wall of the temple. If so, we may with yet more certainty regard this plaque as affording us invaluable information as to the style prevalent in the free paintings of the period–if, indeed, any existed in the sixth century which were not purely decorative in their subject and treatment." See Naukratis, Part II, chap. v., p. 45, by Ernest A. Gardner.
NOTE 27, page 92.–According to Herodotus, Book I., chap. xciv., there was a great famine in Lydia in the time of Atys, son of Menes, wherefore the King divided the nation in two halves, and it was decided by casting lots which half should remain in Lydia, and which should go into exile. The lots being drawn, he gave his son Tyrsenos to the emigrants for their leader, and they built ships, and put out to sea in search of some fertile place in which to settle. Having touched at the ports of many nations, they at last colonized Umbria, and there founded cities which they still continued to inhabit in the historian's own time. He further goes on to say that they ceased to call themselves Lydians, and, taking the name of their early leader, called themselves Tyrsenes. This is the same people whom we meet with in the Egyptian hieroglyphic chronicles as the Tursha. And here, again, we find them evidently in search of a new home in which to establish themselves as a settled colony. During the reign of Meneptah Egypt was invaded by the Libyans in alliance with the Achæans, the Tursha, and other tribes from the coast-lands of Asia Minor. In this coalition the Tursha appear as emigrants under arms, rather than as mere invaders in search of plunder; for it is expressly said in the great inscription which records the defeat of the invaders that "the Tursha took the lead in this war, all the warriors from that country having brought their wives and their children" If, however, the Tursha, or Tyrsenes, were in search of a new country in the time of Meneptah, they seem to have found a home by the time of Rameses III., some sixty years later, for, in the great invasion of Egypt by the Græco-Asiatic and European tribes, which took place during the reign of that Pharaoh, the Tursha occupy but a secondary place, and send only a small contingent to the war. This, as Lenormant observes, points to the fact that the bulk of the nation had by this time found their long-sought place of settlement in Central Italy. According to this authority, it was towards the fifteenth or fourteenth century, B.C., that the Tursha, or Tyrsenes, who up to that time had inhabited the western coast of Asia and the islands of the Ægean, emigrated en masse in a westward direction, and settled in Central Italy. See Les Origines de l'Histoire d'apres la Bible, chap. xiii., by Francois Lenormant.
NOTE 28, page 94.–It was Apollodorus who first combined landscape and figures, and who first abandoned the old system of monochrome background. He was also the first of the Greek painters who mastered the difficulties of light and shadow.
"Apollodorus was the first to give his pictures a natural and definite background in true perspective; he was the first, it is emphatically stated, who rightly managed chiaroscuro and the fusion of colors. Hence he earned the title of Skiagraphos, or shadow painter. He will also have been the first to soften off the outlines of his figures, and thus no longer to draw and tint merely, but, in the true sense of the word, to paint with his brush. For this reason we may, with Brunn, in a certain sense call Apollodorus the first true painter."–Woltmann's History of Painting, chap. ii, p. 46.
NOTE 29, page 96.–For a more detailed account of these portraits and their discovery, see Biahmu, Hawara, and Arsinoë by W. M. Flinders Petrie, chaps. iii., vi.
NOTE 30, page 104.–In the Græco-Roman cemetery at Hawara, in which these portraits were discovered, Mr. Petrie found a large number of mummies inwrapped in garments both woven and embroidered in rich colors and elegant designs, many in extraordinary preservation. Woollen socks, various kinds of shoes and sandals in leather and palm-leaf, as well as a number of head-scarfs and hair-nets in delicate netted thread-work and woollen-work were also found. Specimens of these hair-nets and netted head-dresses are to be seen at the South Kensington Museum, London. These very curious relics of wearing apparel, etc., date from 200 A.D. to [Page 305] 300 A.D.; they are therefore of later origin than the portraits, and belong to subsequent interments. The manufacture of netting for trimming purposes, etc., may, however, have been common long before.
NOTE 31, page 116.–For full particulars of these early tombs and their contents see Les Mastabas de l'ancien Empire, by A. Mariette Bey.
NOTE 32, page 118.–See Mr. Lepage Renouf's volume of Hibbert Lectures, 1879. Lecture IV., p. 147 et seq.
NOTE 33, page 119.–The tablet of Pepi-Na is in the Museum of Ghizeh.
NOTE 34, page 120.–The tablet of Napu is in the possession of Jesse Haworth, Esq.
NOTE 35, page 140.–The presence of these statues of servants in tombs of the ancient empire may very possibly point to a far distant prehistoric time, when the servants were themselves sacrificed and buried in the tombs of their masters.
NOTE 36, page 143.–See Sir Charles Newton's description of the treatment of the human figure by Greek sculptors, Essays on Archæology, chap. viii., p. 360 (1880).
NOTE 37, page 149.–The first Sallier Papyrus (British Museum), after having been long regarded as an historical document, has been shown by Professor Maspero to be a popular story, based probably upon fact, but indebted for some of its incidents to the common stock of Oriental folk-lore. Of this king, Apepi, we only know that he repaired and embellished the Great Temple of Tanis, that he built a temple to Sutekh, a Semitic deity, and that it was in his time that the Theban princes, headed by Sekenen-Ra-Ta-a, commenced that war of independence which resulted in the expulsion of the Hyksôs. The first Sallier Papyrus, which is unfortunately much mutilated, begins by describing how "the whole land did homage to King Apepi, and how the King took unto himself Sutekh for lord, refusing to serve any other God in the whole land." It then goes on to say how he called his counsellors and magicians together, to assist him in framing a fantastic message to Sekenen-Ra-Ta-a, in which he desired that prince to hunt down the hippopotamuses of Upper Egypt, because they prevented his sleep by day and by night. Sekenen-Ra-Ta-a received this message with dismay, and summoned his captains and generals to advise him as to its meaning, whereupon they were all struck with silence and terror. Here the manuscript breaks off abruptly, and we are left with the enigma unsolved. It is evident, however, that Apepi imposed an impossible task upon the Theban prince, in order to compel his acceptance of some unwelcome alternative, such as the abjuration of his national faith, and his conversion to the worship of Sutekh. What the historic kernel of this story may have been it is impossible to say, but it seems probable that Apepi endeavored to abolish the worship of the Gods of Egypt, in order to impose upon his subjects the exclusive worship of Sutekh. Such a proposal, if addressed to the tributary princes of Thebes, who were the direct descendants of the great Twelfth Dynasty Pharaohs, would have been sufficient to precipitate that great rising which was already inevitable. The first Sallier Papyrus has been translated into English by E. L. Lushington, in Records of the Past, vol. viii.; into German by Brugsch, in his Geshichte Ægyptens unter den Pharaonen; and into French by Professor Maspero, in his Contes Populaires de l'Egypte Ancienne. There are also translations by Ebers, Chabas, and others.
NOTE 38, page 149.–See M. Naville's Bubastis, being the Eighth Annual Memoir published by the Egypt Exploration Fund.
NOTE 39, page 157.–See "Lying in State in Cairo," in Harper's Monthly Magazine for July, 1882.
NOTE 40, page 157.–The highest honor which an Oriental can bestow upon a stranger or a friend is to abnegate in his favor the tomb prepared for his own mortal remains. It was thus that Joseph of Arimathea gave up his own sepulchre, as related in Matthew xxvii., 57-60; Mark xv., 43-46; and Luke xxiii., 50-53. An interesting modern instance of how the modern Arab still prepares his tomb during his own lifetime, and how, when influenced by friendship, he offers to dedicate it not only to the remains of a stranger, but to a stranger who is a woman and an infidel, is recorded in the experiences of Lady Duff Gordon. [Page 306]
NOTE 41, page 160.–"'Yavan' is the Hebrew rendering of 'Ionia' and is employed in the Bible in a generic sense, designating the Greek nationalities collectively." See Lenormant, Les Origines de l'Histoire d'apres la Bible, chap. xiii.
NOTE 42, page 164.–See "Mémoire sur les Attaques dirigées contre l'Egypte," Revue Archéologique, 1867, by De Rougé.
NOTE 43, page 168.–The wall-paintings and inscriptions of these extremely interesting tombs have just been exhaustively copied by means of photographs and colored tracings by Messrs. Newberry, Fraser, and Blackden, agents of the Egypt Exploration Fund, this being the first series of monuments undertaken for the great Archæological Survey of Egypt.
NOTE 44, page 169.–See Mr. W. M. Flinders Petrie's Lecture on Naukratis, delivered at the Annual General Meeting of the Egypt Exploration Fund, October 28, 1885. Printed in the Third Annual Report of the Society, pp. 14-32.
NOTE 45, page 170.–For the Orchomenos ceiling, see Schliemann's Orchomenos; Leipzig, 1881, Pl. I.
NOTE 46, page 171.–See Dr. Schliemann's Orchomenos.
NOTE 47, page 174.–"The age of the Doric temple at Corinth is not, it is true, satisfactorily determined; but the balance of evidence would lead us to believe that it belongs to the age of Cypselus, or about 650 B.C. The pillars are less than four diameters in height, and the architrave–the only part of the superstructure that now remains–is proportionately heavy. It is, indeed, one of the most massive specimens of architecture existing, more so than even its rock-cut prototype at Beni-Hassan, from which it is most indubitably copied. As a work of art, it fails from excess of strength, a fault common to most of the efforts of a rude people, ignorant of their own resources, and striving, by the expression of physical strength alone, to obtain all the objects of their art."–History of Architecture, vol. i., Book III., chap. ii., p. 220, by Fergusson.
NOTE 48, page 181.–See American Journal of Archæology, vol. iii., Nos. 3 and 4.
NOTE 49, page 195.–An excellent translation of this papyrus, published, with commentary, in the Bibliotheca Sacra, 1888, has been made by Professor Howard Osgood, of Rochester, N. Y.
NOTE 50, page 196.–Mr. Petrie has more recently found at Gurob fragments of the Phædo of Plato and the Antigone of Euripides–certain portions of the latter part of the play being hitherto unknown.
NOTE 51, page 213.–It was the opinion of De Rougé that this papyrus is a later copy, and that the date and signature are mere transcriptions from an earlier document. Erman, basing his opinion upon the fact that a well-known scribe named Pentaur lived some 70 years later during the reign of Meneptah, doubts not only that the copy was made in the 7th year of Rameses II. but that Pentaur was the author. It is, however, quite possible that the Pentaur of Meneptah's time was a son of the original Pentaur inheriting his profession and his office. In any case the name of Pentaur was not uncommon, and the fact that there was a Pentaur in the time of Meneptah is really no reason for dismissing as mythical the Pentaur of the preceding reign. In the mean while the colophon can only be accepted as it stands.
NOTE 52, page 217.–Besides the better known transcriptions of this poem on the pylon-walls of Luxor and the Ramesseum, and in the great hall at Abû-Simbel, there are some remains of other transcriptions in the Temples of Rameses II. at Abydos in Upper Egypt, and Derr in Nubia.
NOTE 53, page 218.–See Chabas, in Zeitschrift für Ægypt: Sprache, 1864. Also Lieblein, in a paper entitled "Les Anciens Egyptiens Connaissaient-ils le Mouvement de la Terre ?" Transactions of the Congrès Provincial des Orientalistes Francais, 1 Bulletins, vol. ii.
NOTE 54, page 220.–The Prisse Papyrus has of late been admirably translated into French from the original Egyptian by M. Philippe Virey (1887).
NOTE 55, page 221.–Translated by M. Pierret, Recueil des Travaux, 1870.
NOTE 56, page 222.–These sixteen tales, some of which are fragments only, are all to be found in the latest edition of M. Maspero's delightful little volume of Contes Egyptiennes, 1889. [Page 307]
NOTE 57, page 223.–See Études Egyptiennes, G. Maspero, Tome I, Fascicule 3, 1883.
NOTE 58, page 225.–The flowers mentioned in this love-song are identified by Professor Maspero with "Sweet Marjorum," Purslane, and Mugwort, all sweet-smelling herbs. In adapting my translation to the English language, I have ventured to substitute Henna, one of the Lythracea for the less poetical original.
NOTE 59, page 226.–We may even know how the words of this song actually sounded in the mouths of the men who sang them 3540 years ago. The old tongue is strange enough to our modern ears, but thanks to its close relation to the Coptic, and to the researches of modern Egyptologists, we are enabled to call back its far-off echoes.
Hi ten enten,
Aha-u ! Aha-u !
Hi-ten enten ! Hi-ten enten !
Teheu en amu !
Shesu en Nebuten, Shesu en Nebuten,
Aha-u ! Aha-u !
NOTE 60, page 228.–See, for many important papers on the religion and mythology of the ancient Egyptians, Professor Maspero's contributions to the Revue de l'Histoire des Religions during the past ten years.
NOTE 61, page 230.–See Tyler's Primitive Culture, the chapter on Totemism.
NOTE 62, page 231.–Bulletin de la Religion d'Egypte in Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, 1st year, vol. i., No. 1.
NOTE 63, page 236.–See Herodotus, Book IV., chap. cxxxi-cxxxii.
NOTE 64, page 241.–For an account of the Horshesu, see chap. ii., "The Buried Cities of Ancient Egypt."
NOTE 65, page 254.–The God Khem, also by some Egyptologists called Min and Am. He was identified by the Greeks with Pan, and by the Romans with Priapus.
NOTE 66, page 261.–That Hatasu was not their only daughter is shown by a funerary bas-relief sculpture representing Thothmes I. and Ahmes-Nefertari with their daughter, the princess Neferu Kheb, who died in infancy. Whether Hatasu was the elder or the second daughter we do not know; but in either case, as the survivor, she was heiress to the throne.
NOTE 67, page 262.–"The Black Land and the Red Land" signifies Lower and Upper Egypt; the Black Land being the dark mud of Lower Egypt, and the Red Land the sandy deserts of Upper Egypt.
NOTE 68, page 263.–See "Études des Monuments du Massif de Karnak," by E. De Rougé, in the Mélanges d'Archéologie, vol i., page 50.
NOTE 69, page 264.–See Le Musèe Egyptien, by E. Grébaut, Part I.; see also an article by G. Maspero, in the Revue Critique, No. 49, December, 1890.
NOTE 70, page 264.–For a description of the winding-sheet of Thothmes III., see Les Momies Royales de Deïr-el-Bahari, Part I., p. 548.
NOTE 71, page 269.–Compare various translations of this inscription in Records of the Past, in Cleopatra's Needle, by Sir Erasmus Wilson, and in The Egypt of the Past, by the same author.
NOTE 72, page 272.–The lofty tower which is yet standing of this ruined convent has been the temporary abode of Lepsius, Champollion, Rosselini, and Sir Gardner Wilkinson, while they were prosecuting their researches.
NOTE 73, page 272.–One whole sphinx, and part of another are in Berlin.
NOTE 74, page 272.–See Deïr-el-Bahari, by Auguste Mariette, folio, 1877.
NOTE 75, page 273.–In 1874 two of these prostrate Hathor-head capitals were in admirable preservation, the hair being colored yellow, the eye-balls white, with a black disk for the iris; and the necklace, if I remember rightly, black, green, and red. By this time, probably, they are scored over with travellers' names, or chipped to pieces by relic-hunters.
NOTE 76, page 276.–See Deïr-el-Bahari. Mariette, p. 31.
NOTE 77, page 280.–This celebrated subject forms one of the great historic series relating to the reign of Seti I. sculptured in bas-relief on the north outer wall of the Hypostyle Hall at Karnak. The canal is represented by two vertical lines enclosing a narrow space of water, conventionally rendered by zigzags, the [Page 308] banks being each planted with a row of trees. The only bridge known to be represented in ancient Egyptian art is here shown as crossing the canal in front of the fortified gates of a strong frontier fortress, named El Khetam, or "The Key." For an exact reproduction of this important sculpture, see Rosselini, Monumenti Storici. A part of the subject is also given in Eber's Egypt, vol. ii.
NOTE 78, page 282.–Dr. Doenitz, in his remarks on the fishes, contributed to Dr. Dümichen's work, Die Flotte einer Ægyptischen Königin, writes of these turtles as tortoises, and classifies the crawfish as the Palinurus penicillatus of the Red Sea. He remarks, however, that the Egyptian artist has here and there mixed up the fishes of the Nile and the Red Sea in a curiously arbitrary manner, having more than once introduced the sacred oxyrhinchus of the Nile among the fishes of Punt.
NOTE 79, page 285.–The speech which the Egyptian lapidary scribe has here put into the mouth of Parihu gives to Hatasu the glory of being the first ruler of Egypt whose representatives visited the Land of Punt; the tablet of Sankhara (Eleventh Dynasty) in the Wady Maghara refers, however, to an expedition, despatched by this Pharaoh to the Land of Punt in quest of the "green ana." The tablet states that the King's explorers started from Coptos and crossed the Arabian desert by the old trade route to a port on the Red Sea, the site, no doubt, of the more modern city of Berenice. Here they built and launched the vessels which conveyed them to the coast of the Somali country. See the Wady Maghara Tablet in Lepsius' Denkmäler.
NOTE 80, page 286.–The Egyptians entertained an extreme reverence in the abstract for the Land of Punt, which apparently formed part of a larger district known generally as Ta-nuter, or the Land of the Gods. Hathor and Bes, two of the principal deities worshipped by the Egyptians had their divine origin in Punt, and Hathor was adored under a special form as "The Lady of Punt." Bes, in his grotesque features and general characteristics, is clearly a barbaric divinity, and is occasionally represented as nursing or devouring the large cynocephalus apes depicted in the wall-sculptures of Dayr-el-Bahari as indigenous to the Land of Punt. The Egyptians appear to have cherished a vague tradition of their own origin as natives of Ta-nuter at some extremely remote period; and it is interesting to note that the curved beard characteristic of these natives of the Land of the Gods is a special attribute of divinities as well as of deified personages in Egyptian art.
NOTE 81, page 287.–An inscription at Karnak, which gives a long list of the booty brought to Egypt after a victorious campaign of Thothmes III., especially mentions a certain curious bird "which delighted the heart of his Majesty more than all other things." The architraves of this Pharaoh's Hall of Pillars, also at Karnak, are covered with elaborate representations of foreign flowers, trees, and plants brought by that king from Syria for planting out in the great botanic garden attached to the Temple of Amen at Thebes. A wood-cut in Maspero's Egyptian Archæology admirably reproduces some of these very curious designs. (See English translation, 2d edition, p. 89, fig. 100.)
NOTE 82, page 288.–See Plinie's Natural Historie, translated by Philemon Holland, 1691, Book XII., chaps. xv. and xvi.
NOTE 83, page 289.–See Schweinfurth's Heart of Africa, vol. i., p. 271.
NOTE 84, page 291.–See Chabas, Antiquités Historiques, chap. iii.
NOTE 85, page 293.–The Egyptian word Pera, signifying literally "Great House," is the invariable name for a royal palace. It is also used as a synonym for the King himself and gives us the origin of that title which is transliterated in the Hebrew Bible by "Pharaoh." This employment of the name of the palace as a synonym for the name of the King is exactly paralleled at the present day by our own use of the term "Sublime Porte," or "Great Gate-way" for the title of the Sultan of Turkey
NOTE 86, page 295.–Urtheku, or "Great Charmer," is a Goddess of Magic but rarely met with in the inscriptions.
NOTE 87, page 296.–A somewhat similar inscription on the face of the cliff above the entrance to the celebrated Speos Artemidos in the province of Minieh, which is in part effaced, has recently been copied and deciphered by M. Golenischeff. This sanctuary had hitherto been attributed to Thothmes III.; but M. Go- [Page 309] lenischeff has discovered that the royal ovals of this king are resculptured over those of some earlier sovereign, who, to judge by the mention of Hathor of Punt, and the products of the Land of Punt, can have been none other than Hatasu. In the course of the same inscription it is said that she had restored the temples of the Gods in various parts of Egypt where they had been ravaged and overthrown by the enemy, whom we may presume to have been the Hyksôs.
NOTE 88, page 297.–See Rhind's Thebes, its Tombs and their Tenants. [Page 310]