A Celebration of Women Writers

Through England on a Side Saddle in the Time of William and Mary, Being the Diary of Celia Fiennes
by Celia Fiennes (1662-1741)
with an introduction by Emily Wingfield Griffiths (26 August 1828 - 11 October 1917)
London: Field and Tuer, The Leadenhall Press, 1888.


[Title Page]

Through England

On a Side Saddle

IN THE TIME OF WILLIAM AND MARY

BEING THE DIARY OF

CELIA FIENNES.


WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY

THE HON. MRS GRIFFITHS.


LONDON:
Field & Tuer, The Leadenhall Press, E.C.
Simpkin, Marshall & Co.; Hamilton, Adams & Co. New York: Scribner & Welford, 743 & 745, Broadway.
1888


FIELD & TUER,
THE LEADENHALL PRESS, E.C.
(T. 4346)


THE DIARY
OF
CELIA FIENNES


 

THIS VOLUME

IS

Dedicated

TO THE DEAR MEMORY OF

My Father,

13TH BARON SAYE AND SELE.

E. W. G.

 


INTRODUCTION.


THE account of the several journeys through England undertaken by my kinswoman, Celia Fiennes, in the reign of William and Mary, may prove interesting, as shewing the manners and customs of those times. The writer's diligent and attentive observation of details concerning the various counties through which she passed, either on horseback or in her equipage, and her descriptions of the many gentlemen's seats visited by her, seem worthy of notice and preservation. Numerous towns are described, and a great many churches and country seats – some of which doubtless no longer exist – are minutely detailed. There being little literature of this kind and period in existence, Celia Fiennes's diary almost takes the position and value of an historical document. The portion relating to London is interesting. The Lord Mayor's Show and other ceremonies are fully described. The perusal of these quaint and straight-forward pages, in which there is little pretence to style, gives a good idea of what England was two hundred years back. The only actual date mentioned is 1695. The absence of roads strikes one, and also the unimportance of what are now the great manufacturing districts of the north. Bristol appears to have been the second city in the kingdom. The fashionable baths and spas and style of bathing are minutely described. With the exception of the dome, St Paul's Cathedral was finished, and Whitehall Palace had recently been burned – the authoress suspects by Papist incendiaries.

The original MS., given to me by my father, has been copied verbatim, as I believe any correction or alteration would spoil its quaint originality. Celia Fiennes was daughter of Colonel Nathaniel Fiennes, a Parliamentarian Officer, by his marriage with Miss Whitehead, and was sister of the third Viscount Saye and Sele.

EMILY W. GRIFFITHS.


TO THE READER.

AS this was never designed: soe not likely to fall into the hands of any but my near relations, there needs not much to be said to Excuse or recommend it. Som.thing may be diverting and proffitable tho' not to Gentlemen that have travelled more about England, staid longer in places, might have more acquaintance and more opportunity to be inform'd. My Journeys as they were begun to regain my health by variety and change of aire and exercise, soe whatever promoted that was pursued; and those informations of things as could be obtein'd from jnns en passant, or from some acquaintance, inhabitants of such places could ffurnish me with for my diversion, I thought necessary to remark: that as my bodily health was promoted my mind should not appear totally unoccupied, and the collecting it together remain for my after conversation (with such as might be inquisitive after such and such places) to wch might have recourse; and as most I converse with knows both the ffreedom and Easyness I speak and write as well as my deffect in all, so they will not expect exactness or politeness in this book, tho' such Embellishments might have adorned the descriptions and suited the nicer taste.

Now thus much without vanity may be asserted of the subject, that if all persons, both Ladies, much more Gentlemen, would spend some of their tyme in Journeys to visit their native Land, and be curious to Inform themselves and make observations of the pleasant prospects, good buildings, different produces and manufactures of each place, with the variety of sports and recreations they are adapt to, would be a souveraign remedy to cure or preserve ffrom these Epidemick diseases of vapours, should I add Laziness? – it would also fform such an Idea of England, add much to its Glory and Esteem in our minds and cure the evil Itch of overvalueing fforeign parts; at least ffurnish them with an Equivalent to entertain strangers when amongst us, Or jnform them when abroad of their native Country, which has been often a Reproach to the English, ignorance and being strangers to themselves. Nay the Ladies might have matter not unworthy their observation, soe subject for conversation, within their own compass in each county to which they relate, and thence studdy now to be serviceable to their neighbours especially the poor among whome they dwell, which would spare them the uneasye thoughts how to pass away tedious dayes, and tyme would not be a burthen when not at a card or dice table, and the ffashions and manners of fforeign parts less minded or desired. But much more requisite is it for Gentlemen in gl service of their country at home or abroad, in town or country, Especially those that serve in parliament to know and jnform themselves ye nature of Land, ye Genius of the Inhabitants, so as to promote and improve Manufacture and trade suitable to each and encourage all projects tending thereto, putting in practice all Laws made for each particular good, maintaining their priviledges, procuring more as requisite; but to their shame it must be own'd many if not most are Ignorant of anything but the name of the place for which they serve in parliament; how then can they speake for or promote their good or Redress their Grievances? But now I may be justly blamed to pretend to give acc: of our Constitution, Customs, Laws, Lect, matters farre above my Reach or capacity, but herein I have described what have come within my knowledge either by view and reading, or relation from others which according to my conception have faithfully Rehearsed, but where I have mistaken in any form or subject matter I easily submitt to a correction and will enter such Erratas in a supplement annext to ye Book of some particulars since remark'd; and shall conclude with a hearty wish and recommendation to all, but Especially my own Sex, the studdy of those things which tends to Improve the mind and makes our Lives pleasant and comfortable as well as proffitable in all the Stages and Stations of our Lives, and render suffering and age supportable and Death less fformidable and a future State more happy.

CELIA FIENNES.


THE DIARY

OF

CELIA FIENNES


THE ACCOUNT OFF

severall Journeys into severall parts of England with many Remarkes; some wth my mother from Newtontony Wiltshire which is all on the downs a fine Champion Country pleasant for all sports, Rideing, Hunting, Courseing, Setting and shooteing. From Newtontony I went to Sarum 8 miles which is a Citty and Bishop's Seat, pretty Large town Streetes broad but through ye midst of them runs a little rivulet of water which makes ye Streetes not so clean or so easye to pass in, they have stepps to Cross it and many open places for horses and Carriages to Cross itt – itt takes off Much from the beauty of ye streetes – the Cause of it was from the burning of the old town called Salsebury which was on a hill about a mile off this and it was so drye and farre from springs that it was destroyed by fire and only the ruines of the Castle is to be seen like a high wall with fortifications: this town now Stands low by the water by a great River, the houses are old Mostly timber Buildings, there is a large Market House with the town hall over it and a prison Just by – there is also a large Cross in another place and house over it for a Constant Market for fruite, fowle, Butter and Cheese and a fish Market; the town is well served with all provissions; there is good buildings in that part they call the Close, both New built and ye old good houses belonging to the doctors of the Church. Ye Dean has a very good house and Gardens, so is the Bishop's Palace at ye end of a Row of trees – the roomes are lofty and Stately: all these houses are round ye Cathedrall which is esteemed the finest in England in all respects, it only lyes low in a watry meadow so yt the foundations is in the water, made of ffaggots and timber, yet notwithstanding its want of a Riseing ground to stand on ye steeple is seen many miles off, the spire being so high it appeares to us below as sharpe as a Dagger, Yet is in the Compass on the top as bigg as a Cart wheele; its all stone and Carved finely with spires and Arches, there are severall doores into ye Church, in the body of it stands the pulpet and seates on each side; there are two large Isle's runnes up on either side the font stands below opposite to the quire yt enters wth 2 or 3 steps assent from a large Cross Isle that leades to the Cloysters, in which is ye Chapter house which is very large and supported only by one small stone Pillar in ye middle, painted round the walls with figures Carved ye whole acco: of the book of Genesis, the Windows are painted very finely – Much of the History of the Bible. There is as many little Chappels in the Church as months in a yeare, as many doores as weekes, as many Marble pillars as dayes, as many windows as houres, as many partitions in the windows as minutes in the year. The roofe of the Church is very lofty and exactly neate in all things though not so large as some other Cathedralls – the top of the Qoire is exactly painted and it lookes as fresh as if but new done though of 300 yeares standing – there is a very good organ and a deske for the reader raised so high even with the organ for ye advantage of the voice to be heard, yet ye Church is so lofty yt ye Eccos drowns ye Intelligableness of the voice. The Comunion table, hangings and ye booses are all of crimson velvet with gold fringe, 2 large Candlestickes gilt wth great white tapers in them, a large gilt bason to receive ye offerings in – there is many good monuments there, also there are ye Statues of the 3 bishops that built the Church cut in stone – there are two large fine monuments above ye Rest – one all free stone for the lord George, his Effiges and ladyes att length on a bed in their Robes and ruffs on pillows, and ye four pillars are twisted, and over it Angels, figures of birds, beasts, flowers and leaves very fine, there sits Justice wth ye ballance in her hand, one scale laying over ye other twisted lookes very natural and well, with ye wreathed work all in free stone with their Armes cut about in Escutheons all about it; the other is a monument for the Duke of Summerset all in marble, a large bed his Effigee in garment and ruff all in Coullours, his lady the same only she is laid one step above him because she was Daughter to the Dowager of ffrance and sister to Henry ye 7th of England by her second husband Charles brandon Duke of Suffolk.

There is ye Effiges of their 2 sonnes, Lord Beachom at their head and Lord Seymour at ye feete in Armour on their knees, and severall Daughters on their knees at ye bottom and 12 pillars of Irish gray marble. The Armes is cutt finely in Escutcheons &c. and in figures with ye supporters and severall sorts of beasts carved in a piramide fashion, and on ye top the Duke's Corronet – these 2 monumts are railed in with Iron grates, there is the Effigee in stone of a doctor that starved himself to death attempting to imitate our Saviour to fast 40 dayes – but at 31 dayes end he became sensible of his evil and would have retrieved his life by eateing againe, but then by ye Just judgment of god could not swallow any thing down his throate; – there is a chaple or burying place of Judge poppums that had two very wild sonnes and by 2 pictures of his sonnes, pictured one with death ye other with a skeleton and set in ye room they were to come into by their father's order, it pleased God to bless as a meanes to reclaim them. Ye pictures are still there; the windows of the Church but especially ye Quire are very finely painted and large of ye history of ye bible – the tower ffor ye bells are in ye yard at some distance from the Church – there are 6 Churches in the town and subburbs and ye County Goal at ye end of the town called ffisherton, just by the great river that runnes to Christ-Church in Salsebury. They keep the quarter session once in ye yeare the othr tymes are kept at Malbrough about 24 mile off and at ye Devises about ye same distance wch is a very neate little town with a very good market house and town hall sett on stone pillars; it is a bourrough and a very rich tradeing place ffor the Clothing trade, the fourth place ye session is kept is Warminster about ye same distance – its a pretty little town a good Market for corn and there is the Mindiffe Coale which is allmost as good as the sea Coale from new-Castle that is dugg out of the hills all about; – But ye Assizes is allwayes kept at Salsebury and is a Major town though Wilton about 2 mile off is ye County town and ye Knights of ye shire are chosen there, though its now but as a little village as it were, and only supported by the Earle of Pembrooke which lives there and has a very ffine house with large Courts one within another. At ye Entrance there is a lofty Hall with good Pictures, 3 or 4 dineing roomes and drawing roomes of State with very good bed Chambers and well furnished velvet damaske and tissue, one Gallery and ye dineing roome was all wanscoated with pictures of ye family – there is a drawing roome and Anti roome, ye wanscoate is painted with ye whole History of the Acadia romance made by Sr Philip Sidney, brother to the then Countess of Pembrooke and Composed by him in ye ffine woods above ye house.

Another room is painted wth all sorts of sports, Hunting, Hawking &c. – they are all finely painted on the Ceiling and very lofty. there is one dineing roome yt the Chimney is just under a window and the Tunnells runnes upon each side. there is one Chamber, the chimney stands Just by the window opposite to Salsebury, and on the black Marble Chimney piece soe finely polished you may see all the Cathedrall as in a Glass; I have seen it plaine. There are very fine Marble Chimney pieces in most of ye roomes, and marble windows. The Gardens are very fine with many gravel walkes with grass squaires set with fine brass and stone statues – fish ponds and basons with ffigures in ye middle spouting out water – dwarfe trees of all sorts and a fine flower garden – much wall fruite. Ye river runns through ye garden that easeily conveys by pipes water to all Parts.

A Grottoe is att ye end of the garden just ye middle off ye house – its garnished with many fine ffigures of ye Goddesses, and about 2 yards off the doore is severall pipes in a line that with a sluce spoutts water up to wett the strangers – in the middle roome is a round table and a large Pipe in the midst, on which they put a Crown or Gun or a branch, and so yt spouts the water through ye Carvings and poynts all round ye roome at ye Artists pleasure to wet ye Company – there are figures at Each corner of ye roome that Can weep water on the beholders and by a straight pipe on ye table they force up ye water into ye hollow carving of ye rooff like a Crown or Coronet to appearance but is hollow within to retaine ye water fforced into it in great quantetyes yt disperses in ye hollow Cavity over ye roome and descends in a Shower of raine all about ye roome – on each side is two little roomes which by the turning their wires ye water runnes in ye rockes – you see and hear it and also it is so contrived in one room yt it makes ye melody of Nightingerlls and all sorts of birds wch engages ye Curiosity of ye Strangers to go in to see, but at ye Entrance off each room is a line of pipes that appear not till by a Sluce moved – it washes ye spectators designed for diversion.

Ye Grottoe is leaded on ye top where are fish ponds, and just without ye grottoe is a wooden bridge over ye river. Ye barristers are set out wth Lyons set thick on Either Side wth their mouths open, and by a sluce spout out water each to other in a perfect arch ye length of ye bridge. There are fine woods beyond ye house and a large parke walled in. From thence I went to Blandford in Dorsetshire 18 miles through a haire waring and a forest of ye Kings.

Blandford is a pretty neate Country town. Thence to Merly by Wimborn over a great river Called the Stoure and a large Arched bridge to a Relations house, Sr William Constantines house – thence to Poole a little sea-port town 4 miles off where was a very good Minister in ye publick Church – Mr Hardy.

From thence we went by boate to a little Isle Called brownsea 3 or 4 leagues off where there is much Copperice made, the stones being found about ye Isle in ye shore in great quantetyes. there is only one house there wch is the Governours, besides little fishermen's houses; they being all taken up about ye Copperice workes; they gather ye Stones and place them on ground raised like ye beds in gardens, rows one above the other and are all Shelving, so yt ye raine disolves ye Stones and it draines down into trenches and pipes made to receive and Convey it to ye house, yeh is fitted with Iron panns four square and of a pretty depth at least 12 yards over. They place Iron spikes in ye panns full of branches and so as ye Liquor boyles to a candy it hangs on those branches; I saw some taken up – it look'd like a vast bunch of grapes. Ye Coullour of ye Copperace not being much differing it lookes cleare like Suger-Candy – so when ye water is boyled to a Candy they take it out and replenish the panns with more liquor. I do not remember they added anything to it only ye Stones of Copperice disolved by ye raine into liquor as I mention'd at first – there are great furnaces under, yt Keepes all the panns boyling – it was a large room or building with Severall of these large panns: they do add old Iron and nailes to ye Copperass Stones. This is a noted place for lobsters and Crabs and shrimps. I there eate some very good. From Merly we went to ye Isle of Purbeck. At Warrum we passed over a bridge where ye sea flowed in, and Came by ye ruines of Corffe Castle which stands on a hill, yet surrounded by much higher hills yt might easily command it, and so in ye Civil warrs was batter'd down with Granadeers – thence you rise a great ascent of hills, called the Linch or rather ye ridge, being so for 3 or 4 miles, rideing to Quare, which was 16 miles ffrom Merly to a relations house – Cos'n Colliers.

From this ridge you see all ye Island over, which lookes very fruitfull, good lands, Meadows, woods and jnclosures – there are many quarys in these hills of yt wch is called the free stone from hence they digg it – the shores are very Rocky all about ye Island. We went 3 miles off to Sonidge a sea faire place not very big – there is a flatt sand by ye sea a little way: they take up stones by ye shores yt are so oyly, as ye poor burn it for ffire, and its so light a ffire it Serves for Candle too, but it has a strong offensive smell. At a place 4 mile off called Sea Cume the Rockes are so Craggy and ye Creekes of land so many yt ye sea is very turbulent – I pick'd shells and it being a spring tide I saw ye sea beat upon ye Rockes at least 20 yards with Such a ffoame or ffroth – and at another place the rockes had so large a Cavity and Hollow yt when ye Sea flowed in, it runne almost round and Sounded like some hall or high arch. In this Island are severall pretty good houses though not very large. Att Kingston, Sr William Muese has a pretty house, and att Income Mr Coliffords – Doonshay, Mr Dollings and 7 mile off Quare. Att Finnum, lady Larences, there is a pretty large house but very old timber built: there I eate ye best Lobsters and Crabs, being boyled in ye Sea water and scarce Cold – very large and Sweet. Most of the houses in ye Island are built of stone – this is Just by the great Cliffts wch are a vast height from ye sea – here is plenty of provision of all sorts especially of fish. ffrom Finnum we ascend a high hill of a great length till you are out of ye Island which does hardly appeare to be now an Isle, the tide having left it on this side that you passe only a little Brooke. There is another Castle called Brindon, but yt lyes low and appears not much – thence we came to Piddle 6 or 7 miles off where was a relation – Mr Oxenbridg; an old house wch formerly was an abby – thence to Dorchester town 5 miles – it stands on ye side of a Hill the river runnes below it – the town lookes Compact and the streetes are very neately pitch'd and of a good breadth – The Market-place is spaceious – The Church very handsome and full of galleries.

Thence we went to Burport about 8 miles – The wayes are stony and very narrow – the town has a steep hill to descend through the whole place – thence to Woolfe 4 miles to a relation – Mr Newbery a man of many whymseys – would keep no women servants – had all washing, Ironing dairy and all performed by men – his house look's like a little village when you Come into ye Yard – so many little buildings apart from each other – one for a stillitory – another for out houses and offices, another long building for Silk wormes, and ye dwelling house is but mean and spoyl'd by his ffancy of makeing a hall up 3 storyes high and so lofty nothing suiteable to it. He had good gardens and orchards much good ffruite, but all in a most rude Confused manner. Thence we went to Colway neare Lime in Somersetshire about 8 miles to a relations house Mr Hendly's – from thence it is 2 miles to Lime a seaport place open to the main ocean, and so high and bleake Sea, that to secure the Harbour for shipps they have been at a great Charge to build a Mold from the town with stone like a halfe Moon, wch they call the Cobb; its raised with a high wall and this runns into ye Sea a good Compass that ye Shipps rides safely within it, when the tide is out we may see the foundations of some part of it – that is the tyme they looke over it to see any breach and repaire it immediately, else ye tide come with so much violence would soone beate it down – there is some part of it low and only is to joyne ye rest to the land, and at high water is all Cover'd of such a depth of water that shipps may pass over it to enter the Cobb or halfe moone, which is difficult for fforeigners to attempt, being ignorant, though its better than goeing round the other way for those that know and do observe the tide – the spring tides and any Storme does some tymes beate up and wash over the walls of the forte or castle into the Court and so runns into the town, though at other tymes when its' the ordinary tide and calme sea it is at least 300 yards from the banke on which the high wall is built – In most parts of somersetshire it is very fruitfull for Orchards, plenty of apples and peares, but they are not Curious in the Planting the best sort of fruite which is a great pitty, being so soone produced and such quantetyes, they are likewise as Careless when they make Cider – they press all sorts of Apples together, else they might have as good Cider as in any other parts, even as good as the Herriford-shire – they make great quantetyes of Cider, their presses are very large, so as I have seen a Cheese as they call them which yeilded 2 hoddsheads – they pound their apples, then lay fresh straw on the press, and on that a good lay off Pulp of the apples, then turne in the ends of the straw over it all round and lay fresh straw, then more apples up to the top. Just by Lime you Cross a little brooke into Devon-shire which is much like Somersetshire – fruitfull Country's for Corn, graseing, much for inclosures that makes the wayes very narrow, so as in some places a Coach and Waggons Cannot pass – they are forced to Carry their Corn and Carriages on horses' backes with frames of wood like pannyers on either side ye horse, so load it high and tye it wth Cords – this they do altogether the farther Westward they goe for ye wayes grow narrower and narrower on to ye lands end. They shewed me the Lizard point from Lime, it was a good distance – Ye land grows narrower in a compass round, as it were round the sea. From lime the wayes are also difficult by reason of the very steep hill up and down, and that so successively as little or no plaine even ground, and full of large smooth pebbles that make the strange horses slip and uneasye to go – the horses of the Country are accustomed to it and travell well in the rodes – in ye opener wayes they use a sort of waine or carriage made narrower than our Southern Waggon, but longer and so load them high – from Lime to Burport is 12 miles and so to Dorchester; thence to Blandford we pass over Woodbery hill eminent for a great Faire that is kept there of all things: the road passed by Cherbery – the foot of the hill on the Slope stands a pretty Seate of Mr Earles my relation – the house is new built on ye brow of ye hill whence you have large prospects of 20 mile round – you may see Shaftesbury thence 16 mile off – there is a good wood behind the house, good gardens wall'd with plenty of fruit, good fish and decoy pounds. There is a very good Hall at the entrance leads you to a large parlour and drawing room on ye right hand that opens to the gardens – a very good little parlour on the left with servants room, and another parlour for smoakeing, all well wanscoated and painted and the offices convenient – the Chambers are good and lofty and sizeable – good ffurniture in the best 2 Chambers, in an angle the staires leads up halfe way into ye middle of the house and so divides in four parts and runnes to each angle.

Thence 6 miles to Blandford, thence 18 to Salsebury and 8 mile to Newtontony which stands in ye midst of ye downs 8 mile from Andover a market town in Hampshire and ye roade to London. It lyes 15 mile from Winchester – it is three mile from Amesbury and 2 mile more to Stoneage that stands on Salsebury plaine – eminent for many battles being faught there – this Stoneage is reckon'd one of the wonders of England how such prodigeous stone should be brought there, as no such Stone is seen in ye Country nearer than 20 mile. They are placed on the side of a hill in a rude jregullar form – two stones stands up and one laid on their tops with morteses into each other and thus are severall in a round like a wall with spaces between, but some are fallen down, so spoyle the order or breach in the temple, as some think it was in the heathen tymes; others thinke it the Trophy of some victory wone by one Ambrosious, and thence the town by it has its name of. Amsebury. There is severall rows of lesser stones within the others set up in the same forme of 2 upright and one lies on the top like a gateway. How they were brought thither or whether they are a made stone is not resolved – they are very hard yet I have seen some of them scraped – the weather seemes not to penetrate them. To increase the wonder of the story is that none Can Count them twice alike – they stand confused and some single stones at a distance but I have told them often, and bring their number to 91. This Country is most Champion and open, pleasant for recreations – its husbandry is mostly Corn and sheep, the Downs though short grass ye feed is sweet, producing the finest wooll and sweet meat though but small.

The little towns or villages lies in the valleys and runs along in the bottom and are called Bourns having water running in most of them. From Stonidge I went to Evell in Somersetshire, thence to Meer a little town about 15 mile; by the town is a vast high hill called the Castle of Meer – its now all grass over and so steepe up that the ascent is by footsteps cut in the side of the hill. I was on the top where some had been digging and was come to a space that was Arched and the walls plaistred and washed white and smooth – it was but a little roome, I tooke a piece of its walls and plaister. That shews there may be Cells or vaults in the hill – from thence to Wincauton 7 miles which is on a steep hill and very stoney – you go through the town all the way down as it were a steep precipice, all Rocks – thence to Castle Cary 3 or 4 miles – its generally a good fruitfull Country, much on jnclosures as is most of Summersetshire.

Thence to Alford 2 miles where was a minerall water which Company resorts to for drinking – formerly it has been more frequented than of late – many now send for them severall miles and have Beer brewed of them – there being no good accomodation for people of fashion, the Country people being a Clownish rude people. Ye waters are mostly from Alom – its a Cleare little well and a quick spring – the bottom of the well has a sort of Blewish Clay or Marle, its a quick purger, good for all sharpe Humers or Obstruction. In three mile of this place is Queen Camell famous for a fine ring of bells and for the fine sort of brown thread called Nuns thread – as we returned from thence we came by Bruton a very neate stone built town – from it we ascend a very high steep hill all in a narrow Lane cut out of the rocks on which grow trees thick, their Roots runns amongst the rocks, and in many places fine Clean springs buble out, and run a long out of the rocks, it smells Just like the sea. we were full an hour passing that hill though with four horses and a Chariot. My sister self and Maid: thence to Willding which is a place of much water, so to Newtontony in all 30 miles.

Another Journey to the Bath, from Newtontony to Warminster 18 miles a good road town and good way; thence to Breackly 5 mile a Deep Clay way, we passed over one Common of some miles Length on a narrow Causy that a Coach can scarce pass, all pitched with slatts and stones – our Coach was once wedged in ye wheele in the stones that severall men were forced to lift us out; its made only for Packhorses which is the way of Carriage in those parts. Ye Common is so Moorish their feete and wheeles would sinke in, so no going there – thence to Philip Norton 3 miles a very neate stone built village. Thence you pass a good way between 2 stone walls to the bath, 5 mile down a very steep hill and stony, a mile from the town scarce any passing and there descends a little Current of water continually from the rocks. The wayes to the bath are all difficult, the town lyes Low in a bottom and its steep ascents all wayes out of the town. The houses are indifferent, the streetes of a good size well pitched. There are severall good houses built for Lodgings that are new and adorned, and good furniture, the baths in my opinion makes the town unpleasant, the aire so low, encompassed with high hills and woods. There is 5 baths the hot bath the most hot springs – its but small and built all round, which makes it ye hotter – out of it runns the water into a bath called the Le pours.

The third bath is called the Cross bath wch is some thing bigger then the former and not so hot; the Cross in the middle has seates round it for ye Gentlemen to sitt, and round the walls are Arches wth seates for the Ladyes, all stone and the seate is stone and if you thinke the seate is too Low they raise it with a Coushon as they call it, another Stone, but indeed the water bears you up that ye seate seemes as easy as a down Coushon. Before the Arch the Ladyes use to have a laced toilet hung up on the top of the Arch and so to shelter their heads even to the water if they please. You Generally sit up to the Neck in water, this Cross bath is much the Coolest and is used mostly in ye heate of summer; there are Gallery's round ye top that ye Company that does not Bathe that day walkes in and lookes over into ye bath on their acquaintance and company – there are such a number of Guides to each bath of women to waite on ye ladyes, and of men to waite on the Gentlemen, and they keepe their due distance. There is a serjeant belonging to ye baths that all the bathing tyme walkes in galleryes and takes notice order is observed and punishes ye rude, and most people of fashion sends to him when they begin to bathe, then he takes particular Care of them and Complements you every morning wch deserves its reward at ye end of the Season. When you would walk about ye bath I use to have a woman guide or two to Lead me for the water is so strong it will quickly tumble you down, and then you have 2 of the men guides goes at a distance about ye bath to Cleare ye way. At ye sides of the Arches are rings that you may hold by and so walke a little way, but ye springs bubbles up so fast and so strong and are so hot up against ye bottoms of ones feete, Especially in that they Call ye Kitching in the bath, which is a great Cross with seates in ye middle and many hot springs riseth there. The Kings bath is very large, as large as the rest put together, in it is the hot pumpe that persons are pumpt at for Lameness or on their heads for palsyes. I saw one pumpt, they put on a broad brim'd hatt wth the Crown Cut out so as ye brims Cast off ye water from ye face; they are pumpt in ye bath, one of ye men Guides pumps – they have two pence I thinke for 100 pumps. The water is scallding hot out of the pump, the armes or Legs are more easyly pumped. The Ladyes goes into the bath with Garments made of a fine yellow canvas, which is stiff and made large with great sleeves like a parsons gown; the water fills it up so that its borne off that your shape is not seen, it does not cling close as other linning, which Lookes sadly in the poorer sort that go in their own linning. The Gentlemen have drawers and wastcoates of the same sort of canvas, this is the best linning, for the bath water will Change any other yellow. When you go out of the bath you go within a doore that leads to Steps which you ascend by degrees that are in the water, then the doore is shut which shutts down into the water a good way, so you are in a private place where you still ascend severall more steps and let your Canvass drop of by degrees into the water, which your women guides take off, and the meane tyme your maides flings a garment of flannell made like a Nightgown wth great sleeves over your head, and ye guides take ye taile and so pulls it on you Just as you rise ye steps, and yr other garment drops off so you are wrapped up in ye flannell and your nightgown on ye top, and your slippers and so you are set in Chaire which is brought into ye roome wch are called slips, and there are Chimney's in them, you may have fires. These are in severall parts of the sides of ye bath for ye Conveniency of persons going in and out of ye bath decently, and at ye top of ye staires stands a woman yt Layes a woollen Cloth for you to set your bare foot, and also to give you attendance. Ye Chaires you go in are a low seate and wth frames round and over ye head and all cover'd inside and out wth red bayes and a Curtaine drawn before of ye same wch makes it Close and warme; then a Couple of men wth staves takes and Carryes you to your lodging and sets you at yr bedside where you go to bed and lye and sweate so[m]e tyme as you please. Yr own maides and ye maides of the house gets your fire and waites on you till you rise to get out of your sweate. All the baths has the same attendance, the queens bath is bigger then ye other three but not and neare so big as ye Kings, which do run into each other and is only parted by a wall and at one place a great arch where they run into each other. Ye queens bath is a degree hotter than ye Cross bath and ye Kings bath much hotter, these have all gallery's round and the pump is in one of these galleryes at ye Kings bath which ye Company drinks of, its very hot and tastes like ye water yt boyles Eggs, has such a smell, but ye nearer ye pumpe you drinke it, ye hotter and less offencive and more spiriteous. The baths are all Emptyed as soone as the Company goes out, which is about 10 or 11 of ye Clock in the morning; then by sluces they empty at once ye bath so it fills againe. I have seen all ye springs bubble up as thicke out of ye ground when the baths have been empty. Ye bottom is gravell. So they will be full for ye evening if Company would go in againe, if so they empty them againe at Night and they are filled against ye morning and there will be such a white scum on the bath wch ye guides goes and scimms off Cleane before any Company goes in; if they go in while this scum is on it gives them the bath mantle as they call it, makes them breake out into heate and pimples; ye like will be on them if they go into ye bath before they have purged, especially in ye hotter bath. Ye places for divertion about ye bath is either ye walkes in that they call ye Kings Mead which is a pleasant green meaddow, where are walkes round and Cross it, no place for Coaches, and indeed there is little use of a Coach only to bring and Carry ye Company from ye bath for ye wayes are not proper for Coaches.

Ye town and all its accomodations is adapted to ye batheing and drinking of the waters and to nothing else, the streetes are well pitched and Cleane kept and there are Chaires as in London to Carry ye better sort of people in visits, or if sick or infirme and is only in the town, for its so Encompassed with high hills few care to take the aire on them. There is also pleasant walkes in ye Cathedrall in the Cloysters and yt leades to ye discription of the Coronation in this place at ye bath ye 23d April wch I recieved ye relation off from a spectatrix it being ye day queen ann was Crowned, and is never performed unless when a queen is the Chiefe as Queen Elizabeth &c., her Sister our late Majesty's King William and Queen Mary because the queen was Joyn'd in the throne as principle, they representing ye Amazons consisting of the young Maids. The Companyes of the town being assembled at Mr Mayors house begin to proceed with their officers masters and wardens and each Company with their flag – After marched in a troupe ye Maides of the suburbs each with their proper officers of themselves, as Captn Ensigne and lieutenant wth plummes of feathers. Just before ye captn went her guard which was 6 young men drest in their holland shirts, with garters, and Ribons in their hatts, and their swords drawn in their hands, then the captn in her short wastecoate with gold lace, and their peticoates silke yt were with furbellows one above another with Ribons, wth a trunchant in their hand wth an inscription, God save queen Ann. Just behinde their Captaines went two Maides with two scepters gilt, next them two more yt bore the crown between them wch was gilt, also their Ensigne. Their flag wch holds the same inscription God save queen Ann was guarded by two young Men drest as ye others in their holland shirts: then the troupe followed in order in same dress as their officers with Crowns on their heads of Guilded Lauwrell, in Number about 100; next came ye Citty Maides wth their Majoress Generall with their plummes of feather with a wreath of Gilded Lawrell like a Crown, and on ye top wth all sorts of pretious stones ye Jewellers shops Could supply them wth and were guarded wth young men as ye others; behind ye Majoress followed six all in white with a green Cross swathe with this inscription in white God save queen Ann each with their Trunchant in their hands as ye former, and two carrying 2 scepters gilt, and after them two more ye Crown between them, wch was very rich in pearles; then two more carryed ye queens Armes between them, their dress was just as ye first were only much richer and finer and all of them gather'd up ye upper peticoate in little scallops just to shew their under peticoates wch were white. Ye troupe of ye amazans in order wth their bows and arrows wth Crowns of Gilded Lawrel, their officers had plumes of feathers and their Serjeants with their halberts, their number was also about 100.

Next after followed all ye young men of ye town form'd into a Company of Granadeers wth their proper officers wch had laced hatts and plumes of feathers; each soldier had a red cap wth Cyphers and a Crown gilt wth gold and furbelowed with blew round their head; their hair was tyed back with scarlet ribon, they had scarlet garters and scarlet slings for their gunns; drest all in their holland shirts and white stockings and had a hanger by their sides. Their number was about 30. Next followed four couple of Maurice dancers with their pranceing horses, in holland shirts with laced hatt riboned, and Cross swashes and garters wth bells, wth their two antiques drest in their formalityes, wth hankershiefs in their hands danceing all ye way.

Next walked ye Clergy, then next followed Mr Major with two pages attending him, followed by the Corporation aldermen all in their scarlet gowns, and the comon Councill in their gowns. Next followed in ye reare all ye marryed men formed into a Company of Artilery, their hatts Laced, with plumes of feathers all in their own Cloths:

Ye Soldiers ye Same wth Swords and gunns wth two Blunderbusses; every Company both of men and women was attended by drums and all sort of musick both wind and stringed instruments.

Thus they repaired to ye Cathedrall, Ye granadeers salutes them Just as they enter the Abby with a volly of shott, and there they have a sermon and as they come out of the Cathedrall ye Company of artillery salutes them againe with another volly, so in the same order they return to their Guild Hall where is a sumptuous feast wth Musick and danceing wch Ends ye solemnity wth bonfires as is usual.

I now proceed to describe the rest of the town. There are green walkes very pleasant and in many places, and out of the Cathedrall you walk into ye priory which has good walkes of rows of trees, which is pleasant – there are ye deans prebends and doctors houses which stand in yt green which is pleasant, by ye Church called the Abby, wch is lofty and spacious and much Company walke there especially in wet weather. Ye Quire is neat but nothing extraordinary – in that Kings mead there are severall little Cake-houses where you have fruit lulibubs and sumes Liquours to entertaine ye Company that walke there.

The markets are very good here of all sorts of provision flesh and ffish especially when the season for ye Company batheing and drinking lasts, great plenty and pretty reasonable. The Chargeableness of the bath is ye Lodgings and fireing, the ffaggotts being very small, but they give you very good attendance there.

Another Journey I went with my mother into Oxfordshire, by Barkshire to Hungerford 16 mile, which is famous for Crawfish there being a good river and great quantityes of yt fish and large.

This is in Barkshire, thence to Lamborn wch is a woody Country 7 miles, thence to ffarington 7 mile a pretty large place but lyes very watry, and so by Radcote 5 miles, wch is much ye same deep Countryes much on Clay; by ffarington is a fine house of Sr George Pratt's Called Coalsell. All ye avenues to ye house are fine walkes of rows of trees, ye garden lyes in a great descent below ye house of many steps and terresses and walkes one below another, a green walke with all sorts of Dwarfe trees, fruit trees with standing apricot and flower trees, abundance of garden roome and filled with all sorts of things improved for pleasure and use. The house is new built with stone, most of ye offices are partly under ground – Kitchin, Pantry, buttlery and good Cellers and round a Court is all ye other offices and out houses; this is all even with ye back yards. The Entrance of ye house is an ascent of severall steps into a hall so lofty the rooff is three storyes, reaches to ye floore of ye gallery – all the walls are Cutt in hollows where statues and Heads Carved ffinely are sett, Directly fore-right Enters a large Dineing roome or great parlour, which has a door thourough into the garden yt gives a visto through ye house: within yt is a drawing room, on ye other side another roome of the same size, and backward is a little parlour all with good ffurniture, tapistry, Damaske, &c. There runs up a pr of back Staires at each end of the house quite to ye top to the gallery which does make convenient all ye Chambers. The great Staires goes out of the hall on each side, spacious and handsom staires runs up and meetes on the landing place, wch is a passage that runs on both sides to each end of the house, but is made private by two doores on each side: on the top of the staires you enter in ye midle into a dineing roome, within that a Chamber on each side with two Closets to each bigg Enough for a little bed, with Chimney's convenient for a servant and for dressing roomes, one of which has a doore also out into that passage and soe to the back staires; this is ye same on ye other end, and also two roomes on ye other side, each end of ye hall which continues to run up even with the second story, which are all good Chambers, and one more here because the great staires goe but to ye first story: they are all well and Genteel'ly furnisht, damaskes Chamlet and wrought beds ffashionably made up. Over this runs a gallery all through the house, and on each side severall garret roomes for servants ffurnished very neate and Genteele, in ye middle are staires yt Lead up to the Cupilow or large Lanthorn in the middle of the leads. Ye house being Leaded all over and the stone Chimney's in severall rows Comes up in them on each side ye Cupilow, it shewes exact and very uniform, as is ye whole Building. This gives you a great prospect of gardens, grounds and woods that appertaine to ye Seate, as well as a sight of the Country at a distance. There was few pictures in the house only over doores and Chimney's; the hall was paved with black and whyte marble and had seates round the roome cut in arches on the walls. From thence Oxfordshire we enter over the Vale of the White horse wch takes its name from a Ridge of high hills on which is Cutt out the shape off a horse in perfect proportions in broad wayes, and is seen a great distance very plaine, the hills being on Chalke look's white and the great valley in the bottom is term'd the Manger; it extends a vast way, a rich jnclosed Country, and we pass through some part of Glocestershire at Norton where is another seat of my Brother Say's – thence to Broughton by Banbery which is 25 mile.

Broughton is an ancient Seate of ye Lord viscount Say and Seale; its an old house moted round, and a parke and Gardens, but are much left to decay and ruine when my brother Came to it. He has two other houses in two or three Miles, Shettford a little neate house and gardens, and Newton, but that is mostly pulled down. From Broughton I went to see Edgehill where was the ffamous Battle ffought in Cromwell's tyme – its 10 mile off, the Ridge of hills runns a great length and so high that the land beneath it appeares vastly distant, its a rich ground full of inclosures and lookes finely, tho' fformidable to look down on it and turnes one's head round – the wind allwayes blows wth great violence there because of the Steepeness of ye hills. The top is a flatt full of Barrows and hills that are markes of a Camp and battles.

About 2 mile from Broughton is a great old house much like Broughton; its Sr Robert Dashwoods – most of the great houses there about are old built. About three mile off at Adderbery wch is a pretty neate vilage, there are two or three good houses one of Sr Thomas Cobbs and Lady Rochesters looks neate and well with good gardens.

There is about 2 mile off the Lord Guilffords house Roxton which is a good house within a parke. You enter a large hall, on the left hand leads to a little parlour down to ye Kitchins, the halfe pace att the upper end of the hall leads into dineing roome, drawing roome, and a large staire-case with good pictures; there you enter another large dineing roome with great Compass windows and fine Pictures of the family. Within is a drawing roome and Chambers and Closets well proportioned, little or no ffurniture was up, only in ye worst roomes; in one Closet att each doore was Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth's pictures to the ffoote in bibb and apron very pretty: in one roome was the Lord North and Ladyes picture, which was Lord Chiefe Justice and their sonnes picture in the middle, all at length, – many good Pictures in most roomes. There was a part new built all the new ffashion way which was designed for the present Lord Gilford and Lady. The Gardens are very good, the outhouses and Stables handsome.

Banbury is a pretty little town, the streets broad and well pitched, the whole Country is very pleasant and the land rich – a red earth. They make some of their fences with stones – dry walls without Morter. It seemes much on a flatt and you have a large prospect, from thence to London we go by Alesbury 20 mile, thence to London 30 mile.

A journey my mother went from Newtontony to Durly in the fforest 15 miles, thence to Nurstead 15 mile to a Relations house, (Aunt Holts,) a neate new built house with brick and stone – a hall, little parlour on ye left side, a back door into a Court built round with all the offices out to ye stables and barnes: on the right side a great parlour and drawing roome yt opened into the garden wch were fine gravel walks, grass plotts and beyond it a garden of flower trees and all sorts of Herbage, store of fruit, and free-stone broad walke in ye Middle to ye house. Ye Chambers are very good and Convenient and in ye ffront is a place walled in, beyond is a long ground sett with rows of trees; on ye right side of ye house is a large grove of firrs halfe scotts halfe norroway which lookes very nobly. The roades all about this Country are very stony, narrow and steep hills or else very dirty as in most of Sussex, but good rich land; it is in 2 mile of petersffield in Hampshire wch is a good little neate town. In a mile of it is a Gentlemans house Called Maple Duram which Might now be new named into yew, ffor the great number of yew trees set thick in severall green walkes that grows high and is cutt close to the body up almost to the top, and ye tops are left in a great head that spreads and makes it very shady and pleasant. From thence we went to Guilford wch is a good town built with stone. The streetes are broad – thence to Kingston on the Thames 30 mile thence to London 10 mile, from London againe to Colebrooke 15 miles, thence to Maidenhead 10. You go in sight of Winsor Castle on the left hand and Eaton Colledge as you pass the bridge at Maidenhead, and on ye right hand you see Cliffton house a fine Building of ye Duke of Buckingams. Thence to Redding 5 miles wch is a pretty large place, severall Churches, in one lyes buried one of my sisters that Dyed at my Grandmothers there of the small pox, her monument of white marble stands up in the Chancell. From Redding to the Veale 5 miles, Sad Clay Deep way this is in Barkshire, thence to Newbery 8 mile all Clay Mirey ground.

Newbery is a little town famous for makeing the best whipps – its a good market for Corn and trade. Thence to Newtontony over Way hill famous for a Faire kept there on Michelmas day.

My journey to London after my Mothers death was by Sutton 14 mile thence to Baseing stoke 12 mile, a large town for to Entertaine travellers and commodious, 2 mile beyond we pass by Basen on the left side, a house of the Duke of Boltons wth a large parke and gardens. Ye house is not fine being much demolished and spoyled after the Civil warres, it being a garrison held by ye King. On the right hand at a mile distance you come in sight also of a great building like a little town – the house of Sr Robert Hendlys; so to Hartffordbridge is 8 mile more thats only a place full of jnns for the conveniency of the road. Thence over a heath you go to Bagshott that is 8 mile all on a heavy sand where you come by a parke of ye kings, and in it is a pretty house – thence to Eggum 8 mile very heavy sand, so to Staines where you cross the Thames on a bridge to Midlsex and so to Houndslow 4 mile, to Brandford 4 mile, to Turnumgreen 2, thence to Hammersmith 2 to Kensington 2 and London 2 miles.

Another journey ffrom London to Alsebury 30 mile, from thence to great Horrwood in Buckinghamshire 10 miles, from thence I went to Hillsdon a house of Mr Dentons 7 miles which stands on a Riseing in the middle of a fine Parke and lookes very well; its not large, a good hall wth 2 parlours and has a glide through the house into the gardens wch are neately kept – the grass and Gravel walkes wth dwarfs and flower beds and much fruit; the prospect is fine all over the gardens and parke, and the river and woods beyond them. We went to Thorndon Sr Thomas Tyrrells, a good old house and very good gardens, some walkes like Arbours Close, others shady others open, some gravel, others grass with Cyprus' trees, a fine river runnes all the back side of the garden, where is very good ffish. The house is low but runnes much on the ground, so there are many roomes wch are lofty but its not built in many storyes. Thence we went 4 mile to Stow Sr Richd Temples new house that stands pretty high. You enter into a hall very lofty with a gallery round the top, thence through to a great parlour that opens in a Bellcony to the garden, and is a visto thro' the whole house, so that on the one side you view the gardens wch are one below another wth low breast walls and Taress walkes, and is replenished with all ye Curiosityes or Requisites for ornament, pleasure and use, beyond it are orchards and woods with rows of trees; on the other side you see ye parke rowes of trees; the roomes are all lofty and good, the hall is not large but sutable to its height – a great many Chambers and roomes of state. Some the ground floores are inlaid, ffine Pictures and good staircase and gallery wch leads to the Ledds through a large Cupelow wch gives ye prospect of the whole Country. We went to horrwood 7 mile, by severall other seates of Sr Ralph Verny's who has most exact ffine gardens: within two mile off Horrwood is a well of minerall waters from Iron just like Tunbridg and as good. 1 dranke them a fortnight – there are severall of the same sort of springs all about that Country. Thence I went to Buckinghamtown 7 mile, a very neate place and we passed the river Ouise over a very high bridge tho' the river seemed not then so very full, but it swells after great raines which makes them build their arches so large. Thence to Banbury in Oxfordshire 13 miles, thence to morton Hindmost in Glocestershire 14 miles, thence to Hales 8 miles over steep stony hills, a house of Lord Tracy's where my brother Say lived – a good old house, and there is a pretty Chappel with a Gallery ffor people of quality to sitt in wch goes out of the hall that is a lofty large roome: good parlour and severall good lodging roomes. You ascend into the house by Severall stone stepps. Within 2 mile of this is a better house of ye Lord Tracy with a very good parke which stands so high that by the Lodge I rode up ye banks I could see all the parke about and ye deer feeding and running.

There is a little river and large ponds – it gives you a good sight of the Country about, wch is pretty much inclosed and woods a rich deep Country and so the roads bad. There are severall high hills that I was on that gave a large prospect to ye eye. I saw some of this land improved in the produce of woods wch ye dyers use – its ordered in this manner, all the Summer season if drie for 4 or 5 months they sow it or plant it, but I thinke its sown – then its very Clean wedd when grown up a little out of ye ground, for it rises no higher then Lettice and Much in such tuffts; ye Coullour off ye Leafe is much like Scabins and the shape Resembling that: this they Cutt of Close to ye ground and soe out of ye same roofe Springs the Leafe againe, this they do 4 tymes, then in a Mill wth a horse they Grind the Leaves into a paste, so make it up in balls and drye them in a Penthouse to secure it from raine – only the wind dryes it. This plantation of about 12 acres would Employ 2 or 3 ffamilyes Men, Women and Children, and so they Generally Come and Make little hutts for themselves for ye Season to tend it.

Here I saw flax In the growth. The smell of the Woode is so strong and offencive you can scarce beare it at ye Mill: I could not fforse my horse neare it.

ffrom thence I returned Backe by a place where is a stone stands to Divide ffour shires – Worcester, Oxford Glocester and Warwickshire – so I ascended there a high hill and travaill'd all on ye top of ye hills a pleasant and a good Roade. I came to Rowle Stone where are many such greate stones as is at Stonidge, one stands uppright, a broad Stone Called the King's Stone, being the place a Saxon King was secured against his enemies; thence to Broughton in all 26 miles. Thence I went to Astrop where is a Steele water Much ffrequented by ye Gentry, it has some Mixture of Allum so is not so strong as Tunbridge. There is a ffine Gravell Walke that is between 2 high Cutt hedges where is a Roome for the Musick and a Roome for ye Company besides ye Private walkes. The well runnes very quick, they are not Curious in keepeing it, neither is there any bason for the spring to run out off only a dirty well full of Moss's which is all Changed yellow by the water. There are Lodgings about for ye Company and a little place Called Sutton. this is four mile, thence to Oxfford 14 mile all in a very good Road and an exceeding pleasant Country. You pass by many ffine seates, Park's, woods, the Land in Most part of this County is Rich Red Mould and deepe so as they are forced to Plough their Ground 2 or 3 tymes for wheate and Cannot use Wheeles to their Ploughs, its rich Land and produces plenty of all things.

Oxford opens to view 2 mile off, its Scituation is ffine on a Round hill Environ'd Round with hills adorn'd with Woods and Enclosures, yet not so neare as to annoy ye town which stands pleasant and Compact. There is a ffine Causy for neare two mile by the Road for the Schollars to walke on, ye Theater stands the highest of all and much in ye middle Encompass'd with ye Severall Colledges and Churches and other Buildings whose towers and Spires appeares very Well at a Distance; the Streetes are very Cleane and well Pitched and pretty broad. The high Streete is a very Noble one, soe Larg and of a Greate Length. In this is ye University Church Called St Maryes, which is very large and Lofty but Nothing very Curious in it. The Theater is a Noble Pile of building, its Paved with Black and White Marble, exceeding Large and Lofty, built Round and Supported by its own architecture all stone, noe pillars to support it; itt has windows all round and full of Gallery's ffor the Spectators as well as Disputants when ye acts are at Oxford. Over the Rooff of this Large Roome are as Large roomes with Severall Divissions which are Used for the Drying the Printed Sheetes of bookes, and this has Light in Ovalls which is quite Round the Theater and in the Middle is a large Cupelow or Lanthorne Whence your Eye has a very ffine view of ye whole town and Country; this is all Supported on its own work. Under the theater is a roome wch is ffitted for printing, where I printed My name Severall tymes. The outside of ye theater there is a pavement and spikes of Iron in a Raile round with pillars of stone to secure it from the street. Just by it is a little building wch is full of Antiquityes wch have many Curiositys in it of Mettles, Stones, Ambers, Gumms.

There is the picture of a Gentleman yt was a Great benefactor to it being a travailer; the fframe of his picture is all wood carved very finely with all sorts of figures, Leaves, birds, beast and flowers. He gave them 2 ffine gold Meddals or Silve gilt wth two ffine great Chaines of the same, one was all curious hollow worke wch were given him by some prince beyond the Sea. There is a Cane which looks like a Solid heavy thing but if you take it in yor hands its as light as a feather, there is a Dwarfe shoe and boote, there are several Loadstones, and it is pretty to See how ye steele Clings or follows it, hold it on the top att some distance the needles stand quite upright, hold it on either side it moves towards it as it rises and falls.

There are several good Colledges I saw most of ym. Waddom hall is but little; in Trinity Colledge is a fine neate Chapple, new made, finely painted. Christ Church is ye largest Colledge. The Courts large, ye buildings large and lofty; in one of the Courts is a tower new built for to hang the Mighty Tom, that bell is of a Large size, so great a Weight they were forced to have engines from London to raise it up to the tower. There is a fine ring of bells in ye Colledge St Magdalines, its just by the river, there is to Maudline Hall (which is a very large and good Cloyster) a very fine gravell walk, two or 3 may walke abreast, and Rows of trees on either side, and this is round a water wch Makes it very pleasant.

St Johns Colledge had fine gardens and walkes but I did but just look into it, so I did into kings, and queens Colledges, and severall of the rest I looked into, they are much alike in building but none so large as Christ Church Colledge. I was in New Colledge wch is very neate, but not large, the buildings good, Ye Chapple very fine; Ye Garden was new makeing, there is a large bason of water In the Middle there is little walkes and mazes and round mounts for the schollars to divert themselves.

In Corpus Christus Colledge wch is but small there I was entertained at supper and eate of their very good bread and beare which is remarkably the best anywhere Oxford Bread is.

The Physick garden afforded great diversion and pleasure, the variety of flowers and plants would have entertained one a week. The few remarkable things I tooke notice off was ye Aloes plant wch is like a great flag in shape, leaves and Coullour, and grows in the fform of an open Hartichoake and towards the bottom of each Leafe its very broad and thicke, In wch there are hollows or receptacles for ye Aloes.

There is also ye sensible plant, take but a Leafe between finger and thumb and squeeze it and it immediately Curles up together as if pained and after some tyme opens abroad again, it looks in Coullour like a filbert Leafe but much narrower and long. There is also the humble plant that grows on a long slender Stalke and do but strike it, it falls flatt on ye ground stalke and all, and after some tyme revives againe and Stands up, but these are nice plants and are kept mostly under Glass's, ye aire being too rough for them. There is ye wormwood sage Called Mountaigne sage, its to all appearance like Comon sage only of yellower green, a narrow long Leafe full of ribbs; In yor Mouth the flavour is strong of Wormwood to the taste. The library is as large as 2 or 3 roomes but old and a little disreguarded except one part wch is parted from the rest, wansecoated and fitted up neate and painted which was done by King james ye Second wn he designed Maudling Colledg for his priests A Seminary. Here I met wth some of my relations who accompanyed me about to see some of the Colledges I had not seen before, St John's Colledge which is large and has a ffine Garden at one Entrance of it with Large Iron-gates Carved and Gilt; its built round two Courts: the Library is two walks, one out of the other the inner one has severall Anatomy's in Cases and some other Curiosity of Shells, stone, bristol Diamonds, skins of ffish and beasts. Here they have the Great Curiosity Much spoken off King Charles the ffirsts Picture; Ye whole Lines of fface band and garment to the Shoulders and armes and garter is all written hand and Containes the whole Comon prayer, itts very small the Character, but where a straight Line is you May read a word or two; there is another of Gustaus Adolphus whose portraiture is represented to the Eye in writeing alsoe and Contains his whole Life and prowess, there is alsoe the Lord's prayer and ten Commandments in the Compass of a Crown piece; there are also Severall books all of writing on vellum Leaves, and one book written in ye Chinease Caractor on the jndian barks off trees; there is alsoe a Book of the Genealogies of the Kings since the Conquest to King Charles the Second, with the Severall Coates all Gilded very fresh till the two or three Last wch is pretended to be difficient from the art being Lost of Laying Gold so ffine on anything to polish it, but thats a great Mistake for that art is still in use in England, but the Excuse served the Negligence or ignorance of the workman; there was alsoe One book wth severall Cutts in it off ye Conception of Christ till his Ascention. There was alsoe a ffine prayer book or Mass book of Q. Marias, this was in the new part of the Library which was neately wanscoated and adorned. There is a ffine grove of trees and walks all walled round.

Queens Colledge Library is all new and a stately building Emulating that of Christ Church in Cambridge, it is not so large and stands on one range of Pillars of stone, the other ffront being all with Statues in Stone, in Nitches and Carved adornements and on the tops ffigures and statues. The Stair-Case is pretty broad but not so ffinely wanscoated or Carved as that at Cambridge, the roomes is Lofty, but not so large, Well Wanscoated and there is good Carvings; its Mostly full of Books in the severall divisions and great Globes, its boarded Under foot, there is no ballcoany because the prospect is but to a dead wall, its very handsom.

Trinity Colledge Chapple which was not ffinish'd the Last tyme I was at Oxford but now it is a Beautifull Magnifficent Structure. Its Lofty and Curiously painted – the Rooffe and Sides ye history of Christ's ascention a very ffine Carving of thin white wood just Like that at Windsor it being the same hand. The whole Chappel is Wanscoated with Walnut tree and the fine sweet wood ye same yt ye Lord Oxfford brought over when high admiral of England, and has wanscoated his hall and staircase with. It is sweet like Cedar and of a Reddish Coullr, but ye graine much ffiner and well vein'd.

New Colledge which belongs to the ffiennes's, William of Wickam the founder, so I look'd on myself as some way a little Interested in that, here I was very handsomly Entertained by Mr Cross wch was one of my nephew Say and Seale's Tutors when at Oxfford. These ffellowshipp in New Colledge are about 100 say and a very pretty appartinent of Dineing Roome, bed Chamber, a studdy and a room for a Servant, tho' ye Serviteurs of the Colledge gives attendance; and here they may Live very Neatly and well if Sober and have all their Curiosityes they take much delight in, greens of all sorts, Myrtle, oringe and Lemons and Lorrestine growing in potts of Earth and so moved about from place to place and into the aire sometymes. There are severall New Lodgings added and beautifyed here, the Gardens also wth gravell and Grass walkes, some shady and a great mount in the Middle wch is ascended by Degrees in a round of Green paths deffended by greens cutt Low, and on ye top is a summer house. Beyond these Gardens is a bowling-green and round it a Close shady walke, walled round and a Cutt hedge to the bowling-green.

There are in Oxford 18 Colledges and Six halls viz. New Colledge, Christ Church, Martin Colledge, Corpus Christy Colledge, Magdalen Colledge, University Coll, Pembroke Colledge, Linghorn Colledge, which is overlook't by the Devil, Brasen-nose Colledge, Wadham Colledge, Queens Colledge, Belial Colledge, Orrel Colledge, Trinity Colledge, Exetter Colledge, All-souls Colledge, Jesus Colledge, St Johns Colledge, – halls 7 viz Alben hall, Maudlin hall, Newin hall, Hart Hall, Glocester hall, St Mary hall, and Edmond hall. There is a very odd Custom In Queen Coll. for every new-years-day, there is a Certain Sum Laid out In Needles and thread wch was Left by ye founder and every Gentleman of that Colledge has one given him wth these words: Take this and be thrifty.

In New Colledge Garden in ye plott there is ye Colledg Armes Cutt in box and ye 24 Letters round it.

Next plott a sun-dial cutt in box and true-Lovers knotts; att ye entrance of ye Colledge over ye gate is the ffiennes's and ye Wickhams Arms Cutt in stone Sett up there by my Nephew Say when he was at ye Colledge before his travels. There is a large stone statue in the Middle of ye first quadrangle of William of Wickhams ye ffounder, railed in wth Iron Grates.

In ye Library are ye pictures of some of ye learned men wch belonged formerly to the University.

From Oxford I went to Abington and Cross'd ye River Thames on a bridge att ye end of ye town and so Entered into Barkshire and rode along by ye thames side a good way, wch was full of Barges and Lighters – its 6 mile to Abington. Before I proceed will Insert ye names of ye ffounders of ye halls and Colledges in Oxford. University Colledge was founded by King Alfred. Baliol Coll. was founded by John and David Baliol, Merton Coll. by Walter de Mert, Exetter Coll. by Walter Stapleton, Oriel Colledge by King Edward the second, Queen Coll. by Robert Egglesfield, New Colledge by Wm of Wickham, Lincoln Colledge by Richard Fleming, All souls Coll. by Henry Chicklay Magdalin Coll. by Wm Wainfleet, Brason-nose Coll. by Wm Smith, and Richd Sutton, Corpus-Christy Coll. by Richd fox, Christ-Church Coll. by Henry ye eight, Trinity Colledge by Tho. Pope, St Johns Coll. Thomas white, Jesus Colledge by Queen Elizabeth, Wadham Coll. by Nicholas and Dorothy Wadham, Pembrooke Coll. by Thomas Feisdale and Richd Whitewick, Hart Hall by Walter Stapleton, St Mary Hall by King Edward the 2d, Newin Hall by Wm of Wickham, Magdalen Hall by Wm of Wainfleet, Gloster Hall by thomas White, Albon Hall by ye abbess of Alban, St Edmond Hall by ye arch Bishop of Canterbury.

From thence I went to Abington. Abington town seemes a very well built town and the Market Cross is the ffinest in England, its all of free stone and very Lofty; Even ye Isles or Walk below is a Lofty arch on severall Pillars of square Stone and four square Pillars: over it are Large Roomes with handsome windows, above wch is some Roomes with Windows and Little Like the Theatre att Oxford only this is a Square building and that round, it makes a very ffine appearance.

From thence I went to Elsly 8 mile farther, a little Market town, good Inns thence Newbury. Most of this way is much on Downs and good Roads, its 7 mile to Newbury where I called on an old acquaintance Marryed to a tradesman Mr Every, who is so Like the Minister his Uncle yt was my acquaintance. Here I staid an hour and then proceeded on to Basenstoke 12 long miles, being my ready road to Chichister, and from Basenstoke to Alton 8 mile and from thence to Petersffield and to Nurstead 11 long Miles, this was in Hampshire so was Basenstoke: here I lay at a Relations House Mr Holt that marry'd My Mothers sister. From thence I went to Chichester through a very ffine Parke of the Lord Tankervailes, stately woods and shady tall trees at Least 2 mile, in ye Middle stands his house wch is new built, square, 9 windows in ye ffront and seven in the sides. Brickwork wth free stone coynes and windows, itts in the Midst of fine gardens, Gravell and Grass walks and bowling green, wth breast walls Divideing each from other, and so discovers the whole to view. Att ye Entrance a Large Coart wth Iron gates open wch Leads to a less, ascending some stepps, ffree stone in a round, thence up More Stepps to a terrass, so to the house; it looks very neate and all orchards and yards convenient. Thence I entered into Sussex and soe Chichester, wch is 12 miles. This is but a Little Citty Encompass'd with a wall wth 4 gates which Casts the two streetes directly across each other and so Lookes through from Gate to Gate, one Streete does, the other it seemes did so formerly, but in new building of some of their houses they have encroach'd into the Streete and so hinders the through visto. In Midst of these 2 or 4 streetes Divided by the Market place is a very faire Cross of Stone Like a Church or greate arch, its pretty Large and pirramydy form wth severall Carvings. The Cathedrall is pretty Lofty, ye painting on ye Roofe in the quire and Isles Lookes very ffresh tho' 300 yeares old, there is in the jsle on ye roofe ye phaney of 6 faces joyned and 6 eyes and yet each face has two eyes and in another place the faces turned outward and so the 6 faces are 12 eyes. The Quire is good, there is a fixed pulpit in it overight ye Bishops seate wch is not usual, I never saw it before – Usually they have pulpits that are Moveable.

There is a faire Organ and another pulpit in ye body of the Church, there is also an entire Church in ye Cathedral by it self wch is ye parish Church. There are in all 6 parishes and so many Churches besides ye Cathedrall. Over the alter is painted glass Chequer'd blew white and Red, so deepe the Coullr is struck into the Glass as makes it darkish, in one of the Isles is a square place, on each side ye Wall is filled with ye Kings pictures from ye Conquest to their present Majestyes; there is also one Picture pretty Large of a Saxon King in his Robes and an abbott with his brethren, petitioning to build this Cathedrall which before belonged to ye Isle of Ely where was ye Bishops see. There is also one large Picture of another Bishop petitioning King Harry ye 8th to ffinish and paint ye Church. On ye other side the wall is filled up wth ye severall abbots and Bishops since ye Conquest that have been of Chichester. In their advancement they are brought from Bristol to Chichester and next advance is to Ely and so on to greater revenues. The tower is 260 odd steps, from whence you may see the whole town. There are 3 or 4 good New houses, one is ye Dean's, Mr Edds, a very good man; from thence I saw ye Isle of Wight, Spitthead; the sea comes within a mile of ye Citty, Remarkable for Lobsters and Crabs Chichester is. There is an Engine or Mill about a Mile off the town draws up salt water at one side from the sea and fresh water from a Little rivulet wch descends from a hill, and so supply's ye town. Halfe way off ye tower you go round ye quire and Looke down into it, there are severall effigies of marble and allabaster of ye Bishops of the place and one of the Earle of Arundell and his Lady.

Chichester is 50 mile from London ye Direct way by Guildford, but I went through more of Sussex wch is much in blind dark Lanes and up and down Steepe hills, to Billinghurst and passed through Arundell parke belonging to ye Duke of Norfolke, this was 18 mile, from whence I went to Dorken in Surry 15 mile, where are ye best trouts in ye river wch runns by Box hill a Remarkable diversion to people that go to Epsum. The hill is full of box wch is Cutt out in severall walks shady and pleasant to walk in tho' the Smell is not very agreeable; the brow of the hill being Such a height gives a Large prospect of a ffruitfull vale full of inclosures and woods, and this River Runns twining itself about and is called ye Swallow, and Just about Dorken and Leatherhead 4 mile thence it sinkes away in many places wch they call Swallow holes, this Must be some quicksand, but ye Report of it is it sincks here and runnes undr ground a Mile or two and rises about Moles and Runs againe. Camden does credit this and repeates a tryal one made of forceing a Duck into one of those falls wch Came out at ye other side by Moles wth its ffeathers allmost all Rubbed off wch supposses ye passage to be streight, but how they Could force ye Duck into so difficult a way or whither anything of this is more than Conjecture must be Left to every ones Liberty to judge. From Dorken its 10 mile to Kingsston, a Chalky hard Road wch is in Surrey, this stands on the Thames, its a great Market for Corne; I was there on Satturday and saw great quantity's of Corn and Mault sold; thence I passed by Richmond park wall a good way and Came in sight of Hampton Court wch is a Noble Building, had the good queen Mary Lived to have ffinished it, it would have been ye noblest palace in ye Kingdom. I passed the end of Wanstead and Clapham and part of Lambeth having Chealsey College in view and ye whole Cittys of Westminster and London so thro' Southwarke over London bridge into Middlesex 10 mile in all from Kingston – this Little journey was 220 mile.

Another journey into Herrifordshire from London, by Uxbridge to Islip 5 miles that is 7 mile off Oxford, from Islip to Woodstock where remaines no foote steps of faire Rosomonds Bower, only ye walls round ye parke and the little brookes that supply'd it wth water for ye baths and wells and ponds. Thence to Morton Hindmost in Glocestershire to a Relations house, My Uncle Richd ffiennes's widdow, a little neate stone built town, good Innes for ye travellers being ye road from London to Worcester and Herrifford and wales. Thence over Broadway hill to Parshur in all 30 mile by 12 of ye Clock, thence to Upton, where we pass on a large bridge over ye fine River the Severn wch runs from Worcester and to Glocester, Shrewsbury and to Bristol where it runns into the sea – in some places its very broad, Some Miles over, but here it was no broader than ye Thames is at Staines – it affords good ffish, Salmon and severall sorts besides. I think this River does not Ebb and flow so farre into ye Land. Here we Enter into Worcestershire and ascend Manborn hills or as some term them ye English Alps, a Ridge of hills Divideing Worcestershire and Heriforshire and was formerly Esteemed the divideing England and Wales, Herriford Shropshire &c. were Weltch Countys. They are at least 2 or 3 miles up and are in a Pirramidy fashion on ye top. I rode up upon ye top of one of ye highest from whence Could discern the Country above 40 miles round and noe hills but what appeared Like Burrows or Mole hills, these being so high Nothing Could Limitt ye Eye but distance. Just at ye Bottom stands Worcester town which Looks like a Large well built town of Brick and Stone – I was not in it. On the one Side of this high Ridge of hills Lies Worcester: Oxford Glocestershire &c. appears in plaines, enclosures, Woods and Rivers and many Great hills tho' to this they appeare Low: on the other Side is Herriforshire wch appears Like a Country off Gardens and Orchards the whole Country being very full of fruite trees &c. it lookes like nothing else – the apple and pear trees &c. are so thick even in their Corn fields and hedgerows. The descent is as long and steep in some places as its riseing was. Thence to a Relations house my uncle John ffiennes and his son; New house, 20 mile from Parshur which I rode all in one day in June and ye miles are here very long so that at Least it may be esteemed the Last 20 mile as long as the 30 mile gone in the morning. My Cos'n ffiennes has made a very convenient habitation at this place wch Contrary to its Name was an old built house – Timber worke, but by his alteration and additions of good Brick walls round the Court and 4 pretty gardens, wth good Walks grass platts much good fruite, of wch the Country does Easily produce, and if persons are Curious in planting may have ye best wch my Cosen has here, and the walls some Lower than other gives the sight of ye Garden at one view. Severall large orchards behind the house with new Stables and offices wch makes it look well. Itts in sight of severall houses, but all old buildings – Lady Hopton's in a Low meadow – there are woods by it and a Little river parts them, called ye Framy wch gives Name to Severall Little villages as Cannon froom, Bishops ffroom, Castle froom; this runnes into another Little river Called the Lug and both runnes into the River Wye wch is on ye back side of Herriford town. This was 7 miles from us, its a pretty little town of timber buildings, the streetes are well pitched and handsome as to breadth and Length. The river Wye is as broad as the Thames is at Maidenhead bridge, or hardly so broad, its a Rapid River and seemed much disturb'd; there is very good ffish in it; it did not looke Cleare wn I saw it, but was thick and yellow but yt is against foul weather.

The Mount which is the only thing of ye Castle that remaines Commands the sight of ye river and town. The Cathedrall is very neate but small, the Carving of the wood in the Quire was good. In the Library I was shown by ye Dean of Herriford ye History of pope Joan with her Picture, it was printed in and with the history of all the popes in Rome successively – it was writt in old English, but I made a shift to read it. There is ye Bishops Palace and ye Deanes and Doctors houses wch are the best buildings, but they are not very ffine or Large. 7 mile thence on a flatt is Mr Paul folie's Seate called Stoake in whose parlour you see Herriford quite plaine – its a very good old house of Timber worke but old ffashion'd, and good Roome for Gardens, but all in an old fform and mode and Mr Folie Intends to make both a new house and gardens. The latter I saw staked out, so it will be to no purpose to say anything of it as its now only ye good Barns and Stables that are new Covered wth slate, ye ffine Bowling-green walled in, and a Summer-house in it all new. There is beyond this, ffine woods and a delicate Parke above the house – pailed in; yt is stored with deare both red and ffallow and affords 12 brace in a season, there are also fine Coppices.

From thence to Newhouse againe 7 mile, hither we went 5 or 6 tymes from Newhouse to Broughton. We went by Eshum and ye Vale of ye Red horse being a Vale of a great extent, the earth is all Red, its a very Rich Country for Corn and ffruites and woods. Its Called ye Vale of Eshum or of ye Red horse from a Red horse Cut out on some of ye hills about it and ye Earth all Looking Red, ye horse Lookes so as yt of ye white horse Vale. Here is all very heavy way to Weston 25 mile in Glocester, to a Parsonage of my Cos'n Pheramus ffiennes given him for his life by his and our Grandfather Willm Lord Viscount Say and Seale – its a neate building all stone, and ye walls round Court, Gardens and yards, all are of Stone.

A mile thence was one of his sisters marry'd to a Parson Mr Browne that has a very neate and Convenient Little house and Gardens. A mile from thence is a very high hill from whence I Could see a great distance – Warwick and Coventry and a large tract of Land all round. Att the foote of this hill Lyes Camden Town wch I went through, its built all of stone as is the Church wth the Effigie of the Little Viscountess Camden that lived to a great age and was Mother to the Earle of Gainsborough; its Cut out in white Marble and stands in an arch in the wall, wth two Leav'd doores to it, to keep it from ye dust – there were severall little Monuments besides in the Church. From thence to Brailes and thence to Broughton 19 miles to my Brother Say, wch is 50 miles from London; I went by Alsbury 20 thence 30 to London.

A journey I went into the New fforest in Hampshire to Ffarnum 38 mile, there we go by Aberstone the Duke of Boltons house, stands on ye Side of a hill where are ffine Gardens and much ffruite. From Ffernum you see the Castle wch is ye Bishops of Winchesters house, its a large building; thence you go to Alton 7 mile, thence to Alsford 7 mile more, you go along on the hills in sight of the River all wch gives name to those places, its a good Chaulkey way. Thence to Winchester 7 mile – in one mile off the town is Woolsey yt was formerly ye Bishops house, a large Rambling building like a little town, this is on Maudline hill whereon a Considerable ffaire is kept neare Michelmas, ye Traffique mostly hopps which yt Country produceth good and Cheese – its noted for a vast many of Waines from Severall parts especially from the West Country.

Winchester is a large town was once ye metropolis, there is a wall Encompassing it with severall Gates; the streetes are pretty good, Large and long, ye buildings but Low and old, only some few in the Close wch are new built of the Doctors houses by ye Colledge and the Church. Ye Deans house is a good old house, timber buildings; there are some of the roomes Lofty and large, a dineing, drawing room and bed Chamber very good; a long Gallery runns through the house and opens into the Garden by a Descent of Severall Stone stepps. Ye Garden is but small – there are Green and gravel walkes higher and Lower, but its all in an old fashion'd form but neately kept and severall Curiosityes in potts of flowers and greens. The Bishops palace stands in a Low Ground or Watry Meadow, its a timber building but so unpleasant that the Bishop lives not at it but at Ffarly Castle about 20 mile off.

The Cathedrall at Winchester is one of ye biggest in England and is to be admired for its Largeness, not its neatness or Curiosity, there is an ascent of 20 steps up to the quire that is finely Carved in ye wood, and on the top all round stands in ffine painted Chests the bones of the Kings of England yt were buried there; for Winchester was the Regal Citty wch now it has lost, as also a peculiar art of dying ye best purples. In the Church there are no good Monuments worth notice, the body of the Church is very large, ye Steeple Lookes Noble, but ye Spire is not a neare so high as Salisbury. In the town is a new building begun by K. Charles the Second for a Palace when he Came to hunt and for aire and diversions in the Country. I saw ye Modell of it wch was very fine and so would it have been if ffinished; but there is only ye outside shell is set up, there were designed fine apartmts and two Chapples but its never like to be finish'd now.

There is a good river runns thro' the town, at ye backside the Castle stood high, but there now remaines only ye ruined walls and banks on wch they make gardens and hopp yards, wch runnes a great Length on the side of ye brow of the hill that some part of ye town is built on – it Lookes pretty. Here is a good Colledge it is on ye same foundation yt New Colledge in Oxford are; both built and Endowed by Great Willm of Wickam an ancester of ye ffiennes and Lord Say and Seale. So all the founders Kindred by his own Statutes are first to be Chosen and have a Right to many priviledges – its only in default or want of any of his Kindred or of Such and Such Parishes wch he names that any other person ought or Can be Chosen a Child of this Colledg. They have such a Number above 100 – they have their Diet and a gown every year, and so much mony Every quarter, and here they have their Learning and provision.

There are also fellowships – wch as they become vacant they who are fitt its bestowed on them – on wch a young Man May Maintain himself well and so improve his Learning. These fellowships at New Colledg are forfeited if they do not live there, or for ye most part; and also as soone as they are Marryed they are put out in number fellows and master and warden, but at winchester the fellowships are of greater value and do appertaine to a person during Life in Case he Comes and resides for ye most part there, even when they are marryed.

I thinke there are but 7 fellowships here. There is a warden of ye Colledge and a Schoolemaster and usher at Winchester. Ye Colledge is a good Pile of Building there is a very pretty Chapple in it and a very fine Library wch is in ye Cloysters yt are very good for walking.

There is a large hall they eate in and have their exact Commons to Every one, so have the fellows, their Lodgings are Convenient and all their offices, the Warden has built a new appartment for himself wch looks well about a mile or two beyond Winchester, we go by St Cross, a Large hospitall for old men and I thinke most is for ye decayed schollars.

The Masters place is worth 1000 pound a yeare – it used to be annexed to ye Warden of the Colledges place, by their ffoundation they are to give reliefe to any Travellers that call there so farre as a Loafe of bread as big as our two penny bread is and a Draught of beare and a piece of mony. I thinke its ye value of a Groate. Ffrom thence I came to Redbridge, thence to Buckland in the new forest in all 20 mile; ffrom Buckland wch was a Relation's house – Sr Robt Smiths – its a mile to Limington a seaport town – it has some few small shipps belongs to it and some Little trade, but ye Greatest trade is by their Salterns. Ye Sea water they draw into Trenches and so into Severall ponds yt are secured in ye bottom to retain it, and it stands for ye Sun to Exhale ye Watry fresh part of it, and if it prove a drye sumer they make the best and most Salt, for ye raine spoyles ye ponds by weakning ye Salt. When they think its fit to boyle they draw off the water from ye ponds by pipes wch Conveys it into a house full of Large Square Iron and Copper panns; they are shallow but they are a yard or two if not more Square, these are fixed in Rowes one by another it may be twenty on a Side, in a house under which is the ffurnace yt burns fiercely to keepe these panns boyling apace, and as it Candy's about ye Edges or bottom so they Shovell it up and fill it in great Baskets and so the thinner part runns through on Moulds they set to Catch it, wch they Call Salt Cakes. Ye rest in ye Baskets drye and is very good Salt and as fast as they Shovell out the boyling Salt out of ye panns they do replenish it wth more of their Salt water in their pipes. They told me when the Season was drye and so the Salt water in its prime they Could make 60 quarters of Salt in one of those panns wch they Constantly attend Night and day all the while the fire is in the ffurnace, because it would burn to waste and Spoyle ye panns wch by their Constant Use wants often to be repaired. They Leave off Satterday Night and let out ye fire and so begin and kindle their fire Monday Morning. Its a pretty Charge to light the fire. Their Season for makeing Salt is not above 4 or 5 Months in ye year and yt only in a dry Summer. These houses have above 20 some 30 others more of these panns in them, they are Made of Copper. They are very Carefull to keep their ponds well secured and Mended by good Clay and Gravell in the bottom and Sides and so by sluces they fill them out of the sea at high-tides and so Conveyed from pond to pond till fit to boyle. Ffrom Limmington to Lindhurst is 6 mile, where is a house of ye Kings wn he comes to hunt in the new fforest, and ye Lord Warden of the fforest is there when he Comes to hunt and Hawk, to Whome Comes all the Gentry of the Country to waite on him – he dines at Night from 7 to 12 of the Clock. He is served in plaite, those yt hunt with him all day Comes and Dines or Supps with him. He has power to dispose and order ye Concerns of ye forrest for ye timber for shipps and to have it Cherrish'd and secured from Spoyle, as also the deare and Game to be preserved, ye disposeing of the Lodges are in his power. There are 15 Lodges and these are disposed to Gentlemen that have underkeepers yt takes care of it, and wt is peculiar to ye New forrest and known no where Else are these Brouce Deare; at these severall Lodges ye Keepers gather Brome and at Certaine tymes in ye day by a Call gathers all the Dear in within the railes which belongs to Each Lodge, and so they Come up and feed upon this Brouce and are by that meanes very fatt and very tame, so as to Come quite to Eate out of ye hand. All the day besides they range about and if they meete anybody if it be their own keeper without ye pail of ye Lodge they will run from him as wild as Can be. These Lodges are about 4 miles asunder and its a great Priviledge and advantage to be a Cheefe Keeper of any of these Lodges; they have Venison as much as they please and Can easily shoote it when the troop Comes up wth in ye paile, for none are allowed to Shoot out in ye forrest, nor are allowed to go out wth Gun or dog or to keep any Except Gentlemen, and not they if they have been found Shooteing in ye fforest. I think its ffellony for any to kill ye Kings dear there are severall Rangers of ye fforest and 6 verderers yt are their justices or judges of all matters Relateing to ye fforest, these ought allwayes to reside in ye fforest and are to attend the King when he Comes into ye new fforest. Clothed in green, they have a buck and Doe Every year for their ffee, besides being Masters – the under keepers are at their beck so yt they Can get as Much venison as they want. There is also a Rider of ye fforest who is to see about yt all things are secure and well done and ye Timber kept and Deer, to see they are not spoyled or Destroyed: his Right is to all the Deer yt are hurt or Maimed as also he is to have ye Shoulder of ye first Stagg that is hunted and killed in the Season. There is a Bow man wch is to provide ye King wth Bow and arrow when he Comes into ye fforest – they have some priviledge also but ye shooteing by bow and arrow being Left off, yt office is not regarded.

Ffrom Lindhurst about a Mile is a parke called new parke enclosed out of ye fforrest with Pailes, it belongs to ye Kings house; there is a house in it wch was the Lodge – a large old Timber house. Ffrom Limington to ye Isle of Wight its about 4 Leagues; to Yarmouth you go by Hurst Castle, yt runnes on a point of land into ye sea just by the Needles within a League of Yarmouth, and those needles are severall Great Rocks on yt side of the Island, craggy, and severall stand out into the sea wch makes it very hazardous for shipps to pass there, Especially in a Storme or for Strangers – ye passage being narrow between the Needles and Hurst Castle, Can easily Command any ship that would pass there. Yarmouth is a little Sea-port and has a Little Castle that Can annoy Any Enemy that should pass by Hurst, so between them may well Secure yt part of ye Isle and all on ye back side of the jsland are those Needles yt are a Natural ffortification it being inaccessible.

So at another part of ye isle there is Sandumffort wch is a pretty strong place. Ye jsland is 10 mile in the breadth and 30 mile in Length – Upon Most of the high hills you see the wall of ye sea on both Sides, if not all round you as in some places. Ffrom Yarmouth to Newport is seven mile, a little town yt ye Arm of the Sea Comes up to – its one of the biggest towns in ye Island; in a mile off it is Casbrooke Castle into wch King Charles ye first retired when he was worsted by ye Parliaments forces – there are some good roomes still that remaine but ye most part are destroyed and only ruined walls to be seen. There is a deep well of 40 ffathom they draw up ye bucket by a great Wheele in wch they put a horse or ass – a stone thrown down sounds a long tyme ere you hear it splash into ye water. About seven miles thence is Cowes both East and west 2 ports for Shipps to ride in and be Recruited wth all sorts of provisions wch is done on very reasonable terms. Ye ffertillity of the whole jsland produces Corn of all sorts in great plenty, and all sorts of Cattle and butter; Cheese as also Great Store of ffish and ffowle; there is some Little part fforrest land but for ye most part are Meddows and good downs.

The little ports are all fitted for ye Seamen and their affaires, Little houses, not but there are severall good old houses that are Gentlemens seats, as Sr Robert Dilington at Knighton and Sr John oglander at Nunwell, Sr Robert Worstly and severall More. Sr Robt Holmes has a good Estate there, he was the Governour of ye Island and of Yarmouth Castle and there he is buried, Where is his Statue Cutt in Length in white Marble in the Church and railed in with Iron Grates; he was raised from Nothing and an imperious Governr, and what he Scrap'd together was forced to Leave to his Nephew and base Daughter, haveing no other, and they have set up this Stately monument which Cost a Great deal. There is one place called Mottstone just by the sea side, the Name Comes from many Great Stones that stand up in the Grounds not unlike ye stones at Stonidge in Wiltshire, but this sort of stone is in Many places of ye Island and most of the houses are built of Stone, some few Brick. From a hill just above Cowes that runns along by the Sea side You May Easily see Spitt-head And St Hellens point and all the Shipps that Lay along ye Road and that Lay in Portsmouth haven. From Ride is 3 Leagues to portsmouth, I pass'd it in an hour. Portsmouth is a very Good town, Well built with Stone and brick, its not a large town, there are Walls and Gates about it, and at Least eight Bridges and Gates without one another wth Ditches which secures it very Strongly to ye Land-ward, to the Sea the ffortifications are not so strong; there is a plattform with Guns and Pallisadoes. There is a good dock for Building Shipps, but about 6 mile off at Red bridge are the best Shipps built. There are most of the great Shipps Lye at Anchor here.

I was a board ye Royal Charles, and the Royal James, which are ffine Shipps, ye Roomes Spacious for Length and Breadth but not high. There was a large Chappel. and Cabbin with Damaske furniture. The Castle at Portsmouth is not Great – its Rather Called the Kings house where is a Great deal of armes. I was in the Dine-ing Roome where King Charles ye Second met Queen Katherine and was marryed to her and set the crown on her head. There from that roome out of double doores goes a long wooden bridge to the Plattforme; just by is South sea Castle which is wash'd round by ye sea and pretty deep water att Spring tides, it Looks very fine but think its but of Little Strength or Service. Above the town is a very fine down Called Porchester down very pleasant for Sports Hawking and hunting; 6 mile over this down is Southwicke, Coll: Nortons a good old house Capable of being Made ffine, Large Garden room – Woods and Grounds Lying well about it and a good Warren, Coppices and ye Stately Gt Timber trees as may be seen. He was an old officer in the Long parliamt service – this is 15 mile from Winchester and from Winchester to South-hampton is ten miles; that is a very neate clean town and the Streets well pitch'd and kept so, by their Carrying all their Carriages on Sleds as they do in holland, and permit no Cart to go about in ye town, and keep it Clean Swept – this was formerly more strictly observ'd when the town was full of trade, for it is a good port, but now ye trade has failed and ye town almost forsooke and neglected. Its a place of No Strength now, by reason of ye Castle being ruined and the fortifications neglected and the Gunns taken thence, tho' by most its thought the best scittuated port for Shipps to Ride and take their provision in and so Capable of tradeing; but the last 2 Reignes for near 40 year discourag'd it being a proper place for the french to have Seiz'd and Secured for themselves. About 3 Leagues off is Cashot Castle just out into the Sea wch does Encompasse it all but a very little point of land Called Horsy Beach that runnes out into the New forrest by Bewly wch was an abby in the fforest, for the Extent of ye fforrest is large – Miles long; All round Casholt Castle on the Beach itts as full of fine Cockle shells so that they heap them up all round the Castle Like a wall.

It was at South-hampton King Philip Landed when he Came to marry Queen Mary. Ffrom thence its 6 miles to Rumsey, and the Road Runns just by a ffine house of one of my Relations Sr John St Barbe's; the Rows of trees in the avenues runns just from ye Road to the front of the house. You Enter a Court thats wall'd in and blew Iron gates. The Court has a Round in the Middle rail'd in, designed for a Bowling Green, and the Coaches drive round it to Come to the Entrance wch is severall stone Stepps to a broad Space that is railed wth Balls and Banisters: the Space is paved wth broad free stone the stepps ye Same 8 or 10. The house is a halfe Roman H. Ye hall is in the Middle wth double doores, its very lofty and large there's a Chimney just against the Entrance on the Right hand, runns in an Entry through the house to the back yard, where are the offices, Still house and Barnes and Coach houses and a very ffine Stable built of Brick – there are large partitions. In this Entry you have the pantry and Cellars and on the other side ye Kittchin Larders and pastry wch is one wing of the house and just behind the hall is ye Servants hall and a Little parlour just by the pantry and back staires. Then the great hall is divided in halfe by the Staircase, wch hangs on its own work not supported of Either Side, to the first half pace and all the way up without Support, on the one Side they are of oake, the railes and Banisters are varnished. The halfe paces are Inlaid wth yew wood wch lookes a yellowish Red in Squaires; they Land on the next Story with a space of this Inlaid worke of a good Bigness the whole Compass of ye Staircase. The Roofe of the Staires is even wth ye Roofe of ye next Story; on the other side of the Staires are severall Rows of Pillars of wood Painted Like Marble for to walke between, and you pass quite under the Staires into a Little Closet, and a little farther into a back yard where is a Bathing house and other necessarys. There is a screen stands on the side of the Staires next the Chimney to make that part more private. Ye hall Runns quite through to the Garden where there is a door wth stepps down and so at this door you see thro' the house to yt back yard I mentioned at ye End of the Entry. The other wing of ye house is a large parlour and drawing Roome, this is out of the hall by the Garden; the hall is well painted and a Carved Cornish round and pillars on the wanscoate round the Roome. The parlour is wanscoated and painted a Cedar Coullour. The next Story you Enter of this large halfe pace on the Right hand, in to a door wch Leads fore Right to a Balcony, and on the Left hand into a passage, wch leads to the Chamber over the drawing Roome, and by it is a Servants Roome Even wth ye passage. On the Right hand is a passage Leads to Another Roome just over against – open the doores and there is a perfect visto, so there is the other way and a servants roome even wth ye passage; beyond this roome is a back Stair Leads to the bath, and by ye Servants Roome is a large back Staire that Leads to the Next Story, the Great staires Ending here, and on the Left hand they lead into a large dineing Roome &c. – then a drawing Roome and next a bed Chamber wch has a back doore to the back Staires by ye kitchin. These doores open through to ye End one way the best bed Chamber and quite to the balcony ye other side a visto.

Within the dineing roome on ye Left hand is a very Large bed Chamber wch jndeed is ye best – good tapistry hangings – here is design'd a velvet bed its painted white; there are very good Pictures; here is a Little back Staires to ye Servants hall. The dineing Roome is wanscoated and varnish'd the other Roomes nothing done to – that is the drawing Roome and Chamber. Wth in there. is damaske, and Camlet beds in ye other Roomes, and off these back Staires by ye K[i]tchin is a Chamber, anty Roome, dressing roome, 2 Closets These back staires goe up to the next Story yt Leads to the roomes over this, and to a long Gallery that is Window all to the ffront and Leads to all ye Chambers. There is handsome roomes only those at ye Side and End are Garret fashion – between are Servants roomes and Closets: thence a little pair of Stairs Leads up to the Gallery and thence up to the Cupilow which is in the Middle of the house, all Windows round and on ye top has a Gold ball that holds severall Gallons. On each Wing there are 2 little towers, one has ye Clock the other a Sundial, and on the top two gold balls of a Lesser size. The Gardens are walled in, some with brest walls, some higher with flower potts on them; severall places with open grates to Look through with Stone balls or ffigures on the pillars each Side the Gates everyway. There is a water house that by a Wheele Casts up the Water out of ye River just by, and fills ye pipes to Serve all ye house and to fill ye bason designed in the middle of the Garden wth a Spout in the middle.

The Gardens are not finish'd but will be very ffine, wth Large Gates open to ye Grounds beyond, some of wch are planted with trees. Its a fine thing, but doubt its no very good aire – it stands in a low place near ye River, the hills all round on yt Side and ye Mold and Soyle is Black and such as they Cut up for peate. The road from hence to Salisbury is by White Parish and Joy Church and you come in Sight of my Lord Coal-rain house that Looks Like a good Buildmg of Stone, but its just so upon the Great River that it lookes Like a Little Castle or Shipp. This river runns to Breamore from Salisbury just by a very fine Seat of ye Lady Brooks which was Sr Wm Doringtons heir. The house Stands finely to the River a brick building. You Enter into a Walled Court Soe up 12 Stepps at Least into a Noble hall: on the Left hand was a parlour, and on ye Right a large drawing roome a Little parlour and Large Staires up to Severall very handsom Chambers ffurnished with good Tapistry and damaske and some velvets, wch was new because the fire had Spoiled most of the goods; but the house was built just in ye same ffigure. The Kitchins and offices are all under ye roomes of State and they go down Steps to it Under ye Arch of Stepps that ascend to the hall: out of the drawing roome by Glass doors you enter the Garden on a terrass and yt by Stepps, so to Severall Walks of Gravel and Grass and to the Gardens, one below another with Low Walls to give the view all at once. Here was fine flowers and Greens Dwarfe trees and oring and Lemon trees in Rows wth fruite and flowers at once and some ripe; they are ye first oring trees I ever Saw. Here are Stately woods and walks. This River Runns to ffording bridge A Little place, thence to Kingwood, thence to Christchurch; it turns many Great Mills and there have been great attempts to make it Navigable wch would be of Great advantage, but all Charge has been Lost in it. There is Store of good ffish in it; it runns to Christchurch and divides the new fforest from Wiltshire, there is a large Bridge that crosses at Christchurch where it runns into the Sea. This is 18 miles from Salisbury 20 miles from Newtontony over ye down, 6 to Rumsy 4 to Lockerly two to East Titherly where Sr ffrancis Rowles has a fine house and Garden and Groves. One on the Edge of ye hill, all in sight of ye Road Looks ffinely of Scott and Norroway ffirrs in Rows and Looks very well. In 2 mile of this is Dean wch was Sr John Evlings, now his Grandsons Lord Kingston, it seems to be a good Lofty Building, its woody and very ffruitfull. There is Likewise a good old seate of Mr Whiteheads my grandfathers, Normans Court in West Titherly; its well wooded, good Gardens, but a very old house; a ffine Grove of ffirrs to ye ffront. This is 7 mile from Newtontony and as much to Stockbridge wch is ye Road to London; thence to Sutton 12 miles, thence to Basin-stoake 12 mile. Its a Large town and has a good trade being a Road. A mile thence is Basin on ye Left hand wch was a house of ye Duke of Boltons, but being a Garrison in ye Civil warrs was pulled down and Now only some part remaines, and the Gardens wch are improved and new walls built: fine fruit and vineyards, a large parke to it. On ye Right hand about a mile off is Hackwood which is another Seate of ye Duke of Boltons in a pretty parke. It looks very pretty not large. Basinstoake Lyes watrish but its on Chalke. A little further on ye Left hand at some distance you see a fine Seate of Sr Robert Henleys, it looks Like a little town, its so large a building, and they say its a noble thing ffinished and furnish'd very well with good Gardens.

To Harfordbridge 8 mile thence to bagshott 8 mile a heavy sandy way, and ye Same from thence to Egam 8 mile; thence to Staines a mile, where we Cross ye Thames on a bridge and enter Middlesex – thence to London 15 miles.

I went to see Hampton Court 10 mile from London; it looks Like a little town ye buildings runn so great a Length on ye ground, Ye old buildings and ye New part wch King William and Queen Mary built. Ye Queen took Great delight in it. Ye new was but just ye shell up and some of ye Roomes of State Ceil'd but nothing ffinished. The roomes were very Lofty, round a Large Court and all the appartments intire. The old buildings were on the other side the prioy Garden: there was the water Gallery that opened into a ballcony to ye water, and was decked with China and ffine pictures of ye Court Ladyes drawn by Nellor. Beyond this came severall Roomes, and one was pretty Large, at ye four Corners were little roomes like Closets or drawing roomes, one pannell'd all wth jappan, another wth Looking Glass, and two wth fine work under pannells of Glass. There was the queens Bath and a place to take boat in the house. The Gardens were designed to be very ffine, Great fountaines and Grass plotts and gravell walkes, and just against the middle of ye house was a very large fountaine, and beyond it a large Cannal Guarded by rows of Even trees that runn a good way. There was fine Carving in the Iron Gates in the Gardens wth all sorts of ffigures, and Iron spikes Round on a breast wall and severall Rows of trees.

HERE BEGINS MY NORTHERN JOURNEY
IN MAY
1697

ffrom London to Amwell Berry in Hartfordshire 19 mile, thence to Bishops Startford in Essex 13 mile, wch is a very pretty Neat Market town, a good Church and a delicate spring of Water wch has a wall built round it, very Sweet and Cleare water for drinking. There is a little river runns by the town yt feeds severall Mills.

Thence we went to Andlyend 10 miles, a house of ye Earle of Sussex wch makes a Noble appearance Like a town, so many towers and buildings off stone within a parke wch is walled round. A good River runs through it, we pass over the bridge. Its built round 3 Courts, there are 30 great and Little towers on the top, and a great Cupilow in the Middle. The roomes are Large and Lofty with good Rich old ffurniture tapistry, but Noe beds in yt part we saw. There are 750 (150?) Roomes in the house.

The Cannall in the Midst of the parke Look'd very fine, its altogether a Stately palace and was built for one of ye Kings. Thence to Little-berry one Mile, where is a house with abundance of Curiosityes all performed by Clock work and Such like, wch appears very Strange to the beholders, but the master was not at home so I saw no more than the Chaire they Set in when they are Carry'd about. All the Country is pleasant; between this and Cambridge you go in sight of so many neate villages wth Rows of trees about them and very neate built Churches – Sometimes 5 or 6 of these are in view together in 3 or four mile of Each other – Ye Churches are stone-work. We went to Babaram where was a house of Sr Richd Bennets in a pleasant parke prettyly situated, only it is in a Low ground, but ye fine Rows of trees in the severall avenues Came just down to the Road: thence to Bornbridge 5 mile, thence to Hodmogoge hills 3 miles, wch looks at a distance Like a long Barn, but when you approach Near you see it a Great fortification or Ruines of a Castle, with great trenches one within another, and all ye buildings – there is only a long string of Stables to keep ye Kings hunting horses. The hill is of a great height from whence you have a great prospect of ye whole Country and of Cambridge wch is 3 mile off. The town Lyes in a bottom and Marshy Ground all about it severall miles wch is Garnish'd with willows; ye buildings are old and Indifferent. the Streetes mostly narrow, (except near the Market place), wch is pretty spacious – there stands the University Church. Trinity Colledg is the ffinest, yet not so Large as Christ-church College in oxford. In the first Court there is a very ffine ffountaine in the Middle of ye Quadrangle wth a Carved top and Dials round – there are Large Cloysters. The Library runns all ye rang of building at ye End and stands on 3 rows of stone pillars; it opens into the Gardens and walk wth 3 Large Gates or doores of Iron Carv'd very ffine wth fflowers and Leaves. The river runs at ye back side of most of ye Colleges; they have fine stone bridges over it and gates that Lead to fine walks; Ye rivers name is Cam.

The Library farre exceeds that of Oxford, the Staires are Wanscoated and very large and Easye ascent, all of Cedar wood, ye room spacious and Lofty paved wth black and white marble, ye sides are wanscoated and decked with all Curious books off Learning, their Catalogue and their Benefactors. There is two Large Globes at each End wth teliscopes and microscopes and ye finest Carving in wood, in flowers, birds, Leaves, ffigures of all sorts as I ever saw. There is a large Balcony opens at the End, very large, all finely painted all over ye history of the New Testament. Its a hundred and twenty steps to ye roofe and supported by noe pillars all Arch of Stone: You walke on ye Arch or Cradle as its term'd. There is 32 Little windows Cut in Stone just as you ascend to ye Cradle or Arch wch runns on Either side, and a pr of Staires of 8 stepps to every 3 windows wch Lead up to the Arch; thence you ascend the Leads over all wch are fine, secured by battlements round, there are 4 large Spires: at each corner one. On these Leads you May see a vast Country round.

You see Ely-minster and ye towers; this is a noble building and Stands on so advantagious a ground, and so Lofty built yt its perspicious above ye town; this is in Lieu of ye Theatre at Oxford there being none here. St Johns College Garden is very pleasant for ye fine walks both Close Shady walks and open Rows of trees and quickset hedges. There is a pretty bowling green with Cut arbours in the hedges. Queens Colledge is old but a stately and Lofty building. Claire Hall is very Little but most Exactly neate in all parts, they have walks wth Rows of trees, and bridges over the river and fine painted Gates into ye ffields. Katherine Hall is new built, the Chapple was not Quite ffinished; the apartments for ye fellows and Gentlemen Commoners are very ffine, a Large dineing roome, a good Chamber and good Studdy and this for 8£ a year.

Here we are Entertained by some of our Companys acquaintance. From Cambridge we go just by Peterborough: we see the Minster and ye town, very plaine all built with Stone. The road is very pleasant to Ffenistanton, 8 miles to Godmanchester, and from thence Huntington 1 mile. We cross the River Lin over a bridge and so Enter Huntingtonshire. This river goes to Lin in Norfolke its a very pleasant Country to travel in in ye Summer, but after raines its in Some places deep, but the prospects are delighting; Little town and good Enclosure wth woods and same of the Country's. Huntington is but a Small Shire town; just by it is a house of the Lord Sandwich, yt it is pretty large. We enter a good Lofty hall, in it hangs the Ship in wch he was lost, that is the representation of it Cut out in Little and all things Exactly made to it; there is a good parlour and drawing roome: well proportion'd are ye rooms wth good old ffurniture and good Pictures. There is a Large dineing roome above wth good tapistry hangings, and its Ceil'd wth jrish oake Carv'd with points hanging down like fine ffret worke; this wood no spider will weave on or endure. There are good bed Chambers with good furniture and fine pictures; over one of the Chimneys is a fine picture of Venus were it not too much uncloth'd. The Gardens and Wilderness and Greenhouse will be very fine when quite ffinished with the dwarfe trees and gravell walks. There is a large fountaine or bason which is to resemble that in the privy garden at Whitehall, which will ffront the house.

The high terrass walks Look out on the Road. all this Country is good Land and ffruitfull and much like Oxfordshire.

Ffrom Huntington we came to Shilton 10 mile, and Came in Sight of a great water on the Right hand about a mile off wch Looked Like Some Sea it being so high and of great Length: this is in part of the ffenny Country and is Called Whitlsome Mer, is 3 mile broad and six long. In ye Midst is a little jsland where a great Store of Wildfowle breeds, there is no coming near it; in a Mile or two the ground is all wett and Marshy but there are severall little Channells runs into it wch by boats people go up to this place. When you enter the mouth of ye Mer it lookes fformidable and its often very dangerous by reason of sudden winds that will rise Like Hurricanes in the Mer, but at other tymes people boate it round the Mer with pleasure. There is abundance of good ffish in it. This was thought to have been Sea some tyme agoe and Choak'd up and so remaines all about it for some miles a ffenny Marshy Ground for those little Rivers that runns into ye Sea some distance of miles. Thence to Wangfford 2 miles, thence to Stamfford 5 miles.

We pass over a down where is a Cross that directs three wayes York, London and Oatly, and here we Come in Sight of a Gentlemans house that stands finely on a hill in a parke, pretty high with fine groves about it. A little farther when we are pass'd the water att Wansford we enter Ruttlandshire wch seems more woody than ye others. Stamfford town is as fine a built town all of stone as may be seen; its on the side of a hill wch appears very fine in the approach.

Severall very good Churches with high Spires and towers very ornamentall, its not very Large, but much ffiner than Cambridge, and in its view has severall good houses. On the Right hand of Stamfford is a house of Mr Neals in a pretty neate parke pailed in; ye house not very big but Lookes well. On the Side of ye hill over against Stamfford and on the Left hand over against the town Stands My Lord of Exeters Burly house, Eminent for its Curiosity. The Situation is the finest I ever saw, on the Edge of the hill and severall Rows of trees of severall acres about it quite to the Road. It stands in a very fine parke wch is full of deer and fine Rows of trees. On Either side a very broad Glide or visto that Lookes finely to ye River and to the adjacent hills, a distance, both with fine woods. The town of Stamfford appears very fine on the Left hand and most noble woods on the Right hand. The house Looks very nobly; ye Garden very fine within one another wth Lower and higher walls deck'd with all Sorts of trees and Greens; very fine Gravell walks and Grass squaires wth Statues and fine Grass walks, dwarfs and all sorts of Green trees and Curious things: very fine fountaines, there is one in the middle of the Garden thats just to ye Middle also of the house, that is of an exceeding great size. There is a fine vineyard, Warren and Groves wch makes its prospects very delightfull.

You enter a large Court walled, thence to a Space of Ground pretty Large, Encompass'd round wth a little wall of a yard High of free Stone very ffine wrought, on which are to be Iron railes and spires, that was not ffinish'd nor the space paved which is design'd to be of broad Stone: all before the house the little breast wall is in a Compass Like a halfe Moone.

The Sides up to the house are built in roomes for appartments, you ascend the house by Stone Steps – about 12 – that all turn round; the upper Stepp is at Least 20 foot steps in Compass; the door you enter is of Iron Carv'd the ffinest I ever saw all sort of Leaves, flowers, figures, birds, beasts, wheate in ye Carving; very Large ye doors are – there is an Inside doore as Case to it. On the other side of the house is Such another door that Leads into a Court. The hall is a noble roome painted ffinely, ye walls with armory and Battles; its Lofty and paved with black and white Marble. You go thence into parlours, dineing rooms, drawing roomes and bed Chambers one leading out of another, at Least 20 that were very Large and Lofty, and most fine Carving in the Mantlepieces, and very fine paint in pictures, but they were all Without Garments or very little, that was the only fault, the immodesty of ye Pictures, Especially in My Lords appartment. This bed Chamber was ffurnish'd very Rich, the tapistry was all blew Silke and Rich Gold thread, so that the Gold appeared for ye Light part of all the worke. There was a blew velvet bed with gold ffringe and very Richly Embroidered, all the Inside with ovals on the head piece and tester, where the figures are so finely wrought in Satten stitch it Looks Like painting. There is also My Ladys appartt, Severall roomes very Richly ffurnished and very ffine tapistry with Silver and gold in Most; there was at Least 4 velvet beds 2 plaine and 2 figured – Crimson – green – Severall Coullours together in one; Severall Damaske beds and some tissue beds all ffinely Embroydered. My Ladys Closet is very ffine, the wanscoate of the best Jappan, the Cushons very Rich Work: there is a great deale of fine worke under Glasses and a Glass case full of all Sorts of Curiosityes of Amber stone Currall and a world of fine things. My Lord Excetter in his travells was for all sorts of Curious things if it Cost him never so much, and a great many of my Ladyes fine things were given her by her Mother ye Countess of Devonshire. There is a Chamber My Lady used to Lye in in the Winter, a green velvet bed and the hangings are all Embroydery of her Mothers work very ffine; the Silk Looks very fresh and ffigures Look naturall.

There is a drawing room by that, wch has a great Curiosity that my Lord brought from beyond sea, on the Mantlepiece under a glass; its nunns work the ffinest Embroidery that it Looks just Like point or the ffinest Linnen you can see; this Cost a great Sume. There are fine Chimney pieces of Marble and the windows the same, there are at least 20 rooms very Large and Lofty that are all painted on the top; there are at Least 20 on ye other side of the house all wth different ffrett work on the Ceiling, besides almost as many more roomes that are a building. Some the floores Not Laid, others Not ffinish'd yt the house will be a vast thing wn done. The floores were Inlaid in severall roomes, the Chapple is old and not to abide, the painting is good but the place is not Suteable to any part Else. The great variety of the roomes and ffine works tooke me up 2 full hours to go from one Roome to another over the house. The Bowling-green, Wilderness, nor Walke I was not in, being so great a tract of ground, but you see it all at a view on ye top of ye house; it is Esteemed the ffinest house and scituation that is in England and will be very Compleate when ffinish'd.

From thence we went to Streton 6 mile, a Little house of one Mr Horsman; very good Plantations of trees about it – Stone building. Rutlandshire seems more woody and Inclosed than some others. Thence to Colson where Lincolnshire Comes in; 2 mile thence towards Lincoln we go on a fine Champion Country much Like Salisbury plaine, and a Large prospect all round – at a distance you See woods and towns. This is the best part of this shire for most part is ffenny, and we went twenty six Miles all on Such Way quite to Lincoln town. We pass by Grantum which is a good town 16 mile from Lincoln, all built with Stone, but Lies down in a Low bottom. The Church has a very high Steeple, its Seen above a Great hill that is by it of a great Length and its a long tyme wn you see a great part of the Steeple before you come to see the Church or town it Lies so in a bottom. Lincoln opens to view at Least 6 miles off; it Stands on a very high hill and Looks very ffine; at the Entrance the houses Stand Compact together. The Streetes are but Little but its a vast hill to ascend into the town where the Minster stands, by that Means its very perspicious and Eminently in view a great Many Miles off. The tower, that Great Thoms nest, is 250 steps up, 8 persons may very well Stand up in the hollow of the bell together, its as much as a man Can Reach to the top of the bell with his hand when he is in the Inside; its rarely Ever rung but only by Ringing the Clapper to Each Side wch we did and that sounds all over the town. The houses are but small and not lofty nor ye Streetes of any breadth. The Sea has formerly Come up to the town and yre has been very deep water where now great part of ye town is built, so yt what was ye town formerly is that wch stands upon a precipice as it were of a hill. Ye water is Choake up now and ye sea Comes not near in Severall Miles and what water they have is Called Lincoln Dike – you pass it over on a bridge. We went thence by many very ffine Seates, we pass by Sr John Brownlows and Severall others; thence to Newark 12 mile in Nottinghamshire; just by it you see a very pretty new house of brick building of the Lord Lexingtons, wth the walls and towers that Looks very well. Newark is a very neate Stone built town, the Market place is very Large and Look'd ffine; just by it is the Great Church wch is Large and with a very high Spire, there is prayers twice a day in it. There remaines the holes in the Church walls that the bullets made which were shott into the town in the Siege Laid to it by the Parliament army in the Civil warrs: the Castle was then demolish'd so yt only the ruinated walls remaine wch is washed by a very pretty river. At this we Enter Nottinghamshire and here I met wth the strongest and best Nottingham ale that Looked very pale but Exceeding Clear. Thence to Nottingham town, its 12 mile more and we ffery'd over the Trent wch in some places is so deep, but waggons and horses ffords it. I rode along 7 or 8 mile by the Trent wch is a ffine River tho' not so broad as the Thames is at Kingston, but it look'd very pleasant to Ride by its bancks for so many miles, and on the other side was a high Ridge of hills shaded over from the top to the bottom wth fine trees and this for Severall Miles. When on the other hand you see a vast bottom Called Note Vale, ye wood belongs to one Mr Heckam. You pass by severall pretty houses by the river Side, Stone buildings, good Gardens, and a Little farther you see the Lord Kingstons house wch is Contigeous to Nottingham town, called Home Peirpoynt wch Looks finely in woods. The town of Nottingham is the neatest town I have seen, built of stone and delicate, Large and long Streetes much like London, and ye houses Lofty and well built. The Market place is very broad, out of wch runns a very Large Streete much like Holborn but the buildings ffine, and there is a Pyaza all along one side of one of the Streetes, wth Stone pillars for walking that runns the Length of the Streetes wch is a mile long. All the Streetes are of a good size all about ye town and well pitch'd, there are severall good houses in the town. There are 3 or 4 Large houses of the Duke of New-Castles wth the Castle wch is a fine thing – stands very high on a hill – and when you Come to the Castle you ascend 40 Steps to the Court and hall. The roomes are very Lofty and Large, 6 or 7 state roomes and a long gallery hung with fine Pictures of the ffamily; the wanscoate is most of Cedar. Some Roomes are hung with good tapistry. – The Chamber of State is hung wth very Rich tapistry so much silver and gold in it that the 3 pieces that hung the Roome Cost 1500£ : the bed was rail'd in as ye presence Chamber used to be, ye bed was damaske. The floore of the roome was jnlay'd wth Cyphers and the Corronet: here ye Princess Ann Lay when she fled in King James's tyme when the prince of orange was Coming over. On the Leads you have a very fine prospect of ye whole town and river; You see the Earle of Kingstones and Sr Thomas Willoughby's fine house on ye other side of ye town, and at a distance we see Beavior Castle the Earle of Rutland's house, and a prospect more than 20 mile about, shewing the diversityes of Cultivation and produce of the Earth. The land is very Rich and fruitfull, so the Green Meadows wth the fine Corrn ffields wch seemes to bring forth in handfulls. They soe most of Barley and have great Encrease, there is all sorts of Graine besides, and plaines and Rivers and Great woods and Little towns all in view. They make brick and tile by ye town – the Manufacture of the town mostly Consists in weaving of Stockings wch is a very Ingenious art. There was a man that spunn glass and made Severall things in glass – birds and beasts. I spunn some of the glass and saw him make a swan presently wth divers Coull'd glass; he makes Buttons wch are very strong and will not breake. Nottingham is ffamous for good ale, so for Cellars, they are all dugg out of the Rocks and so are very Coole. Att ye Crown Inn is a Cellar of 60 stepps down, all in ye Rock Like arch worke over your head: in ye Cellar I dranke good ale. We were very well Entertained and very Reasonably att the Blackmoors head; thence we went to Mansfield 12 mile and pass'd some part of the fine fforest of Sherwood. Mansfield is a Little Market town built with Stone, there is a Little river; they make and dye Tammy's here. There is one pretty Stone built house just by the water side of 40 Stepps ascent into it. At the End of the town is an hospital built by a quaker for ancient people, its a good neat building, they were to have 8 pound a year a piece and the roomes and Gardens, but its Chiefly for their friends. There is nothing remarkable here but the dearness of ye Inns, tho' in so plentifull a Country. We went thence to Wursup and went through a parke of ye Duke of Newcastles and by his house Calld Welbeake. Ye house is but old and Low buildings, but the parke is the Noblest wood I Ever saw, fine and stately Straight. A mile thence is a fine pile of Buildings of Stone very uniforme and high Called Worsup Mannour built by a Coe heir of the Devonshire house – 3 sisters built 3 noble buildings, this and Ardeck and Chattsworth. A little beyond this is another Building the remaines of Worsup Abby. All the way to Blith is a very heavy Sandy Way 12 miles. At Blith was a very Sweete house and Gardens and Grounds, it was of Brick work Coyn'd with Stones and the Windows with Stone, all sashes; the building was so neate and Exact, it was Square wth 4 juttings out at Each Corner; it Stands high and Commands the Sight of the Country about. The fine river by it with fish ponds and Meadows and fine woods beyond makes it look very pleasant. The Gardens are very neate and after the London Mode, of Gravel and Grass walks and Mount, and the Squaires with dwarfes and Cyprus, ffirre and all sorts of Greens and fruite trees, its very ffruitefull – I Eate good fruite there. Its just by the Church so that a Large Arch wch did belong to the Church is now made a shady Seate to the Garden with Greens over it, under wch is a Sepulchre for ye ffamily. It belongs to one Mr Mellish a Merchant in London, its in all parts a most Compleate thing and its scituation most pleasant. Almost all ye road between this and DonCaster is sandy way, to Rosdin 3 mile, thence to DonCaster 6 miles – here Yorkshire beginns and here the Musick wellcom'd us into Yorkshire. DonCaster is a pretty Large town of Stone buildings, the streetes are good, there is a handsome Market Cross advanc'd on 20 steps at Least. The Church is neate and pretty Large, Severall Little Monuments. This town stands on the River Don, wch gives name to the town, here is also a good Large Meeteing place. We were here the Lord's day and well Entertained at the Angel. Thence we went to Wentbridge and pass'd by woods belonging to Sr Wentworth by his house 7 mile to Wentbridge, where had been a fire the night before Caused by the Lightening and thunder wch was remarkably great as we took notice of, 2 barnes and a house was burnt.

Thence we ascended a very Steepe hill and so to Fferrybridge 3 mile where we pass'd the fine River Called the Aire, Large for Barges as was most of those Rivers I have mention'd.

From thence to TodCaster 8 mile, wch is a very good Little town for travellers, mostly jnns and little tradesmens houses. This stands on a very large River Called the Whart. Just before you Come to ye town there is some of ye water wch on Great raines are not to be pass'd – it was very deep when I went through. Thence we go much on a Causey to Yorke 8 miles more, it stands high but for one of the Metropolis and the see of ye Archbishopp it Makes but a meane appearance. The Streetes are Narrow and not of any Length, save one wch you Enter of from the bridge that is over the Ouise which Lookes like a fine River when full after much raine. It is but Low in Comparison of Some Rivers, it bears Great Barges, it Looks muddy, its full of good ffish. We Eate very good Cod fish and Salmon and that at a pretty Cheape rate, tho' we were not in the best jnn for the Angel is the best in Cunny Streete. The houses are very Low and as jndifferent as in any Country town and the Narrowness of ye Streetes makes it appear very mean.

Nottingham is so farre before it for its size – its true Nottingham is not a quarter so bigg, Else ye Streetes and buildings are so Much Nobler as Can be jmagin'd; it Lookes better att the approach because you see the towers off ye gates and Severall Churches in Compassing ye Minster and all ye Windmills round ye town of wch there are many. Ye River runns through the town and so its divided, ye buildings Look No better than the outskirts off London Wappen &c. The Bridg is fine arches and built on with houses; the Pavements wch is Esteem'd the Chiefe part of town where ye Market house and town hall stands is so mean that Southwarke is much before it. There are a Great Many pretty Churches 16 in Number, but the minster is a noble building and holds in view at Least 30 miles before you Come to it. I saw it and also at yt distance, and saw just by it a high hill or ffortification it appeared to be, but when I Came to York I found it to be only a very high hill wth stately high trees on it as thick as Could be, a Noble Grove. The Minster is very Large and fine of Stone, Carv'd all the outside, 3 high towers above the Leads; I was in one of them, the highest, and it was 262 steps and those very Steep Steps, there is a Gallery round the middle of the Church about halfe way that goes off these steps of the tower, where you may go round and Looke down into the body of ye Church and yt was so great a distance that the men and Ladyes that were Walking below look'd like Pigmyes a very little to us above. On the Leads of ye tower Shews a vast prospect of the Country, at Least 30 mile round, you see all over the town yt Lookes as a building too much Cluster'd together, ye Streetes being so narrow – some were pretty Long. There is another river wch fills the ditches round the town Called Ffosse. In the Minster there is the Greatest Curiosity for Windows I ever saw, they are so large and so Lofty, those in the Quire at ye End and on Each side that is 3 storys high and painted very Curious with History of ye Bible; the painting is very fine such as was in Kings Chapple in Cambridge, but the Loftyness of ye windows is more than I ever saw any Where Else and by all accounts is peculiar; There is such another Window at the End of the Cross jsle just by ye Quire – all ye other Windows are of ye usual Size of other Cathedralls. Ye body of ye Church is large and I thinke Larger than any Cathedrall I have seen, bigger than Winchester Cathedrall. All these Isles are broad the people of ffashion use them to Walke in and on that account its much [something left out] they keep it not Cleaner, the Quire has a very good Carving in Wood about it, there is a very good Organ, the table cloth and Cushons and books at ye Comunion table was Crimson velvet and hangings, and its Embroyder'd very Richly wth gold of a Great depth, and Gold ffringe at ye bottom: this was Given ye Church by Doctor Lamplue yt was the Arch-bishop whose Statue is in White Marble in ye wall wth Mitre and shepherds Crook. Just by him is ye Effigy of another Bishop Laying along cut in Stone, and by the aire and Mien he looks more Like a Soldier or Beau than a Bishop and so it seemes he was in humour. The Embriodery at the table is almost yard deep, that was given by Lamplue. In the vestry there is a well of Sweet spring-water called St Peter's well, ye St of the Church, so it is St Peters ye Cathedrall is. There is a large hunters horne tipt with Silver and Garnish'd over and Engrav'd ffinely all double Gilt wth a Chaine, the same given by a Gentleman that also gave his Estate to add to the revenues of ye Church, on a dislike to disobedient Children; he used the horne When he hunted and drank in it too. I saw there the ffine tissue Cannopy that was held over the head of King James the first when he Came into England and ye head of 2 mace wch were Carry'd before him then. There I saw a Chest that was Triangular fashion, the Shape of ye Coapes when folded in ye Middle and so put into this Chest. The Chapter house is very finely Carv'd and fine painting on the windows all round, its all arched Stone and Supported by its own Work haveing no pillars to Rest on, tho' its Length and breadth be Equal and at Least 24 ffoot Each. Here was a mint for Coyning the old money and plaite into new mill'd money; I saw them at work and Stamp'd one halfe Crown my Self – they dispatch worke very fast and have Coyn'd Severall 1000£. I see all parts of the work about ye pounding, the boyling, defineing and makeing Barres and Cutting out in ye mill and Bakeing and Stamping, all but Milling which art they are Sworne to keep private.

The Bishops Seate was 4 or 5 mile out of town on the River Ouise. Ffrom thence we went over a marshy Comon to the Spaw at Marsborough 12 mile; the town is a pretty stone building, in it a large Market place; there is a River, the water Looks black, I ffancy it runns off from the Iron and sulpher mines which Changes the Coullr; – We pass it over on a large bridge, tho' in some places they may ford it, its all on a Rock and the Sides of the hill by ye River is all rock and the Little houses are all built in the Rocks, there is a little Chapple cut out of the Rock and arch'd and Carved wth ffigures of Saints, I suppose its Called Sr Robert Chapple he was Esteemed a very devout man, his Effigee is Carv'd at the Entrance, there is an alter yt was deck'd wth flowers and the Ground wth Rushes for ye devout that did frequent it. Severall Papists there about and many that Came to ye Spaw and St Mongers well did say their prayers there. There was a Manuscript wth a long story of this Sr Robert. There is also the ruines of an abbey where there has been many bones taken up and some preserv'd as Reliques – there was a papist Lady Lodg'd where we did and our Land Lady at ye Inn where we were treated Civily she told us she went with this Lady among these ruines where the Lady would say her prayers, and one day some had been digging and brought up ye bone of a mans arme and hand and ye Ligature of ye Elbow held ye bones together wch by Strikeing Came asunder, and in ye hollow part of ye joynt was a jelly like blood that was moist, this Lady dipp'd ye End of her handkerchief in it and so Cut it off and put it up as a Relique. There are ye ruinated walls of the Castle remaines but of no use, but some part is made a prison and some vaults made Cellars. I dranke very Strong Clear ale in one of those Cellars.

We were in a very pretty Garden of a Gentlemans of our LandLady Mason's acquaintance where was all manner of Curiosityes of fflowers and Greens – Great variety – there is also a Cherry Garden with Green walkes for ye Company to walk in and a Great Seate in a high tree that gives a pleasant prospect.

From thence we went over to Haragate wch is just by the Spaw, two mile further over a Common that belongs to Knarsborough; its all marshy and wett and here in the Compass of 2 miles is 4 very different springs of water; there is the Sulpher or Stincking spaw, not Improperly term'd for the Smell being so very strong and offensive that I could not force my horse Near the Well; there are two Wells together with basons in them that the Spring rises up in, which is ffurr'd with a White Scumm which rises out of the water, if you keep it in a Cup but a few hours it will have such a white Scumm on it, not withstanding it rises out of ye Spring very Cleare and so being a quick Spring itt Soone purges it Self Cleare againe, it Comes from Brimstone mines, for the taste and smell is much of Sulpher, tho' it has an additionall offenciveness Like Carrion. The Ground is Bitumus or the Like that it runns over, it has a quality of Changing Silver into ye Coullr of Copper and that in a few minutes, much quicker than the Baths in the West County in Somersetshire. Its a quick purger and very good for all Scurbutick humours, some persons drink a quart or two, I dranke a quart in a Morning for two dayes and hold them to be a good Sort of Purge if you Can hold yr breath so as to drinke them down. Within a quarter of a mile is the sweete spaw or Chalibiet, a Spring which rises off Iron and steele like Astrup or Tunbridge and Like the German Spaw. This is a quick Spring and the Well made up with a bason, and a Cover of Stone over it Like an arch; this opperates as all jron springs does, tho I Could not find them so strong or spiriteous as those at Tunbridge. One thing I observ'd of the Stinking spaw tho' its taste and opperation was like the Somersetshire bathes, yet this was not warme in the Least as those Bathes are. Just Between these two spaws is a fine Cleare and sweete Spring of Comon water very good to wash Eyes and pleasant to Drinke. The ffourth Spring wch is but two mile off these is of a petrifying quality turnes all things into stone. It rises in a banck on ye top of a hill and so runns along in a little Channell about a foote over and all the Ground it runns over is moorish and full of holes with water Standing in it, wch stincks just like the Sulpher Spaw and will turn Silver to the Coullour of Copper as yt does. Notwithstanding this Clear spring runns through it with a Swift Current to the brow of ye hill and then it spreads it Self all round ye hill wch is a Rock, and so runns down all over the brow of ye hill Continually, like a Nasty shower of Small and Great Raine, and so it meetes in ye bottom and runns all into the river Knarsborough, and this water as it runns – where it Lyes in the hollows of ye Rock does turn moss and wood into Stone or rather Crusts or Candys wood. I saw some wch had a perfect Shell of stone about it, but they tell me it does in tyme penetrate through the Wood. I took Moss myself from thence which is all Crisp'd and perfect Stone; all the Grass Straws or any thing that the water falls upon it does Convert to hardness like Stone. Ye Whole rock is Continually dropping with water besides ye Showering from the top wch ever runns and this is Called the dropping well. There is an arbour and ye Company used to Come and Eat a Supper there in any Evening to have the pleaseing prospect and the murmuring Shower to Divert their Eare; in a good Space of tyme it will harden Ribon Like Stone or any thing Else.

Ffrom Harragate to Cockgrave is 6 mile where is a Spring of exceeding Cold Water Called St Mongers Well; the Story is of a Child yt was Laid out in ye Cold for the parishes Care and when the Church-Wardens found it they took Care of it – a new born Infant – and when it was baptised they gave it the Name of "Amongst" because they said the Child must be kept among them, and as the papist sayes he was an Ingenious Child and so attained Learning and was a very religious man and used this spring to wash himself; after sometymes that he had gotten prefferrment and so grew Rich he walled the Spring about and did many Cures on diseased bodies by batheing in it, wch Caused after his death people to frequent the Well wch was an Inconveniency to ye Owners of ye ground, and so they forbad people Coming and Stopped up ye Well; and the Story sayes on that severall judgments Came on the owners of ye Ground and ye Spring broke up all about his Ground wch forced him to open it againe and render it usefull to all that would Come to Washe in it – thus farre of ye fable.

Now the Spring is in use and a high wall round it, Ye Well is about 4 or 5 Yards square and round the brimm is a walke of Broad stone round. There are 4 or 5 Steps down to the bottom, it is no deeper at Some places then a Little above ye Waste, not up to ye Shoulders of a woman, and you may kneel on a flatt Stone and it Comes to yr Chin – this the papists made use of very much. – At one Corner the Springs rise they are very quick and there is a Sluce that it Continually runns off so as to keep just at the same depth, and it runns off so fast and ye Springs supply so fast that it Clears the Well presently after any body has been in. I allwayes Chose to be just where ye springs rise that is much the Coldest and it throws off anything in the Well to ye Sluce. Setting aside ye papists ffancyes of it I cannot but think it is a very good Spring being remarkably Cold and just at ye head of ye Spring, so its ffresh wch must needs be very strengthning; it Shutts up the pores of ye body immeadiately, so fortifyes from Cold, you Cannot bear ye Coldness of it above 2 or 3 minutes and then you Come out and walke round ye pavement and then in againe, and so 3 or 4 or 6 or 7 as many tymes as you please. You go in and out in Linnen Garmts, some go in fflannell; I used my bath Garmts and so pulled them off and put on flannell when I Came out to go into the bed which is best; but some Came at a distance – so did I and did not go into bed – but some will keep on their wet Garments and let them drye to them and say its more beneficial, but I did not venture it. I dipp'd my head quite over every tyme I went in and found it Eased a Great pain I used to have in my head, and I was not so apt to Catch Cold so much as before wch I imputed to the Exceeding Coldness of ye Spring that shutts up the pores of the body. Its thought it runns off of some very Cold spring and from Clay. Some of ye papists I saw there had so much Zeale as to Continue a quarter of an hour on their knees at their prayers in ye Well, but none else Could well endure it so long at a tyme, I went in 7 Severall seasons and 7 tymes Every Season and would have gone in oftener Could we have Staid longer. We went back to Harragat 6 mile and then we went to Burrough Bridge 8 mile – a famous place for Salmon, but then we Could not meete with any, but we had a very Large Codfish there above a yard long and more than halfe a yard in Compass very fresh and good and Cost but 8 pence. I saw as big a one bought then for 6 pence and six Crabbs as big as my two hands, the Least was bigger than one of my fists, all cost but 3 pence. Thence to Harragate 8 mile, then we went and Laid at Knarsburoughe 2 mile, wch was nearer to St Mungers Well, for we went it twice from Harragate and back wch was 12 mile more and found it too farre to go in an afternoon – from Knarsburough it was but 4 mile; we went it four tymes and back wch was 16 miles and we went afterwards to Harraget 3 tymes and back 12 mile more. From Knarsborough we went to Rippon a pretty Little market town mostly built of Stone, 8 mile, a Large Market place with a high Cross of severall Stepps; we were there the Market day where provisions are very plentifull and Cheape.

In the Market was sold then 2 good Shoulders of veal, they were not very fatt nor so large as our meate in London but good meate, one for 5d the other for 6d, and a good quarter of Lamb for 9d or 10d, and its usual to buy a very good Shoulder of Veale for 9 pence, and a quarter of Beefe for 4 shillings; Indeed it is not large ox Beef but good Middling Beasts: and Craw ffish 2d a Dozn – so we bought them.

Notwithstanding this plenty some of ye Inns are very dear to Strangers that they Can impose on. The town Stands on a hill and there is a good large Stone built Church well Carved, they Call it a minster. There is very fine painting over the alter, it Looks so natural just like Real Crimson satten with gold ffringe like hangings, and Severall rows of Pillars in jsles on Either side wch looks very naturall. There are two good Bridges to the town, one was a rebuilding, pretty large with Severall arches Called Hewet bridge – its often out of repaire by reason of the force of ye water that Swells after great raines, yet I see they made works of wood on purpose to breake the violence of ye Streame and ye Middle arche is very Large and high.

There are Severall good houses about ye town and Severall Gentlemens Seates about a mile or two distance: 2 mile off is a fine place of Sr Edwd Blackets, it looks finely in ye approach in the Midst of a good parke, and a River runns just by it, it stands in the middle and has two Large Gardens on Each side. You Enter one through a Large Iron Barr-gate painted Green and gold tops and Carv'd in Severall places, this is ffine Gravel walks between grass plotts 4 Square, with 5 brass Statues Great and Small in Each square, and full of borders of flowers and Green banks with flower potts. On ye other side of ye house is just such a Garden, only the walkes are all grass rowl'd and the Squares are full of dwarfe trees, both ffruites and green, set Cross wayes wch Lookes very finely. There is a flower Garden behind ye house; in it and beyond it a Landry Close, with frames for drying of Cloths, walled in. There are good Stables and Coach house and all the offices are very Convenient – very good Cellars all arch'd, and there I dranke small beer four years old not too Stale, very Clear good Beer well brew'd. Their kitching, pastry and pantry &c all very Convenient; in ye pantry hangs a picture of ye dimentions of a large ox yt was fed in these grounds wth ye acco of its weight. Ye Quarters was 106 Stone 1£ and ye hide was 12 stone and 8 pound, the tallow was 19 stone, the head 4 stone, ye Legs and feate weigh'd 3 stone 11£. This Gentleman breeds and feeds much Cattle in his grounds and has one of ye largest Beeves in England.

his house is built with bricke and Coyn'd wth stone wth a flatt Roofe Leaded, wth railes and Barristers, and a large Cupilow in ye middle – you may see a Greate way round ye Country. Ye ffront Entrance is 3 gates of Iron Barres and spikes, painted blew with gold tops, and brick work between ye gates and pillars with stone tops Carv'd Like flower potts; ye pillars all Coyn'd with Stone. Ye Middle gate is made large in a Compass like a halfe Moone.

There are four more spaces in the wall open with Iron barres and spikes, 2 of wch are in each side into ye Gardens, and answers two Like them on the other side of the Gardens. The two other are Less and are at ye End of a terrass walk just along ye Entrance wch you ascend by Steps from the Middle gate; they are all adorned with brick pillars Coyn'd wth stone and Stone heads – these are all painted blew and gold tipps. From the Terrass you have a Court yt Leads into ye middle of ye house into a large hall; over ye doore at ye Entrance is a fine Carving of stone wth Leaves and flowers with fine stone pillars, and ye Armes Cutt finely, there is a fine dyal and Clock above all. The hall you Enter is of a very good size and height. 2 dineing roomes and drawing roomes, one for the Summer with a marble floore, 6 or 7 Chambers off a good size and lofty, so ye most of ye beds were two foote too low wch was pitty they being good beds, one was Crimson ffigured velvet, 2 damaske beds, the rest moehaire and Cambet. Ye roomes were mostly wanscoated and painted. Ye best roome was painted just like marble – few roomes were hung. The ffurniture was very neately kept and so was the whole house, the roofe of ye Staires was finely painted, there was Severall pictures but not Set up the house being in mourning for his Lady, and her mother the Lady Yorke, wch dyed in a month or two of Each other. She left Sr Edward 10 Children, he has a great state and will have the 2000 P an fall to him that is Lady Mary Ffenwichs anuity. he was a merchants son at Bristol. The house is served with water by pipes into a Cistern into ye Garden, Cellars and all offices. This was the ffinest house I saw in Yorkshire. We returned to Knarsborough 9 mile and from thence we went to York againe 12 mile, this was ye worst Rideing in Yorkshire, then we passed thro' York town by another gate towards Hull, and yt Streete was Larger and better buildings than what I saw before in Yorke, and here we pass over the muddy River, Called the muddy Ffosse. We passed over the river Derwent that runns through the middle of Derbyshire to Born Bridge 9 mile, Whitten 6 miles a Little neate Thatch'd town of a mile long where we Lay, and passed by Burlington Lord Cliffords house that stood in a bottom amongst trees and Look'd well, and they Say is well painted and good ffurniture, but I saw not ye Inside, only pass'd by it. There we had a very Large Salmon that Cost and ye sauce but 18d, it was very ffresh and good and above 3 quarters of a yard long. Thence to Beverly 9 miles wch is a very fine town for its size, its prefferable to any town I saw but Nottingham. There are 3 or 4 Large Streetes well pitch'd bigger than any in York, the other Lesser Streets about ye town being Equal with them. The Market Cross is Large, there are 3 markets, one for beasts another for Corne and another for ffish, all Large, the town is Serv'd with Water by wells walled up round or rather in a Square, above halfe ones length, and by a pully and weight letts down or draws up the Buckat wch is Chained to ye beame of ye pully. There are many of these wells in all the streetes it seemes its in Imitation of Holland, they being supply'd with water soe. The buildings are new and pretty Lofty, the Minster has been a ffine building all stone, Carv'd on the outside wth ffigures and Images, and more than 100 pedastalls that remaine where Statues has stood of angels and the like. The wood worke in the quire is very ffine. Just by the Comunion table is the Sanctuary or place of Refuge where Criminalls flee for Safety – its a Seate of Stone work Cut all in one.

Earle of Northumberland's and Lady's Monuments – his is very plaine, only a marble Stone raised up with Stone about 2 yards high; his Name, by means of his great atchievments in the Barrons warre, great Percy Earle of Northumberland, is monument Enough to posterity. His tombe was a little fallen in and a hole So bigg as many put their hands in and touch'd the body wch was much of it Entire of ye bonds; the Skull was whole and the teeth firme, tho' of so many yeares standing. The Countess's monument is very fine, its made of ye same free stone ye Church is built wth, but so finely polished yt it looks like Marble, and Carv'd wth figures, birds leaves, flowers, beasts and all sorts of things and ye armes is Cutt out in severall places all about it; the top of the arch is one Entire Stone as much as one Can Grasp and its all finely Carv'd wth all sorts of Curiosityes and adorn'd with Gilding and painting.

There are 4 good monuments all of marble of ye Wharton ffamily. In the middle of ye Church is ye tomb of St John with a brass Inscription on ye pavement, and at a little distance they shew'd us the wearing of ye pavement with ye obeisance of his votarys, this being St John of Beverly. At the End of ye Church is ye ffont, ye upper part of it, that is the bason was of one Entire marble of a Darke Coullour. Ye Cover was Carv'd Exactly and of a Piramidy fform and very high. There is another Church Called St Mary's yt is very large and good I thought that had been the Minster at first Entrance of ye town; there is the prayers Everyday and its used on all accounts and so the other is neglected. This has a quire in which they were preaching wn we were there. There is a very good free schoole for boys, they say ye best in England for Learning and Care wch makes it fill'd with Gentlemens Sons besides the free Schollars from all parts – provision being very Cheape here. I was offered a large Codffish for a shilling and good Pearch very Cheape, we had Crabbs bigger than my two hands pence apiece wch would have Cost 6 pence if not a shilling in London and they were very sweete. From thence we went to Hull 6 mile all upon a Caussey secured wth two little rivers running on Each Side wch is used to flow over their grounds it being a Great fflatt severall miles, and the meadows are Cloth'd wth good Grass by yt means. The river Hull runns from Beverly at the town End, just by ye Minster you Cross it, this runns to Hull, ye town is properly Called so from that River, but its name is Kingston on ye Hull, being built on yt River wch runns into ye Humber wch is a noble River – ye mouth of it opens just agst this town. The buildings of Hull are very neate good streets, its a good tradeing town by means of this great River Humber yt Ebbs and flows Like the Sea, and is 3 or 4 mile over at ye Least; it runns 20 mile hence into ye Sea and takes in all ye great Rivers – ye Trent Ouise, Aire, Don, ye Derwent and ye Hull, and Carries much water that a man of warre of all sorts Can Ride. I was on board a new man of warre yt belonged to the town and Called ye Kingston, it was but small, well Compact for provision and was built fit for swift saileing. The Humber is very salt, allwayes it rowles and tosses just like ye Sea, only ye soile being Clay turnes ye Water and waves yellow and soe it differs from ye Sea in Coullour, not Else – its a hazardous water by reason of many shoares ye tides meete. I was on it a pretty way and it seemes more turbulent than ye Thames at Gravesend.

We enter ye town of Hull from ye Southward over two drawbridges and gates, there is the Same Entrance in another part of ye town by 2 gates and 2 drawbridges from Holderness, and so ye ditches are round ye town to ye Landward, and they Can by them floate ye grounds for 3 mile round wch is a good ffortification. The Garrison and plattforme wch is the ffortification to ye Sea is in a very uniforme ffigure and were it ffinished is thought it would be the ffinest ffortification that Could be seen – its wall'd and pallisadoed. I walked round it, and viewed it and when I was on ye water, it seemes to runn a great Length and would require many Soldiers to deffend ye halfe moons and workes. In the town there is an hospitall yts Called ye Trinity house, for Seamens widdows, 30 is their Completmt, their allowance 16d pr weeke and ffewell, they have a little Chapple to it for prayers; over this building is a large roome for Cordage and sailes, where they make them and keep their Stores. In the middle of this roome there hangs a Canoe to ye Roofe of ye Roome just bigg Enough for one man to sit in, and the Effigie of a man that was taken wth it, all his Cloths Cap and a Large bag behind him where in his ffish and provision were, these were all made of ye skin of ffishes and were ye same wch he wore when taken, ye forme of his face is only added and just resemble ye wild man that they took, for so the Inscription Calls him, or ye bonny boate man; he was taken by Captn Baker and there are his oars and spear yt was with him – this is all written on ye boat to perpetuate ye memory of it; he would not speak any Language or word to them yt took him nor would he Eate, so in a few dayes died. There is a good large Church in Hull. You Enter a large jsle just in the Middle that runns quite aCross through the Church, and divides the body of the Church wth ye pulpet and pews on one Side with a partition of wood Carv'd, and on the other side was such another partition for ye Chancell, and I observ'd there their alter stood tablewise for ye Comunion just in the middle of ye Chancell, as it was in the primitive tymes before Popery Came in. There was Severall Little monuments of marble in ye walls. Ffrom thence to Beverly againe 6 mile wch is all a flatt, thence to Brance Burton 8 mile, all likewise on a Levell wch they Call Loughs. Here we Could get no accomodation at a Publick house, it being a Sad poore thatch'd place and only 2 or 3 Sorry Alehouses, no lodgings but at ye hall house as it was Called Where liv'd a Quaker wch were Sufficient people. The rooms were good old rooms being ye Lord of the mannours house – these were but tennants – but did Entertain us kindly, made two good beds for us and also for our Servants, and good bread and Cheese, bacon and Eggs. Thence we went to Agnes-Burton 7 mile, the miles are long and so they are in most part of these Northern County's. This is the East Rideing of Yorkshire and we saw ye Session house at Beverly for this Rideing.

Agnes Burton is a Seate of Sr Griffith Boyntons, Grandson to Sr ffrancis wch married my father's Sister one of William Lord Viscount Say and Seales Daughters.

It looks finely In the approach. A mile or two off we pass by another of his houses wch is newer built and very good Gardens, Called Barmstone, – we Eate some of ye good ffruite. The house is all built with Bricks and so good Bricke that at 100 years standing no one Brick is faulty; it stands on a pretty ascent. We Enter under a Gate-house built wth 4 large towers into a Court which is large, in ye middle is a Bowling green palisado'd round, and ye Coaches runns round it to the Entrance wch is by 10 stepps up to a Tarress, and thence a pav'd walke to ye house. Cut box and ffilleroy and Lawrell about ye Court. The ffront Looks very uniform with severall round buildings on each side answerring Each other with Compass windows, and ye middle is a Round building, and ye door Enters in in ye side of yt tower wch was ye old fashion in Building and is like my brother Say's house at Broughton.

Out of an Entry you Come into a very Lofty good hall, ye Screen at the Lower End (wch divides it from ye Entry) is ffinely Carv'd, the parlour and drawing roome are well proportion'd roomes, and ye wanscoate is all well Carv'd, ye moldings of ye doores and Chimneys are finely Carv'd wth Staggs and all sorts of beasts, woods and some leaves and flowers and birds and angells &c. There is beyond this a very good little parlour wth plaine wanscoate painted in veines like marble, dark and white Streakes. There is a very good dineing roome over this and 5 very good Chambers some well ffurnished, all very neate and Convenient wth Closetts to their own apartments and Anty roomes. There is much of ye Same ffine Carving in the dineing roome, the Chambers are all wanscoated and Carv'd, there is a noble gallery over all, with large windows on ye sides and at Each End painted very Curiously, out of wch you view the whole Country round and discover the shipps under saile though at a good distance. The Gardens are large and are Capable of being made very ffine – they now remaine in the old ffashion. There is gravell walks and grass and Close walks, there is one walke all ye Length of the Garden Called the Crooked walke, of grass well Cutt and rowled, it is indented in and out in Corners, and so is the wall wch makes you thinke you are at ye End off the walke Severall tymes before you are, by means of ye Codling hedge that is on the other side. This Leads you to a summer house that also opens to a large gravell walke that runns the breadth of ye Garden to the house ward. From Agnes Burton we went to Scarsborough 14 mile. We pass'd from this flatt to Boynton, thence ascended the wouls or high hills so Called in this County, and it prov'd misty wch made our observations to be fixed on it that the mist was thicker and more held in those high wouls as raine or mist is in thick trees, so ye mist was much more there than in ye plaine, so thick in some you Could not see the top. We descended these high wouls by a steep and hazardous precipice on one Side and ye way narrow.

Scarbrough is a very pretty Sea-port town built on the Side of a high hill. The Church Stands in the most Eminent place above all ye town and at Least 20 Steps you ascend up into ye Churchyard. The ruines of a Large Castle remaines, the Walls in Compass severall acres of ground yt feeds many beasts and milch Cows. Ye hill on wch the Castle Stands is very Steep and Severall trenches over one another, round the walls all one Side of the Castle Stands out to the sea shore a good Length. Its open to the Main ocean and to secure the harbour there is a mole or halfe moone, two, one within ye other something resembling the Cobb at Lime in Sommersetshire. The sea when the tide is in is Close up to the town and the bottom of a Ridge of hills that runns from the town 5 or 6 mile in a Compass. When its Ebb water it Leaves ye shore 400 yards all a flatt, and such good sand, as you presently walke on it without Sinking, ye Sand is so smooth and firme, and so you may walke 5 or 6 mile on the Sand round by ye ffoote of this Ridge of hills, wch is the poynt by wch all the Shipps pass that go to NewCastle or that way. I see 70 saile of shipps pass the point and so Come onward at some Distance off from the Castle, Supposed to be Colliers and their Convoys. On this Sand by the Sea shore is ye Spaw well wch people frequent, and all the diversion is ye walking on this sand twice a day at ye Ebb of the tide and till its high tide and then they drink. Its something from an Iron or Steele minerall but by means of the tide flowing on it Every tyme. Especially spring tydes it Covers ye well quite – and allwayes flowes up just to it, wch Leaves a brackish and saltness wch makes it purge pretty much, but they say ye Spring is so quick that it soone Casts off ye Sea water; but in my opinion is yt the whole spring and all the Springs that Bubble up all over the sands must be agreable and of the sort of water the sea is, being so just on the sea side and so neare must be Influenc'd by ye salt water. It seems to be a pretty turbulent Sea, I was on it in a little boate but found it very rough even just in ye harbour, I suppose the Cause may be from standing so open to ye Maine. The town has abundance of Quakers in it, most of their best Lodgings were In quakers hands, they Entertain all people, soe in Private houses in the town by way of ordinary, so much a Meale and their Ale. Every one finds themselves – there are a few Inns for horses only. I was at a quakers meeteing in the town where 4 men and 2 women spoke one, after another had done, but it seem'd such a Confusion and so inCoherent that it very much moved my Compassion and pitty to see their delusion and Ignorance and no less Excited my thankfullness for the Grace of God that upheld others from such Errors. I observ'd their prayers were all made on the first person and single, though before the body of people; it seems they allow not of ones being the mouth of ye Rest in prayer to God tho' it be in the publick meetings. In this town we had good accomodations and on very Reasonable terms. They drye a large ffish Like Codlings and salt them and when you dress them, water them; then they string them on wire, and so Rost them before the fire and make good sauce for them, they Eate very well and as tender as a fresh Codling and very sweete iff they were well cured when they were first taken, Else they will taste stronge.

Thence we went to Maulton 14 miles wch is a pretty large town built of Stone but poor; there is a large market place and severall great houses of gentlemens round the town. There was one Mr Paumes that marry'd a relation of mine Lord Ewers Coeheiress who is landlady of almost all ye town. She has a pretty house in the place. There is the ruins of a very great house wch belonged to ye family but they not agreeing about it Caused ye defaceing of it. She now makes use of ye roomes off ye outbuildings and gate house for weaving and Linning Cloth, haveing set up a manuffactory for Linnen wch does Employ many poor people. She supply'd me wth very good beer, for ye Inn had not the best. Thence to York 14 miles, and so to Tadcaster 8 mile, thence to Aberfford 4 miles all on a heavy bottom, their miles are long and I observe the ordinary people both in these parts of Yorkshire and in the northern parts Can scarce tell you how farre it is to the next place unless it be in the great towns, and there in their publick houses, and they tell you its very good yate Instead of Saying it is good way, and they Call their gates yates, and do not Esteem it uphill unless so steep as a house or precipice; they say its good levell gate all along when it maybe there are Severall great hills to pass, but this account did Encrease on us the nearer we Came to Darbyshire, but in Generall they Live much at home and scarce Ever go 2 or 10 mile from thence Especially the women, so may be term'd good housekeepers. To Aberford we Came by severall pretty Seates in view, we Lay at an acquaintances house Mrs Hickeringalls: thence we went to Castleton Bridge 5 mile, where was a glass house; we saw them blowing white glass and neale it in a large oven by the heate of ye ffurnace. All the Country is full of Coale and the pitts are so thick in ye roade that it is hazardous to travell for strangers.

Thence to Pomffret 3 miles wch Looks very finely in the approach. Its built on a hill all of stone, its a very neate building and ye streets well pitch'd and broad, the houses well built and looks more stately than any in York, only its not the tenth part so bigg, its a neate little town as I have seen. there are severall very good houses in it, one Doctr Burgess has built a very good house wch is Call'd his ffolly. There is a noble house at the Entrance of the town of ye Lady Grace Perpoynt, and good Parke Gardens and walks and a great revenue belonging to it, – the Daughter of the Marquis of Dorchesters. There is a ffine Church in the town and as spacious a market place as is at Salisbury or as you shall see any where, and the building so Even and uniforme as well as Lofty that it appears very magnificent – its a Major town. We were in the Chief Inn the Sunn, tho' there are many good Inns, but this was a very good Genteel jnn and it happen'd the Landlord was then Major of ye town.

Provisions are very Easy here, we had 2 or 3 pound of Codffish for a small matter and it was a Large dish. Ye town is full of Great Gardens walled in all round on ye outside of the town, on the Edge of ye hill so the Gardens runns down a great way, you descend with them by severall stepps. Its a fruitfull place, fine flowers and trees with all sorts of fruite, but that wch is mostly jntended is the Encreasing of Liquorish wch ye Gardens are all filled with, and any body that has a Little ground improves it for the produce of Liquorish of wch there is vast quantetyes, and it returns severall 100 pounds yearly to the towns. The Leafe is not much unlike a Rose Leafe but some wt narrower and Longer, the Coullour is something a Yellower Green, Else the branches grow Like it wth double Leaves on a Stalke and severall all down ye Stalke, somewhat in the manner of Caliceily or Solomons Seale and much of that smoothness of Leafe. Thence to Hemsworth 4 mile where we Could meet wth no Lodging, only Little ale houses to give one a pot of beere, and so we went 2 mile ffarther but found it ye same and it being too farre to reach Rotheram we made use of ye hospitallity of a Clergyman one Mr Fferrer wch was a very Genteele man and gave us a Civil Entertainmt and good beds – he has a very good house and Genteely ffitted good Hall and parlour, and the Garden very neate. Its a very ffruitfull Country wch Encourages jndustry and there is plenty of Stone Like free Stone wch makes ffine houses and walls. Thence to Rotheram 12 miles, its most in a deep Clay ground and now the wayes are more difficult and narrow. Rotheram is a good market town well built all of stone. The Church stands high in ye middle of the town and Looks finely, its all Stone and Carv'd very well all the out side. Thence to Ackington 8 mile, a very Little place its 3 mile from Shellton town, but that was thought out of our way, so we Lay here in a poor Sorry Inn. There was one good bed for us Gentlewomen. Its a pretty Long Parish and through it runns a Water which Came down a great banck at the End of ye town like a precipice with such violence yt it makes a great noise, and looks Extreamely Cleare in the Streame that gushes out and runns along: it runns on off a deep yellow Coullour, they say it runns off of a poisonous mine or Soile and from Coale pitts; they permit none to taste it for I sent for a Cup of it and ye people in ye Streete Call'd out to forbid ye tasteing it, and it will beare no Soape so its useless. Here we Entred Darbyshire and went to Chesterffield 6 mile, and Came by ye Coale mines where they were digging. They make their mines at ye Entrance Like a Well and so till they Come to ye Coale, then they digg all the Ground about where there is Coale and set pillars to support it, and so bring it to ye well where by a basket Like a hand barrow by Cords they pull it up – so they Let down and up the miners with a Cord. Chesterffield Looks Low when you approach it from the Adjacent hill wch you descend, but then you ascend another to it. The Coale pitts and quaraes of stone are all about, Even just at ye town End, and in the town its all built of stone. Ye Church stands in a place of Eminency, the town Looks well, the Streets good, ye Market very Large. It was Satturday wch is their market day and there was a great Market Like some little ffaire, a great deale of Corne and all sorts of ware and ffowles there. I bought my self 2 very good ffatt white (pullings as they Call them) pullets for 6 pence both, and I am sure they were as Large and as good as would have Cost 18 pence if not 2 shills a piece in London – so said all my Company. In this town is ye best ale in the Kingdom Generally Esteem'd. All Derbyshire is full of Steep hills and nothing but the peakes of hills as thick one by another is seen in most of ye County wch are very steepe, wch makes travelling tedious and ye miles Long. You see neither hedge nor tree but only Low drye stone walls round some ground Else its only hills and Dales as thick as you Can Imagine, but tho' the Surface of ye Earth Looks barren yet those hills are impregnated wth Rich marble stone metals, Iron and Copper and Coale mines in their bowells, from whence we may see the wisdom and benignitye of oer greate Creator to make up the Defficiency of a place by an Equivolent, and also the diversity of the Creation wch Encreaseth its Beauty. We go from Chesterffield to ye Duke of Devonshires house and ascend a high hill at Least two or three miles Long, we pass'd by a Cavity in one great Banck or Rock Called Stonidge Hall all stone of about 12 yards long and about 4 or 5 broad, its all Rock like an arch on ye Roofe but its not ffenc'd so but ye beasts trample and ffowle it you Can scarce go into it. The same long steep hill we had to descend wch Comes to Chattsworth ten mile. The Duke's house Lyes just at ye foote of this steepe hill wch is like a precipice just at ye Last, notwithstanding the Dukes house stands on a little riseing ground from ye River Derwent wch runns all along ye front of ye house, and by a Little fall made in ye water wch makes a pretty Murmurring noise. Before ye gate there is a Large parke and Severall ffine Gardens one wth out another wth Gravell walkes and Squairs of Grass wth stone statues in them, and in ye middle of Each Garden is a Large ffountaine full of Images, sea gods and Dolphins and sea horses wch are full of pipes wch spout out water in the bason and spouts all about the Gardens. 3 gardens just round the house. Out of two of ye Gardens you ascend by Severall Stepps into other Gardens wch some have Gravell walks and squares Like ye other wth Statues and Images in the bason. There is one bason in the Middle of one Garden thats very Large and by sluces besides the Images Severall pipes plays out ye water – about 30 Large and small pipes altogether, some fflush it up that it ffrothes Like snow. There is one Garden full of stone and brass statues. So the Gardens Lyes one above another wch makes the prospect very fine. Above these gardens is an ascent of 5 or 6 stepps up to green walk and groves of firrs and a wilderness and Close arbours and shady walks. On Each End of one Walke stands two piramidies full of pipes spouting water that runns down one of them – runns on brass hollow work wch looks like rocks and hollow stones.

Ye other is all fflatts, stands one above another like Salvers so the water rebounds one from another 5 or 6 one above the Other. There is another green walke and about ye Middle of it by ye Grove stands a fine Willow tree, the Leaves, Barke and all looks very naturall, ye roote is full of rubbish or great stones to appearance and all on a Sudden by turning a sluce it raines from Each Leafe and from the branches like a shower, it being made of Brass and pipes to Each Leafe, but in appearance is Exactly like any Willow. Beyond this is a bason in wch are ye branches of two Artichock Leaves wch weeps at ye End of Each Leafe into the bason wch is placed at ye foote of Lead steps 30 in number. The Lowest step is very deep, and between Every 4 stepps is a half pace all made of Lead and are broad on Each side. On a little banck stands blew balls 10 on a side, and between Each ball are 4 pipes wch by a sluce spouts out water aCross ye stepps to Each other like an arbour or arch. While you are thus amused suddenly there runs down a torrent of water out of 2 pitchers in ye hands of two Large nimphs Cut in stone that Lyes in the upper step wch makes a pleaseing prospect. This is designed to be Enlarged and Steps made up to ye top of ye hill wch is a vast ascent, but ffrom ye top of it now they are Supply'd wth water for all their pipes so it will be the Easyer to have such a fall of water Even from ye top wch will add to the Curiositye. The house is built all of Stone yt is dugg out of the hills, its like free stone – a flatt Roofe wth Barristers and flower potts. In the ffront is 7 large windows, the glass is diamond Cutt and all off large Looking glass, ye panes bigg 4 in a breadth 7 in height, to the Garden ward was 12 windows of ye same glass 4 panes broad 8 long, ye Lowest windows are made wth Grates before them and are for birds – an Averye – and so looking glass behind. Ye stepps out of ye Garden are on Either side 20 steps and Iron barrs painted blew and tipt wth gold. Ye steps meete on ye top in a halfe pace railed ye same, but ye front entrance is not finished; there is a large Court wch is to be pas'd and so stepps on Each side of stone wth half paces up to a tarrass walke. Ye large gates of jron barrs are 3 at ye Court and from this tarress you Enter. The ffront is wth Severall Large stone pillars Carv'd, at ye Entrance into another Court wch ye house is built about, and here are peaso's supported wth stone pillars, under wch you pass from one place to another. Out of it is ye Chappel wch is a very lofty building and supported by 4 large pillars of black marble, two at ye alter, 2 just at ye bottom to support ye gallery for ye Duke and Dutches to sitt in. Ye pillars are 14 foote, and so bigg that I could not Compass one wth my arms. These 4 and 2 stepps by ye alter was made out of one stone Cut out of ye hill just by, so is all ye marble about the house and so finely polish'd like a Looking glass; the pavemt is black and white marble vein'd, Lay'd long wayes in large stones all of ye same. Ye painting is very fine, on the top and on the sides ye history of Christ and ye New testament. There is a very fine Carving of wood and Stone, the Dove at the alter ye Angels and Cherubims wth flowers, Leaves Laurell &c. &c. very Curiously Carv'd. The hall is very Lofty, painted top and Sides with armory and there is 18 steps on Each side goes up as an arch, wth Iron Barristers tipt wth gold wch Meetes on ye top Large steps of stone. Thence you Enter a dineing roome, two drawing roomes, a bed Chamber and Closet wch opens quite thro' the house a visto, and at the End of the dineing roome is a Large door all of Looking glass in great pannells all diamond Cutt. This is just opposite to ye doores that runs into ye drawing roome and bed Chamber and Closet so it shews ye roomes to Look all double. Ye ffloores of ye Roomes are all finely Inlaid, there is very Curious Carving over and Round the Chimney pieces, and Round the Looking-glasses that are in ye peers between the windows, and fine Carv'd shelves or stands on Each side of ye glass. Every roome is differing work and all fine Carving and over ye doores some of it is of ye Natural Coullr of ye wood and varnish'd only – others painted. Ye Dutchess's Closet is wanscoated wth ye hollow burnt japan, and at Each Corner are peers of Looking glass; over the Chimney is Looking glass an oval and at the 4 Corners after this figure
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and hollow Carving all round ye glass. The roomes are all painted very finely on ye top; all ye windows ye Squares of glass are so large and good they Cost 10s. a pannell. There was sweete tapistry hangings with small figures and very much silk, they Look'd as ffresh as if new tho' bought severall yeares – there were no beds up. There was as many roomes on the other side wch were not ffinished, they were just painting ye Ceilings and Laying the floores wch are all jnlaid, these were the Duke and dutchess's apartmts besides which are a great number of roomes and severall offices. There is a fine Grottoe all stone pavement Roofe and sides, this is design'd to supply all ye house wth water besides severall ffanceyes to make diversion. Within this is a batheing roome, ye walls all wth blew and white marble – the pavement mix'd, one stone white, another black, another of ye Red vaned marble. The bath is one Entire marble all white finely veined wth blew and is made smooth, but had it been as finely pollish'd as some it would have been the finest marble that Could be seen. It was as deep as ones middle on the outside, and you went down steps into ye bath big enough for two people. At ye upper End are two Cocks to let in one hott, ye other Cold water to attemper it as persons please – the Windows are all private Glass. The Gallery we ascended out of ye hall into before we Came to ye dineing roome, wch I should have spoken off then, was delicately painted over head, and Round on the top was a raile and Barristers so naturally drawn just round the Cornish, that you would take it for a Railed walke round ye top to looke down into the gallery. There is another ffine staircase all stone and hangs on it self on ye outside, ye support is from ye wall and its own building. Ye stone of ye half paces are large and one Entire stone makes Each. On the top of ye Staires ye space Leading to ye roomes are 3 large Stones, the Stones Cost 20£ a piece, so large and thick you would wonder how they should be raised up so high and be supported by its own arch without any pillars on ye outside. This is all of Stone Cut out of ye hills wch Looks like what we Call free stone. Ye house is all off the same and all the marble in ye Windows, Chimneys and pavements is all marble dug out of the hill above the house, both black, white rance, and Curiously veined and polished, so fine as any I ever saw wch Came from beyond sea. Thence we came to Bankwell a pretty neate market town 2 mile; it Stands on a hill, yet you descend a vast hill to it wch you would thinke impossible to go down, and we was forced to fetch a Great Compass, and by reason of ye steepness and hazard of ye wayes if you take a wrong Way there is no passing. You are forced to have guides as in all parts of Darbyshire, and unless it be a few yt use to be guides ye Common people know not above 2 or 3 mile from their home, but they of ye Country will Climbe up and down wth their horses those steep precipices. There are many fine springs of water purling out of ye Rock on these hills. At Bankwell there was an Excellent Minister in ye Publick who pray'd and preach'd very seriously and his Life and Conversation is suitable, not very frequent in our dayes to be found.

We went 3 mile off in the afternoone to heare another yt was in a meeteing and so 3 mile home againe. Ye hills about ye town and all about ye town is rocks of ye finest marble of all sorts – huge Rock. I took some of it and shewing it to severall they think it Comparable to any beyond sea. Thence to Haddon Hall for so all ye great houses are called, as Chatsworth Hall, so this Haddon Hall the Earle of Rutlands house 2 mile from Bankwell; its a good old house all built of stone on a hill and behind it is a ffine grove of high trees and good Gardens, but nothing very Curious as ye mode now is. There is a large Parke upon a great ascent from ye house which is built round a Court, ye parke is one part of some of ye highest hills wch gives a great prospect over ye Country. But Indeed all Darbyshire is but a world of peaked hills, which from some of ye highest you discover ye Rest Like steeples or tops of hills as thick as Can be, and tho' they appear so Close yet ye steepness down and up takes up ye tyme, yt you go it as if so many Miles, and were ye ground measur'd would be in Length as much as miles on a plaine. Thence to Buxton 9 mile over those Craggy hills Whose Bowells are full of mines of all kinds off Black and white and veined Marbles, and some have mines of Copper, others tinn and Leaden mines, in wch is a great deale of silver. I have some wch Looks full of silver, its so bright just brought up out of one of ye mines. They digg down their mines Like a well for one man to be let down wth a Rope and pulley, and so when they find oar they keep digging under ground to follow the oar wch lies amongst the stone yt Lookes like our fine stones. In yt mine I saw there was 3 or 4 at work and all let down thro' ye well; they digg sometymes a great way before they Come to oar. There is also a sort of stuff they dig out mixt wth ye oar and all about the hills they Call Sparr, it looks like Crystal or white sugar Candy, its pretty hard; ye doctors use it in medicine for the Collick; its smooth like glass but it looks all in Crack's all over. They Wall round the Wells to ye mines to Secure their Mold'ring in upon them, they Generally Look very pale and yellow that work Underground, they are fforc'd to keep Lights wth them and sometymes are forced to use Gunpowder to break ye stones, and yt is sometymes Hazardous to the people and destroys them at ye work. Its very difficult to find the Wayes here for you see only tops of hills and so many roads – by reason of ye best wayes up and down – that its impossible for Coach or Waggon to pass some of ym, and you scarce see a tree and No hedges all over ye Country, only dry stone walls yt incloses ground no other ffence. Buxton we Saw 2 or 3 tymes and then Lost ye sight of it as often, and at last did not See it till just you Came upon it – that 9 mile we were above 6 hours going it. The house thats Call'd Buxton Hall wch belongs to ye Duke of Devonshire its where the warme bath is and well, its the Largest house in the place tho' not very good; they are all Entertaining houses and its by way of an ordinary – so much a piece for yr dinners and suppers and so much for our Servants besides; all ye ale and wine is to be paid – besides, the beer they allow at the meales is so bad yt very Little Can be dranke. You pay not for yr bed roome and truely the other is so unreasonable a price and ye Lodgings so bad, 2 beds in a Roome some 3 beds and 4 in one roome, so that if you have not Company Enough of your own to fill a Room they will be ready to put others into the same Chamber, and sometymes they are so Crowded that three must Lye in a bed. Few people stay above two or three nights its so Inconvenient. We staid two nights by reason one of our Company was ill, but it was sore against our Wills for there is no peace nor quiet with one Company and another going into the bath or Coming out; that makes so many strive to be in this house because the bath is in it. Its about 40 foot Long and about 20 or 30 ffoote broad being almost square. There is 10 or 12 springs that bubble up that are a Little warme, its not so warme as milke from ye Cow, and not a quick spring, so yt its not Capable of being Cleansed after Everybody has been in. Its warme Enough just to Open the pores of ones body, but not to Cause sweat, I was in it and it made me shake, its farre from the heate that is in the Somersetshire baths. Its Cover'd over the top, but not Ceiled and there is an open place in the middle like a Tunnell wch pours the Cold down on ye head, it would in my thoughts be better if it were Exposed all to ye aire and sunn. There is a pavemt of Stone on one side at ye brim to walke on, with benches of Stone to Sitt on. You must have a guide yt Swims with you, you may Stand in some place and hold by a Chaine and ye water is not above yr Neck, but in other parts very deep and strong it will turn you down. About 10 or 12 yards distant is a spring Called St Anns Well wch is for drinking, they have arch'd it up yt its much hotter, it heates ye Cup you take it up in but not or near so hot as ye Somersetshire baths and springs are, the taste is not unpleasant but Rather like Milk, they say its Diaretick – I dranke a part of a Cup full.

Another wonder is that of Pooles hole, thats just at ye towns End, a Large Cavity under ground of a Great Length. Just at the Entrance you must Creep, but presently you stand upright, its Roofe being very Lofty all arched in the Rocks and sound with a great Ecchoe. Ye Rocks are Continually droping water all about, you pass over Loose stones and Craggy Rocks. The dripping of the water wears impression on ye Stones that forms them into Severall Shapes, there is one Looks Like a Lyon wth a Crown on his head, ye water trickling on it weares it into so many shapes; another place Lookes just Like ye shape of a Large organ wth ye severall Keys and pipes one above another as you see in a great Cathedrall; there is also a Stone wch Looks white and in shape Like a salted flitch of Bacon wch hangs down from the Roofe of ye Arch wch is very Lofty in this place. There is another Rock Looks like a Chaire of State wth ye Canopy and all glistring like diamonds or starrs; thus does all ye sides of the Rock all shine Like Diamonds. Ye Rocks are very Large and Craggy and Indented, some Looks like ye outsides of Cockle shells, others are smooth all Caused I believe from ye dripping of ye Water. I was as farre as ye Queen of Scotts pillar, wch is a Large white stone, and ye top hangs over your head Like a Cannopy all great white Stones and in spires or Large jceickles and glistring as the other. They may go farther but I had no such Curiosity, I had ye Light Carry'd that shewed me to St Anns Needle after wch is only sand. This white stone is very Like Chrystall of wch there is a stone Like a Bason or Large ffont wherein drops Continually ye water wch runns over and trickling down does as it were Candy in jceickles and points, under wch is a pillar of this white stone. We had some broken off which Looks like ye jnsides of oystershells or mother of pearle, some Looks like alabaster. As I went I Clamber'd over the top of all ye stones and as I Came back I pass'd under severall of ye arches Like bridges; they are both wayes full of Loose stones and the water dropping makes them slippery, it being also very uneven by reason of ye Craggs. How it should Come none Can give any good acco; its Call'd Pooles hole from a man of that name that was a Robber and use to secure himself in yt place like a house, and so ye Country people imagined he made it, but some think it was dug to find mines or marble or Chrystal because ye mettle mines are full of stone as I sd before; only this Enters in ye side whereas the mines they make now are as a well perpendicular for severall yards before it spreads, and yt not till they Come to find metal, but ye difficulty appears as to this hole how so large a Cavity should be Left, as in some places ye Roofe is as lofty as you can see and all stone; now how it should be fixt so as not to tumble in by ye weight of ye Earth or stone on ye top: as to ye waters dropping yt is but what is Customary among rocks and stones, there are many springs wch run in ye veines of ye Earth and allwayes are running in such subteraneus vaults in the Earth, wch gather together and runns in a little Channell in ye bottom of this Cave as you may step one. The 4th wonder is that off Elden hole about 2 mile from Buxton; its on ye side of a hill about 30 yards if not better in length at ye brimm, and half so broad, and just in sight is full of Craggy stones like a Rock for about 2 or 3 yards down, wch Contracts the Mouth of ye hole to about 4 yards long and 2 broad or thereabouts; wch hole is Suppos'd to run down directly a vast length and has been try'd wth a Line and plummet severall fathom and the bottom not Sounded, tho' some are of opinion its because the hole runns aslant so the plummet and Line Could not pass, and what we observ'd gives some strength to this notion, for Cast a stone down you hear it Strike a long tyme at the sides of ye hole, and if you go down below 100 yds or more and Lay yr head to the ground you shall hear the stone ring Much longer than those that stand at the holes mouth, wch must discover ye ground to be hollow at Least much farther in Compass than the mouth of ye hole, but its Certain it must be of a great depth by reason of the tyme you Can hear a stone strike and ring in its descending, and yt which Lessens the sound may be by its breaking against the sides. Its a very hazardous place, for if a man or beast be too near the Edge of ye bank and trip they fall in wth out retrieve. Ye beasts graze in the Grounds and hills but it must be some great force that drives them near the hole; there is a sort of instinct in Nature, self preservation and a great sence of danger in beasts; its reported that severall Attempts have been made to ffence the whole round wth a stone Wall as the manner of the fences are all over yt Country, but yet it has been all in vaine. What they built up in the day would be pull'd down in ye night and so its vaine to trye ye securing it round from any falling in – this the people tell us. The Country here about is so full of moore or quagmires and such precipices that one that is a stranger Cannot travell wth out a guide, and some of them are put to a Loss sometymes.

The fifth wonder is Mamtour wch is a high hill that Looks Exactly round, but on the side next Castleton wch is a Little town in the High Peake on that side its all broken that it Looks just in resemblance as a great Hay-Ricke yts Cut down one halfe on one side – that describes it most naturall. This is all sand, and on that broken side the sand keeps trickling down allwayes Especially when there is the Least wind of wch I believe this Country scarce Ever is wth out; many places of the hill Looks hollow and Loose wch makes it very dangerous to ascend and none does attempt it, ye sand being Loose slips ye foote back againe.

The 6th wonder is at Casleton 4 mile from Elderhole; its a town Lyes at ye foote of an Exceeding steep hill wch Could not be descended by foote or horse, but in a Compass and yt by ye Roads returning to and agen on ye side of ye hill at Least 4 tymes before we Could gaine ye bottom or top of sd Hill. This is wch they Call the Devills Arse a peake, the hill on one End jutting out in two parts and joyns in one at ye top, this part or Cleft between you Enter a great Cave wch is very Large, and severall poor Little houses in it built of Stone and thatch'd Like Little Styes, one seemed a Little bigger in which a Gentleman Liv'd and his wife yt was worth above 100£ a year wch he left to his brother, Chooseing rather Like a hermite to Live in this sorry Cell. One Mr Midleton who was wth us sd he had dined wth them there on Carrots and Herbs, and yt he was dead and his wife a year or two since. Now none but very poor people Live there wch makes some small advantage by begging and by Lighting the strangers into the Cave wch beyond this you Enter so straight a passage. At the mouth you stoop very Low Even upon yr Breast and Creep in, when you are about a yard or two's Length you stand upright, it being Lofty in manner of Poole's Hole only the Rock hangs down in so many places that there is often Cause of Stooping very Low to pass by ym, and here ye ground you tread on is all sand and firme, only ye Rocks do drip water in many places wch makes it damp and strikes Cold to you, but Excepting the pillars of Rock in some places that hang down ye most of it is very Lofty and a great Ecchoe like a Church. You pass a good way by ye Light of many Candles haveing Lost ye sight of day from ye first stooping Entrance. At Last you Come to a river they Call it, a great water it is and very deep, they say its about 12 yards over and some do go on it wth a Little boate to ye other side but I would not venture. There was one Gentlewoman in our Company sd she had once been Carry'd over on 2 mens shoulders, but they waded above their waste in water, so I would not be for so dangerous I was sure it was a difficult Enterprise, and when you are over yt side they go over but such places as was pass'd before wch Leads to another such a water wch some men have pass'd over and so have gone on to a third water, but there ye Rocks hung so Low as almost to touch ye water wch hindred their proceeding. That water I saw was strange, so deep and large and look'd like a standing water but whether it were or not Could not tell, no Doubt but it has a passage thro' the veines of ye Earth or Else would swell so as to Cause a bursting out of ye Earth – it seemed to have a motion wth it. All these things shewes the great wisdom and power of our blessed Creator to make and maintaine all things within its own Bounds and Limits wch have a tendency to worke out ruine to ye whole frame of ye world if not bridled by Gods Command.

The seventh wonder is a flowing and Ebbing Well between this town and Buxton wch Ceases its miraculous motion but on Great raines which Raises the springs, and then, the man wch was wth us told me he had seen it severall tymes in ye winter when ye springs were high to Ebb and flow severall tymes in a hour, wch appear'd by ye Rise and fall of ye water from ye Edge of ye well, and the man seem'd to be a good sober man, Mr Middleton it was, so that its Likely when the springs are high the water from the sea may have a quicker flux and Reflux thro' the Channells of ye Earth, but this is a good distance from ye sea or Ebbing and flowing Rivers.

From Castleton to Buxton is 6 mile, but they are very long. You might go 10 of miles near London as soon as you are going halfe so many here.

Thence we went to Ashburn 16 miles where I saw some of their Copper mines where they dig them like a well, but secure ye side wth wood and turffe bound wth ye wood like Laths or frames aCross and long wayes to secure it. This is a pretty neate market town; thence to Uxeter 8 mile, and we Cross a River on a long Bridge and so we enter Staffordshire wch has quite a different soyle, sand and gravell and some Clay, and very pretty sort of pebbles in the ground – some of a bright green like an Emerald, others vein'd, some Clear like Christall. This Country is well wooded and full of Enclosures, good Rich Ground, is Extreamely differing from Darbyshire. Just before we Came to Uxeter we pass by a very Exact house and Gardens of one Mr Cotten a justice of peace, its Brick and Coyn'd wth stone, the Gardens or Courts very Compleate, but it stands in a Low moorish ground to show this worlds good is not perfect but has its foule as well as faire Side and with all its Conveniency's Must Labour under some difficultyes. We pass thro' a deep and Long water just by, but ye bottom was hard gravell, this supply's severall mills wch are used for their prepareing ye metal they take out of ye mines. I had a piece of Copper given me by One of ye managers of ym.

Thence we Came to Woolsley 7 mile, to a Relations house Sr Charles Woolsley whose Lady was my Aunt, where we dined. Ye house stands in a fine parke; ye house is an old building and but Low, its built round a Court: there is a Large Lofty hall in ye Old fashion, a dineing and drawing roome on ye one hand, and a little parlour on the other, the best roomes were newer built wth Chambers over them, and a very good staircase well wanscoated and Carv'd wth good pictures. Ye Rest of the house is all old and Low and must be new built. Ye Gardens are good, both gravell and Green walks; there is a good River runns by it wch has dwarfe trees and honysuckles and binds on the Bancks, there is a great deale of good fruite and there are severall walks, one shady wth high trees wch my Aunt told me my mother liked to walke in and so was Call'd her walke. I eate a sort of flatt strawbery like a button, wch grew in a second Crop from ye same strawberys Roote wch produces its first Crop a sort of Large garden Strawberries and this sort afterwards. In this Country they burn all this tyme of ye year July, their ffern and make ye ashes up in balls and so keep to make Lye for driveing their Ruck of Cloth's wch whitens them much. Not farre from hence they have ye mines of the fine sort of Coale that is hard and will be pollished like black marble, for salts or boxes or such Like, ye only difference it will not bear ye fire as marble does, Else it resembles it very much; there were of these mines just by but now they have Come to ye End of this veine and so there is none within 6 or 7 mile.

This is ye pitt Coale, yts Cloven and burns Like a Candle, and makes white ashes Like ye Scotch-Coale. Ye same sort is in Nottinghamshire. From hence we went to Litchfield 7 mile, a sandy Road full of fine pebbles; Litchfield stands Low, there is a greate standing water as I have seen just by ye town, wch does often flow ye grounds after Raines, so the Road is secured wth a banck and a breast wall of a good Length into ye town – as a Long Causy or bridge ye Road is, and there are some few Arches here and there to Carry off ye water. Ye water has very good ffish in it but it must be muddy; its the privilege of ye Magistrates only to have fishing or to go about it wth a little boate. The town has good houses, ye Close has ye Bishops and Deanes and prebends houses wch are good; the streetes are very neate and handsome, ye Breadth and length very well and the building handsome. The minster is a stately structure but old, ye outside has been finely Carv'd and full of Images as appears by the nitches and pedistalls wch remaine very Close all over the walls, and still just at ye front remaines some Statues of ye Kings of Jerusalem and some angels and Cherubims. At ye door is a Large statue of King Charles ye Second, and all about ye door is fine Carving of flowers Leaves, birds and beasts and some saints and apostles statues. The Inside of ye Church is very neate being new but there is but Little painting; there are two Quires, one old one wth organs and seates, ye other new wch is very Large wth Organs and fine Carving in ye wood; here are 2 organs. There is a painting over the Communion table of peach Collour satten Like a Cannopy wth gold fringe, and its drawn so well that it lookes like a Reall Cannopy. There is some remaines of a Castle, ye walls and some of the towers remaine. The wall that Encompasses ye town is what Encompasses the Church and goes from thence.

We went thence to Colehill 12 mile, and pass'd by severall good houses. Here I saw ye way of makeing Runnet as they do in Cheshire – they take ye Reed bag and Curd and haveing washed it Clean, salt it and breake ye Curd small about ye bag, so drye them, being stretch'd out with sticks like a glove, and so hang them in a Chimney till you need it, then Cut a piece off this as big as halfe a Crown and boyle it in a little water wch water will turn ye milke better than any made runnet and its freshe. This is a pretty little market town and stands on a hill.

Thence to Coventry all on a Levell 8 mile. I Came by severall pretty seates, one on the Left hand of Sr Andrew Hacket stands in a parke and good gardens walled in, and on the Right hand we Came Close to a very pretty new built house wth severall Rows of firrs, the outward Court Came in a Compass wth open Barrgates just to the Road, and a brick bridge from the Court at one side quite Cross ye highway: we drove under it wch Leads to a parke that runs along on the other hand. The house was brick and Coyn'd with stone and the windows the same, 8 windows in the front and ye Lawrells and greens look'd very pretty. Coventry stands on the side of a pretty high hill and as you approach it from the adjacent hill you have the full prospect. The spire and steeple of one of the Churches is very high and is thought the third highest in England. In the same Church yard stands another large Church wch is something unusuall two such great Churches together; their towers and the Rest of ye Churches and high buildings make the town appear very fine, the streetes are broad and very well pitch'd wth small stone. The Cross is noted and ye finest building in England for such a thing, and in my phancy it very much resembles ye picture of ye tower of Babel, its all stone Carv'd very Curiously, and there are 4 divisions Each being less than another to ye top, and so its Piramidy forme. In Each partition is severall nitches for statues quite round it where are kings and queens, and just on Each side before Each statute is their arms and ye arms of England and the arms of ye town, and so its adorn'd wth Coullours and gilding in their proper places as in the garments and Crowns or Coronets, and finely Carv'd wth angels and Cherubims and all sorts of beasts, Birds, flowers in garlands, and Leaves – this in Every division; there is variety quite up to the top wch is finely Carv'd and Gilt. This is ye biggest place in ye town, and ye streete very broad and runs off a great length, and most of ye streetes are very good. Ye buildings are mostly of timber work and old. There is a water house at the End of ye town wch from springs does supply by pipes ye whole town wth water in ye manner that London is. There is also a water wch serves severall mills yt belong to the town; it seems to be a thriveing good trading town and is very Rich. They have a great publick stock belonging to ye Corporation above 3 thousand pound a year for publick schooles, Charity and ye maintenance of their severall publick Expences, of their Magistrates and Companyes, the majority of the heads are now in ye sober men, so its Esteem'd a ffanatick town, and there is Indeed the largest Chapple and ye greatest number of people I have ever seen of ye Presbiterian way. There is another meeteing place in ye town of ye Independants wch is nott so bigg, but tho' they may differ in some small things, in ye maine they agree and seeme to Love one another wch was no small sattisfaction to me, Charity and Love to ye brethren being ye Characteristicall marke of Christs true Disciples.

Coventry has one thing remains Remarkable not to be omitted, the statue of a man Looking out of a window wth his Eyes out, and is a monument as history tells us of some priviledges obtein'd by a Lady wife, to the nobleman who was lord of ye town, and she was to purchase them by passing on horse back through ye town naked wch he thought she would not do, but out of zeale to relieve ye town from some hard bondage she did, and Commanded all windows and doores to be shutt and none to appear in the streete on pain of death wch was obey'd by all; but one man would open a window and Looke out and for his impudence had this judgment on him to be struck blind; this statute is his resemblance and one day in a year they Remember ye good Lady by some rejoyceing. There are severall good walks about ye town, and a large parke above ye town wch most people walk in: thence we went to Warwick. Coventry is joyn'd to Litchfield under one Bishop and yt wch I wonder at that the Bishop and most of ye dignatorys and abundance of Gentry Rather Chooses to Live at and near all about Litchfield tho' it stands so low and waterish, than at Coventry wch is a pleasanter scituation and better buildings. There is Sr Tho: Nortons house at ye end of ye town and a large parke. From Coventry to Warwick going about to see an acquaintance of our Company we made it 10 mile, and went in sight of ye Lord Liegh on ye Left hand, wch Lay all along by ye River Aven; it stands Low very well wooded.

We ascended a very steep hill to take a view of ye Country and so Could see Coventry, and were just by Hillingworth Castle on ye Right hand – much of ye Ruines of ye walls remaine still – and so Enter Warwickshire. The town of Warwick by means of a sad fire about 4 or 5 years since yt Laid ye greatest part in ashes, its most now new built, wch is wth brick and Coyn'd wth stone and ye windows ye same. There still remaines some few houses of ye old town wch are all built of stone. Ye streetes are very handsome and ye buildings Regular and fine, not very Lofty being Limited by act of partliamt to such a pitch and size to build ye town. Ye ruines of ye Church still remaines, ye repairing of which is ye next worke design'd; Ye Chancell stands still in wch was all the fine monuments yt were preserv'd from the fire; there is one monument of ye great Earle of Leisters and his Ladyes in stone Curiously wrought, wth their Garments, and painted and Gilded. There is another in marble of ye Earle of Warwick, ye statue Cut very finely, ye face hands and forme very Lively, and under his head is a Role of Straw matting as you would suppose being Exceeding naturall Cut in Stone. In ye middle stands ye monument of ye Earle yt was regent in Ffrance and dyed there and was brought and buried here, his statue at Length in armour, but ye Lines of his face and hands wth ye veines and sinews were so finely Cast and ye very aire of his Countenance much to ye Life or Like a Liveing man all Cast brass and Burnish'd very delicately yt it Looks like Gold, all his armour very Exact and his arms are Cut finely at his head, and supporters at his feete, wth ffigures and Images to adorne it; round the tombstone on ye one side and Each End is 4: and 2 y – at the End statues of ye great men yt were of his family, sons and Grand-Children, and on the other side are 4 Ladies of the family all Cast in the same Burnish'd Brass; they are in little and all in Religious habits wch formerly in ye tymes of popery and superstition most persons Coveted to dye in; their garments are folded in differing shapes and wth many wrinklings and gathers wch is very exact and ye more to be noted being all in such a stiff mettle as Brass and yet it Lookes Easye and natural. On ye other side ye Church in a little Chapple is a Large monument of Black and White Marble in manner of a bed wth pillars, and its grated round – the pillars black marble – of some Nobleman wth a Large Inscription round it, and one thing is noted of him there that he thought it his greatest Character to be Esteem'd a great ffriend and Companion of Sr Philip Sidney's wch is but of poor availe to him now dead if he was not ye friend of ye great Jehovah – but such is ye folly and vanity of ye most of ye world to be in Esteeme wth ye wise and great men of this world. There is delicate Carving about ye walls and round ye windows in stone all manner of Birds beasts, Laurells flowers &c &c, and Cherubims, and Gilded and painted in severall parts. Warwick Castle is a stately building, its now the Lord Brooke's house. You Enter thro' two Large Courts into a noble Hall wanscoated, wth in it is a Large parlour all wanscoated wth Cedar, wch is full of fine pictures of the family and beyond that is a drawing roome and bed Chamber wth good tapistry hangings; they are old but so good worke and so beautifull the Coullours still, you would admire it, and the worke so Curious all of silk that ye very postures and faces Look Extreame lively and naturall, and the groves streames and Rivers Look's very well on it. There was good velvet Chaires in ye roomes and good Pictures. Within ye bed Chamber is Closets, out of one you Looke to ye river even at ye End window, there is so greate a Levell you may see near 20 mile. Stowe in ye Old you see wch is as farre, its all full of Enclosures and woods most of the Country. All these roomes are very Lofty and large and larger than most houses I have seen, the Gardens fine and many without Each other, wth good gravell and grass walks, squares of dwarfe trees of all sorts and steps to descend from one walke to another, ye whole of wch I saw at one view on ye top of ye mount, together with ye whole town and a vast prospect all about, ye mount being very high and ye ascent is round to an agen securred by Cut hedges on ye side ye path. At ye Entrance of ye first Court ye porter diverts you wth a history of Guy Earle of Warwick, there is his walking staff 9 foote long and ye staff of a Gyant wch he kill'd thats 12 ffoote long; his sword, Helmet and shield and breast and back all of a prodigious size, as is his wives jron slippers and also his horses armour and the pottage-pott for his supper – it was a yard over the top; there is also the bones of severall Beasts he kill'd, the Rib of ye Dun-Cow as bigg as halfe a great Cart Wheele: 2 miles from the town is his Cave dugg out by his own hands just ye dimention of his body as the Common people say, there is also his will Cut out on stone, but ye letters are much defaced; these are the storyes and meer ffiction, for the true history of Guy was that he was but a Little man in stature tho' great in mind and valour, which tradition describes to posterity by being a Gyant. Such will the account be of our Hero King William the third tho' Little in stature yet Great in atchievements and valour. Ffrom Warwick we went towards Daventry all along part of the vale of ye Red horse wch was very heavy way, and Could not reach thither being 14 mile. About 11 mile we Came to a place Called Nether Sugar – a sad village, we Could have no Entertainment. Just by it on the top of a steep hill is Shuggbery Hall a seate of Sr Charles Shuggberys who seeing our distress being just night and ye horses weary wth ye heavy way he very Curteously tooke Compassion on us and treated us very handsomely that night, a good supper serv'd in plaite and very good wine and good beds. My Lady Shuggbery was the lord Leigh's Daughter and that day dineing there her Coach drove by us when in distress Enquireing for Lodging wch Caused Sr Charles to Come out to meete us, shewed a generous hospitable spirit to strangers, and with a great deale of good humour My Lady Entertained us. The house stands within a good parke, the deer so tame as to Come up near ye gate wch ascends steps to a Court of Broad stone. The house looks very handsome built of Brick and Stone, good hall and large parlour and drawing roome well wanscoated, neately ffurnish'd and a little parlour on the other side with good pictures; the Butlery Kitchen and offices very Convenient, two good staircases and 3 or 4 good Chambers very well ffurnish'd tho' not very Rich; but in the Generall all things were very well as any private Gentleman has whatever. he has severall good houses. He ordered one of his Daughters to get me a Curiosity they dig up in most part of the hill there about, they Call them Arms, its just Like Mullets that they have in an Eschuteon to difference the third son from the first and second in a family. Thence we went to Daventry 3 miles, a pretty large Market town and good houses all of stone and so we Enter into Northamptonshire. To Northampton town is 8 mile wch opens a noble prospect to ye sight a mile distant, a large town well built, ye streetes as large as most in London Except Holborn and the Strand, the houses well built of brick and stone, some all stone, very regular buildings.

The town hall is new built all stone and resembles Guildhall in Little tho' it is a good Lofty spacious place. There is two Barrs in it wth ye benches and seat distinct, over one of the Barrs is King William and Queen Mary's pictures at Length. The Church is new built, its very neate, there is two Rows of stone pillars at the Entrance of the Church on ye outside, and it is to be paved wth broad stone but yt was not quite ffinished, they were at worke on some adornments at the ffront. There is abundance of new buildings which adds to the beauty of ye town. We enter the town from Daventry over a large Bridge, and the water runs twineing about ye grounds wth rows of Willows on Each side of it wch looks very pretty.

Ye way out of town towards London you go by a Cross a mile off the town Call'd High-Cross, it stands just in the middle of England, its all stone 12 stepps wch runs round it, above that is the stone Carv'd ffinely and there are 4 Large Nitches about ye Middle, in Each is the statue of some queen at Length which Encompasses it wth other Carvings as garnish, and so it rises less and less to ye top like a tower or Piramidy. Thence to Stony Stratford, so Cross ye river Aven again 12 mile, and Enter Buckinghamshire. At Stony Stratford wch is a little place built of stone they make a great deale of bonelace and so they do all here about, its the manuffactory of this part of ye Country, they sit and worke all along ye streete as thick as Can be.

Thence to great Horwood: this Country is fruitfull, full of woods, Enclosures and rich Ground. Ye Little towns stand pretty thicke. You have many in view as you pass ye Road. 6 mile to Horwood, thence we pass by a lofty pile of Building Called Salden, a gentlemans house, and by the Rich Mrs Bennets House, Remarkable for Coveteousness wch was ye Cause of her death – her treasures tempted a Butcher to Cut her throate who hangs in Chains just against her house. She had 3 daughters, the two youngest are Living one married to a Benet, ye other ye Earle of Salisbury and are great fortunes by their mothers penuriousness. Thence to Oxborn and Enter Bedfordshire 13 mile. The duke of Bedfords house we saw wch stands in a fine parke full of deer and wood, and some off the trees are kept Cut in works and ye shape of severall beasts. The house is an old Building, Low, there are very good stables and out offices, Landry yard &c. The gardens are fine, there is a Large bowling-green with 8 arbours kept Cut neately and seates in Each, there is a Seate up in a high tree that ascends from ye green 50 steps that Commands the whole parke round to see the Deer hunted, as also a Large prospect of the Country. There are 3 Large Gardens, fine Gravell walks and full of fruite. I Eate a great quantety of ye Red Coralina goosbery wch is a large thin skin'd sweete Goosebery. Ye walks are one above another wth stone steps. In the square, just by the dineing roome window is all sorts of pots of flowers and Curious greens, fine orange, Cittron and Lemon trees and mirtles, striped ffilleroy and ye fine aloes plant. On the side of this you pass under an arch into a Cherry garden in the midst of wch stands a figure of stone resembling an old weeder woman used in the garden, and my Lord would have her Effigie wch is done so like and her Clothes so well that at first I tooke it to be a Real Living body. On ye other side of ye house is another Large garden, severall gravell walks one above another, and on the flatts are fish ponds the whole length of the Walke; above yt in the next flat is 2 fish ponds, here are dwarfe trees spread of a great bigness. Ffrom thence we Came to Dunstable 7 mile over a sad road Called Hockley in ye Hole, as full of deep slows in ye winter it must be Empasable. There is a very good pitch'd Causey for foote people and horse, that is raised up high from the Road, and a very steepe Chaulky hill, from whence it has its name – the Chalk hill just as you Enter Dunstable. Its a good town as you shall meete with on the Road, its full of Inns, there is a long Large streete with a great water in the streete – it Looks like a Large pond. Here I went to see two of my Relations Daughters to Sr Charles Woolsley, one marry'd there to a Doctor of physick Dr Marsh, wth whome was a maiden sister my Cos'n Bridget Woolsley. Thence to St Albans and so we Enter Hartfordshire 12 mile. There is a very large streete to the Market place, its a pretty Large town takeing all the St Juliers and yt at one End, and ye other End is St Nicholas where is a handsome Church. The great Church wch is dedicated to St Albans is much out of repaire, I see the places in the pavement that was worn like holes for kneeling by the devotes of ye Religion and his votery's as they tell you, but the whole Church is so worn away that it mourns for some Charitable person to help repaire it. There are severall good houses about ye town, one of ye Earle off Maulberough (now Duke of Marlborough) and one of Mrs Gennings ye Countess Mother.

Thence we Came to Barnet 8 mile, wch is in Middlesex and seemes to be a very sharpe aire; its a Large place and ye houses are made Commodious to Entertain the Company yt Comes to drink the water, wch Certainly if they be at the paines to go once and see would have but Little stomach to drink them. The well is a Large place walled in 8 square, its at Least two yards over and built 2 or 3 yards up from the water and over it is Lattices of wood round to Looke down into it and so Covered like a house above; below are staires down to a doore to go in to dip the water there. I stood at the Lowest step above the water to Look into it, its full of Leaves and Dirt and Every tyme they dip it troubles ye water, not but what they take up and let stand – Looks Clear but I Could not taste it. Its very deep and not done at the bottom wth a bason as Tunbridg, neither Can you see the bottom, so that it appears not to be a quick spring as Tunbridg or ye Spaw or Hamstead waters wch have all fine stone basons in wch you see the springs bubble up as fast and by a pipe runs off as Clear and fast; it more resembles Epsom for wch reason I dislike that. Thence to Highgate 6 miles, thence to London 4 miles where I returned and all our Company Blessed be God very well wth out any disaster or trouble in 7 weeks tyme about 635 miles that we went together.

My Journey to Canterberry and Dover in Kent the same year from Amwell in Hartfordshire. I went to Royston 1 mile, and Epin in Essex 9 mile, thence to Drumford through Lanes and much wood – that part of Essex is full of woods; yt was 10 mile. Thence to Abnife 14 mile, thence to Tilbery 3 mile wch is a ffine ffort, a great flatt to ye Land, full of Watry ditches and may be flooded all over. Here was the fight by ye parliament in 1640. There are Severall Buildings by themselves of a Triangular form of Brickwork in wch ye powder and amunition is kept. Here is a ferry over to Gravesend where we enter Kent, wch Lyes just over against it a little snugg town under a hill, the houses little and thick together fitt only for seamen and soldiers yt are Employ'd in the water or the ffort. I saw severall Colliers pass by Laden towards London.

The Thames here is very Rough and Deep so as we fferry over in a boate like a Hoy. Thence I went to Rochester 7 mile most in lanes; we Enter the town over the Medway wch is the finest River I ever saw, it runs thence to the sea and meetes ye Thames at ye Boy in Nore and so they fall into ye sea together, but it Ebbs and flows up a great way above Rochester and is very salt. The Bridg at Rochester is the finest in England – nay its said to Equal any in the world – it is not built upon wth houses as London Bridge but its very Long and fine, Iron spikes Like a grate is on the top of the wall wch is breast high, and these jrons on the top wch are above a yard more. Its jndented at Each arch as all bridges are, there are 9 large Arches wth ye middle one wch is to be opened by drawing up to give passage to Barges and little vessells. When ye tyde was out I saw the worke of the arches is wth wood Cutt hollow, and stands a good distance into the water to keep the water from bearing too hard against the Bridge.

The town is large jncludeing the suburbs and all, for there is a large place before you pass the river wch washes quite round yt side of ye town to ye Dockyards, thats a mile from it where are two large yards for building shipps.

I saw severall Large shipps building, others refitting. There was in one place a sort of arches like a bridge of Brickwork, they told me ye use of it was to let in ye water there, and so they put their masts in to season, besides this dock, here are severall streetes of houses on this hill wch is pretty high and is just against Rochester, and on ye hill you have ye best prospect of the town and see ye severall good Churches in it, and the Castle wch is a pretty Little thing just by ye Medway wch runs along by it, and so at foote of this hill is a Round and so onward to sea. There were severall shipps at anchor along ye River. All behind the town is another hill wch is covered wth fine woods yt Looks very fine; thence to Sittingburn 11 mile all in sight of ye Lovely Medway. This is a very good town for ye Road and travellers as you shall meete wth. The Church is all built wth flints headed so Curiously that it Lookes like glass and shines with ye suns Reflexion.

Thence to Canterbery 16 mile, we pass by great Hop yards on both sides of the Road, and this year was great quantetyes of that fruite here in Kent. We pass by Ffeversham just at ye towns End wch is 9 mile from Canterbury, its a very large town and good buildings of Bricke. Canterbery opens to view 6 miles distant by ye advantage of a high hill we pass over to it – its a noble Citty – ye gates are high tho' but narrow, the streetes are most of them Large and long, and ye buildings handsome, very neate but not very Lofty, most are of Brick-work, its a flourishing town, good tradeing in ye weaving of silks. I saw 20 Loomes in one house wth severall fine flower'd silks, very good ones, and its a very Ingenious art to fix the warps and Chaine in their Loomes to Cast their work into such ffigures and flowers. There stands a boy by Every Loome and pulls up and down threads wch are fastened to the weaving, and so pulls the Chaine to the Exact form for ye shuttle to work through.

There are also paper mills wch dispatches paper at a quick rate, they were then makeing brown paper wn I saw it. The mill is set agoing by ye water and at ye same tyme it pounded the raggs to morter for ye paper, and it beate out meale and Hemp and ground bread altogether – that is at ye same tyme. When ye substance for ye paper is pounded Enough, they take it in a great tub and so with a frame just of ye size of ye sheetes of paper made all of small wire just as I have seen fine Screens to Screen Corne in, only this is much Closer wrought, and they Clap a frame of wood round ye Edge and so dip it into ye tub and what is too thinn runs through; then they turn this frame down on a piece of Coarse woollen just of ye size of ye paper and so give a Knock to it and it falls off; on wch they Clap another such a piece of woollen Cloth wch is ready to Lay ye next frame of paper, and so till they have made a large heape wch they by a board on the bottom move to a press, and so Lay a board on ye top and so Let down a great screw and weight on it, wch they force together into such a narrow Compass as they know so many sheets of paper will be reduced, and this presses out all ye thinner part and Leaves the paper so firme as it may be taken up sheete by sheete and Laid together to be thoroughly dryed by the wind. They told me white paper was made in the same manner only they must take white woollen to put between. There is a great number of French people in this town wch are Employ'd in the weaving and silk winding, I meete them Every night going home in great Companyes, but then some of them were Employ'd in the Hopping, it being the season for pulling them. Here is a spring in the town that is dranke by many persons as Tunbridge and approv'd by them, but others find it an ill water, one Gentleman in ye same house I was in Complained of a numbness in his Limbs after drinking it sometyme, wch is quite Contrary to Tunbridge waters whose property is to relieve Lost Limbs yt are benumbed, and it Comeing from steele should have yt Effect it raising the blood and gives it a new Circulation. The taste of the spring in this town seems to be from a mixt soyle and bears a Likeness to ye Sulpher spaw Epsome and ye Iron springs too wch are at Tunbridge; what its operation is I Cannot tell only tasteing halfe a Glass of it wch I did not Like. Ye well is walled in and a raile round wth stepps down and paved aboute for the Company to stand just at ye head to drinke, but I like no spring yt rises not quick and runs off apace that must have most spirit and good off the minerall it Comes from. There is fine walks and seates and places for the musick to make it acceptable and Comodious to ye Company. There is a large Market house and a town Hall over it in the town, but the Cathedrall is the finest sight there, the Carving of stone is very fine on the outside as also within, but its not so Large as Salisbury; its a square tower – no spire running up from it – but the small ones at Each Corner of ye tower for ornament.

There are two large jsles in ye middle of the Church wch leads to open gates of jron barrs and spikes, thence is an ascent of 20 steps, as Winchester Church is; up to ye Quire, where is a fine Large organ, so is the ffont well Carv'd and painted and Gilded, the bottom is white and grey Marble wth white marble statues round the stem to the ffoote, the top is made in a piramidy Carv'd and painted. The Windows in ye Quire are most delicately painted as Ever I saw, ye Curiosity of the worke and Coullours beyond others, but the size of the windows much Inferior being very small for a Church. Ye Glass is very thick and the Coullours Laid on it strikes through the glass, its Coullours tinctures all ye Glass, an art wch now is lost amongst us. At ye Alter is a Cloth and Coushons of purple ffigured Velvet the books the same, there is a broad tissue border of orrace work gold and silver, and at ye Edge is a ffine knotted fringe of purple silk and gold. The Bishops seate and Cushon the same wch was given by our good Queen Mary King Williams Queen when she was at Canterbery. The Chapter house is pretty Lofty supported by its own worke wth out pillars, its Ceiled with Irish oake, there are severall good monuments of ye Kings and queens and great men and severall Bishops. There is one Bishops statue yt was at ye paines to divide the Bible into Chapters wch makes it more Commodious to the Reader, and was a good Employment for him it being the proper subject of such a person of ye Church to studdy ye holy Scriptures wch gives the truest wisdom. There is the Chaire that all ye Arch Bishops are Inaugurated in when made Arch Bishops, its wood with Elbows. There is another statue of a Bishop Cut out in wood, his Robes and all well Carv'd and is ffirm and solid still, Except some small deffaceing by ye soldiers in ye warre tyme, and this has stood some 100 of yeares. There is a Chapple Called Thomas of Beckets Crown, the Roofe being Carv'd in the fform of a Crown and painted; there is also a pavement wch is much worne by the feete and knees off this Sts votarys that Came to do obeysance to his Shrine. There is one Brass statue in armour but its not so bright being less regarded than that at Warwick. Under the Cathedrall is a Large Church just Like St Ffaiths under St Pauls in London; this is given to the Ffrench protestants in the town for the worshipping God, it holds a vast number of people, its as full of Seates as Can thrust by Each other, it seemed a Little darkish, but they say when the doores are open its Light Enough, its so well arch'd that they Cannot hear them in the Cathedrall when singing – at least no wayes to disturb them. I went out another part of the town thro' a good gate and so to Dover 15 mile much up hill and down, it was a good Road and Sort of Champion Country, yet at a distance you see many good woods and pretty houses wth Rows of trees. The Castle at Dover is discover'd five mile off standing on the Edge of a very steep hill on wch you ascend up to ye tower 120 steps up, whence you discover Callice in Ffrance. I saw the Clifts and hills plaine, but in some Cleer dayes towards the Evening you may see the towers and buildings of Callice, you likewise see a vast way on all sides sea ward and to ye Land. The Castle is Left much to decay and ruinated only a small appartment for the Governour of three or four Roomes, Else ye whole is spoyl'd the floores taken up and wanscoate pulled down. I was in the roome Queen Elizabeth was kept prisoner in till the death of queen Mary, the balcony just by in wch she saw the messenger Coming which she supposed was of Death to take off her head, but proved the Messenger that brought ye news of the Crown and Kingdom falling to her by the death of her sister. She afterwards repaired the Chapple but now its quite out of use, the Roofe and side being Mouldred down in many places. There is a fine dry well in ye Castle walled Curiously of a vast depth, the use of it was to Discover the work of the miners in tyme of a siege whereabout they were at worke, going down into this well discovered ye working by ye shakeing ye Earth at what side they were at worke, and so might defeate them by a Countermine. There is also a great well of 60 ffathom deep, the water is drawn up by a great wheele with a horse, notwithstanding its so deep yet its also wide and Exactly down Right, that I could see the water at the top, and when I flung a stone wch was a pretty while descending I saw when it plashed into ye water. There is on ye Plattform guns mounted wch being so high Commands the Road so as no ship Durst saile under it. Its a mighty steep Clift at the poynt which makes ones head Giddy to Look down to the sea. There is one Gun of Cast Brass of a Great Length finely Carv'd and adorn'd with ffigures, this Carrys a Ball a great way tho' ye bore or muzzle of ye Gun be not bigger than my fist, so the Ball its Charged with Cannot be very bigg but it will do Execution a great way off; this was made at Utriche in Holland and presented to Queen Elizabeth; its worth a great sum of money for its Curiosity. There is a Little Cannon of ye same worke wch I have seen in ye Tower at London, there is a great Inscription on it. There are Gunns also planted in a Little ffort at ye ffoote of this steepe Clift to secure ye Road from Pirates, for as to Dover town it Looks like a place of no deffence, its a Little place, ye houses are Little and looks thrust together, there is a market house and town hall, its well enough for the accomodation of the seamen and to Supply the shipps wth anything, it seems where the town stands the sea formerly Came in and was Cover'd under water severall fathom deep so as the shipps Ride there in harbour. The town was only within the Limits of a wall wch Encompass's ye Castle of which small matters appears, only of a great Banck and some parts of ye Ruines of ye ffoundation, but ye sea Leaving the shore so ffarre they have built this town wch has no gates.

Thence we went to Deale 7 mile, all by the sea side wch is Called the Downs wch sometymes is full of shipps all along the Road, but now there were not many. The Downes seems to be so open a place and the shoar so Easye for Landing I should think it no difficulty to Land a good army of men in a little tyme, there is only 3 Little fforts, or Castles they Call them, about a miles distance one to another – Warworth at Deal, and Sandwitch which holds a few Guns, but I should think they would be of Little Effect and give the Enemy no great trouble. Deale Looks like a good thriveing place, ye buildings new and neate Brickwork with gardens. I believe they are most masters of shipps houses and seamen or Else those that belong to ye Cordage and Saile makeing with other Requisites to shipping. All this Country about seemes to be a very fruitfull soyle and full of woods. You see a many pretty towns altogether almost, neate Churches and towers all the way you travell from Dover to Deale on yr Left hand, but beyond Deale you go a very deepe heavy sand for 4 mile to Sandwich. You go along by ye Sea side in sight of the jsle of Thannet wch is just over against Sandwich and is so near it you see ye Lands and jnclosures and woods and houses. I suppose it not a quarter of a League from Sandwich; this is a sad old town all timber building, you Enter by a gate and so you go out of it by a gate, but its run so to Decay that Except one or two good houses its just like to Drop down ye whole town.

Thence to Canterbery ten mile most thro' Lanes. We come by my Lord Winchelseas house, garden and parke. Ye house is an old building – and so I Entered Canterbery another way through another gate and observ'd all wayes to ye town – being from hills gives the prospect of ye town very finely to the Eye and Indeed it Lookes like a good Citty altogether which way Ever you Looke on it in the approach. From thence to Maidstone I went 9 mile back the way I Came, and on the hill 6 mile off wch gave me so fine a sight of Canterbery as I came, did Likewise present a pleaseing prospect as I returned; it being a very high hill Commands the view of the Country a vast way and wth such variety of woods rivers and Inclosures and buildings that was very delicate and diverting. When I turned off the road to Maidstone I travell'd through Lanes and woods wch were very ffine but hid ye sight of the Country about being so Close; yt it was ye privatest Road I have travell'd. About 10 mile short of Maidstone you ascend a very steep hill wch discovers the whole Country at one view 40 mile off backward from whence we Came; and a few paces on the top of ye hill the descent of the hill on that other side is so great a fall that gives you as full a discovery of the Country all forward, both wch shew the variety of grounds intermixt wth Each other, and Lesser hills [and plaines and Rivers wch such advanced grounds present ye travellers at one view; this is Called Boxlye hills and is part of the same Ridge of hills wch runs along by Epsome.

From Canterbery its 30 mile to Maidstone. Maidstone town is a very neate market town as you shall see in the Country, its buildings are mostly of timber worke, the streetes are Large. The Market Cross runs down in the middle of the greate streete a good way, there being three divisions in it, one good Cross for fruite, another for Corne, and another for all sorts of things, 2 of which is built over for the town hall and publick use. There is also a Large Gail. This streete notwithstanding the hall and Cross stands in the midst, is yet a good breadth on Each side and when it Comes to meete in one, is very broad and runs down a great Length quite to the bridge Cross the Medway which is not very broad here, yet it beares Barges that bring up burdens to the town: it seemes to divide the town for beyond the Bridge are buildings, whole streetes wch runs along ye river. There are very pretty houses about the town, looks like the habitation of Rich men. I believe its a wealthy place, there are severall pretty streetes. This was Market day being Thursday and it seemed to be well furnish'd wth all sorts of Commodityes and I observed there was great quantety's of Leather but Could not Learn what particular thing that was their staple Comodity or tradeing in, but in Generall it seemed to be like a Little faire for the variety of wares tho' they told me that was not so full a Market as some dayes because the Country people were taken up aboute their hopping so Could not bring things to Market. Thence to Rochester 8 mile, I came by a great many ffine hopp yards where they were at work pulling ye hopps. I came into Rochester at the other side, thro' the wood on the hill I mentioned before, from whence the town and ye dock yards washed by the Medway, with the shipps at anchor was as acceptable a prospect and diverting as was ye other on the other side. I went through ye town just by the great Church wch is a good building but nothing Curious: also I went by ye Castle wall wch is but small what remaines of it; thence over the ffine bridge, and as I travell'd all along in sight of the Medway to Rochester, so Next day I went in sight of the Thames. I went that night to Gravesend wch is all by the side of Cherry grounds that are of severall acres of ground, and Runs quite down to the Thames wch is Convenient for to Convey the Cherrys to London, for here the Great produce of that fruite is wch supplyes ye town and Country with ye Kentish Cherrys, a good sort Fflemish fruite. I went 2 mile beyond Gravesend wch made it in miles 9 from Rochester, to a Little place Called Northfleete, its much in the woods. Thence I went to Dartfford 6 mile a little neate town; thence to Shutershill 2 mile on the top of wch hill you see a vast prospect Exactly Round it, being a great height of ground and such a descent Every way that Commands the sight of a vast tract of ground, wch appeares in ye greatest variety – some Lands Clothed wth trees, others with grass and flowers, gardens orchards wth all sorts of Herbage and tillage, wth ye severall Little towns all by ye river Eariff, Leigh, Woolwich &c, quite up to London, Greenwitch, Deadford, Blackwall – the Thames twisting and turning itself up and down bearing severall vessells and men of warre on it, and some under saile. On this part of the River I have seen 100 saile of shipps pass by in a morning which is one of the finest sights that is; added to this you view all Blackheath, the kings parke att Greenwitch, and a vast Country on yt side, besides ye places whence I came by: turning about I Could view at Least 20 mile. This is Esteemed as a noted Robbing place; on this hill are severall springs of water wch Comes from Allum which are very quick purges much Like Epsome and Dullage, but I thinke farre Exceeds Either in strength and opperation. Thence to Greenwitch 2 mile where I ferry'd over, and observ'd one Little shipp passed by me wch I observ'd was farr behind me in ye morning at Gravesend and sailed along in sight all the tyme and was gotten before me. I fferry'd to Poplar and Stepney, so to Hackney 3 mile, thence to Tatnum 2 mile, thence to Endfield 5 miles, wch is all in Middlesex Ever since I fferryed over out of Kent. Thence to Amwellbery 10 mile in Hartfordshire wch I Compleated in 5 days, and went 184 miles, wch added to severall journeys I went in Hartfordshire and twice to Amwell and to London againe wch is 76 mile alone, and ye severall journeys at London and in Hartfordshire, Comes to 150 more miles besides the Little Rideings to take ye aire at the parke or Else, wch were severall miles more if added together wch I have gone this year: but wthout that it is 226 miles, so add these to my Northern journey this yeare makes about 1045 miles of which I did not go above a hundred in the Coach.

I being in Kent this year shall Insert something of Tunbridge. The waters I have dranke many years wth great advantage – they are from the Steele and Iron mines, very quick springs Especially one well. There are two wth Large basons of stone fixt in ye Earth wth severall holes in the bottom by wch the springs bubble up and fill it so as it alwayes runns over, notwithstanding the quantety dipp'd up in a morning which is the usual tyme the Company Comes, and the nearer they drink it the spring ye better, it being a spiriteous water that is ready to Evaporate if Carry'd any way, as has been try'd by weighing the water by the well and Carrying them but to ye middle of the walks, it has Lost of ye weight, and much more the End of the whole walke: notwithstanding many has it brought to their Lodgings a mile or two off and drink them in their beds, nay, some have them brought to London wch is near 40 miles. They have the bottles filled and corked in the well under the Water and so seale down the Corks wch they say preserves it. They have made the wells very Comodious by the many good buildings all about it and 2 or 3 mile round which are Lodgings for the Company that drinke ye waters, and they have Encreased their buildings so much that makes them very Cheape. All people buy their own provision at ye market wch is just by ye wells and furnish'd wth great plenty of all sorts. Flesh, fowle and fish and in great plenty is brought from Rhye and Deale &c, this being ye road to London, so all the season the water is drank they stop here wch makes it very Cheape, as also the Country people Come wth all their backyard and barne door affords to supply them with, and their gardens and orchards, wch makes ye markets well stored and provision Cheape, wch the Gentry takes as a diversion while drinking the waters to go and buy their dinners; it being Every day's market and runns the whole Length of ye walke, wch is between high trees on the market side for shade, and secured wth a Row of buildings on ye Right side, wch are shopps full of all sorts of toys, silver China, milliners and all sorts of Curious wooden ware wch this place is noted for, (the delicate neate and thin ware of wood both white and Lignum vitæ wood): besides wch there are two Large Coffee houses for tea, Chocolate &c, and two Roomes for ye Lottery and hazard board. These are all built wth an arch or pent house beyond ye shops, some of wch are supported by pillars like a peason, wch is paved wth brick and stone for ye drye walking of ye Company in raine; Else they walke wth out wch is a Clay and sand mixt together. They have been intending to make it gravell wch would be much better. All those Conveniency's are added by ye Companyes Contributions Every year – what has been and so what will be. There is at ye Lower End of the walke, wch is a broad space before you Come to ye walls of ye wells, a Large sun-dial set upon severall steps of stone, thence you go straight along to a Chapple wch has been built by ye severall Collections of ye Company Every year; its a pretty place and Cost a great deal of money, and Every year there is Contribution for ye maintenance of a minister. There are severall buildings just about ye well where are severall apothecary's shops, there is also a Room for ye post house. The post Comes Every day and returns Every day all the while the season of drinking ye waters is, from London and to it; Except Mondayes none Comes down from London, so on Satturdayes non goes up to London. You pay a penny Extraordinary for being brought from tunbridge town wch is 4 mile distance, that being a post town, you Likewise have the Conveniency of Coaches every day from London for 8 shillings apiece dureing the whole season, and Carriers twice a weeke.

There are severall bowling greens about ye wells, one just at it on Mount Sion and another up ye hill Called Mount Ephraim where is also a Large Chapple where the presbiterians have preaching: they have a minister wch by ye Collections of ye Company is also maintained all the winter to preach, as is the publick Chapple at the walks. There is severall other Bowling greens at a distance off a mile or two, fitted for Companys Lodging there, as Rust hall and Southbourough; they have all houses to ye greens, so the Gentlemen Bowle, the Ladies dance or walke in ye green in ye afternoones, and if wet dance in the houses, there being Musick maintained by the Company to play in the morning so long while they drink the waters, and in ye afternoon for danceing.

There are severall good taverns at the walks and all about to supply good wine and Brewhouses for beer and Bakers for Bread, but some of them Come from London and spoyle the market by raiseing ye price – so the higlers and Hucksters in a great measure. This whole Country is full of stone and jron, the Earth is Clay and Sand. About 3 mile off there is a good seate of the Lord Lesters Spenshurst wch stands in a very good parke; the house is but old – Large roomes and stone staires and windows, a good hall and gallery full of good old pictures, and other roomes of state; no ffurniture but old tapistry hangings. You have a most pleasant prospect as you go to it and from it, of valeys Cover'd with woods of great Length, and hills beyond on the other side. About 3 or 4 miles off is a seate of the Lord Abergauneys wch is Lord of the manour in a parke and fine woods all about it, the most of the Country is woody. There is 4 or 5 miles off a place they Cast Gunns, there being a great store of oare all over the Country: its a great Charge and Continuall attendance. When they have Lighted ye fire for to Cast bells or guns they must be Cautiously blowing, and ye mettle will be apt to fall down on the nose of ye bellows and harden; that if it be not still Cleared off would quickly damm up the fire and put it out. There are severall good houses all about and a pleasant place to Ride in in ye summer and dry weather, but a sad deep impassable Road when much Raine has fallen. As I was Rideing about I took a view of ye Country in many parts. There is a Little rivulet just by the wells wch divides ye Countys so that ye buildings are some in Kent some in Sussex.

About ffaint 4 or 5 mile off is a house of Lord Abergauny and parkes and much woods about it. Another way by Lakington Green and Groombridge about 4 mile off is an old house in a parck, pretty Large, Called Ashurst wch they say belonged to Alderman Ashurst family, but hurst wch signifyes grove or wood is a name all here about, as Spenshurst Lord Lesters house 4 mile another way in a good Parke and Speldhurst another parish 2 or 3 mile off and Goodhurst about 12 mile off the Wells. I went by Calvery plaine and Woods gate and so to a Little Market town Called Branklye; the way is much thro' Lanes, being an Enclosed Country for the most part, wch is the Cause of these names as is much of Sussex wch joyns to Kent; there are places Called Billingshurst and Medhurst and Pendhurst &c. This Goodhurst I went to stands on a great hill and is seen severall miles, 2 mile from ye first ascent wch is at a Little village belonging to it, and to ye top of ye hill wch is ye middle of ye place. Its a pretty Large place – old timber houses, but ye Extent of ye parish is neare ten miles. They are a sort of yeomanry Gentry, about 2 or 3 or 400£ a year and Eate and drink well and Live Comfortably and Hospitably.

The old proverb was a yeoman of Kent wth one years rent Could buy out ye Gentlemen of Wales and knight of Sscales and a Lord of ye North Country – his Estate was so much better. All in these parts are the same Minerall waters being much on Iron mines. I returned againe to tunbridge wells the 12 mile, then I went from thence to Sumerhill about 4 or 5 mile off, thro' much woods and lanes and some pleasant shades of Lofty trees. This is a seate of ye last viscount Purbecks – stands on a hill in a good Large parke, built of stone and Lookes in good repaire for ye most part, and good Large Roomes and Staircases and abundance of good sizeable Roomes Leading one out of another in visto's thro' the house, something Like our new way of building and Lofty Enough. Its Capable of being very fine wth visto's of walks Cut through and across a great many, which delights the Rider or walker being so shady wth Lofty trees. There is remains of a bowling green wch is an advanced piece of ground above all the rest and discovers the Country a great Circuite round; then we returned to the wells againe 5 mile.

Then I went from ye wells to Rye 31 miles, by Ambursly 8 mile – this was good way being a drye summer, otherwise its deep being Clay for ye most part. I passed much through Lanes and little villages and near Rye I went thro' a Comon full of Bushes and ffurze and heath; its a pretty steep hill I ascended wch is Called beggars hill and being Bartholomew tide here was a faire wch was Rightly Called beggarhill faire being the saddest faire I ever saw – ragged tatter'd Booths and people – but the musick and danceing Could not be omitted. This hill on the top gave the view of ye sea and a great tract of Land on Each side. That is Choak'd up wth sand wch formerly was a good haven for shipps; the sea does still Come up to Rhye town as yet but its shallow, and ye Castle wch stands a Little distance – a mile – is also left of the sea at least 4 mile. This is Winchelsea Castle but all between it and Winchelsea is nothing but Quagmire and marshes, drained in some places by ditches, and this is at Least 4 miles to the town. I did go to it but first fferry'd over a Little arm of the sea wch still finds a Current up to some of ye Land between Rhye and Winchelsea, then I rode round ye marshes on ye side of a hill in narrow foote paths, and passed over a Bridge Cross another Little arme of ye sea: near it is a gate on ye Bridge and Enters you into the Libertys of ye town wch stands on a pretty high hill. From it Lookes not of any great Circuite of ground by ye first view, being high, but in ye middle you see it has been a fine place for there were 36 Large Squares of building, the remaines of pieces of walls in most places you see, or else a hedge supplys that you see ye streetes were very broad and long and divided these squares, ye Cross streetes ye same. I rode up a middle streete and saw ye others run aCross of Equal breadth. Remaines of Churches and halls are to be seen but Else grass grows now where Winchelsea was as was once said of Troy. There are but a very few houses now, but ye Corporation still Continues and ye major and aldermen wch 13 makes most of ye Inhabitants. Mr Majors house Look'd neate as did ye parsonage. They Elect two Burgesses to it in ye parliament and its ye ancientest Corporation in England, so yt should Lord Major of London meete Mr Major of Winchelsea he must give him place: it was as flourishing place before the sea Left it that was in England, but now lost, as Rhye will be in a Little tyme if the sea Leaves it, wch is in a very faire way to do; and men now apply to quite Drane the marshes for Corn and grass Rather than Endeavour to Cleare ye Channell of the sand wch if it were done would be ye best harbour for shipps as formerly was. There are great vaults in Winchelsea wch was the merchants Cellars, and were houses.

There was some few brass and marble statues in the Church but much demolished as was ye Church. Rhye town is not very bigg – a little Market place – this is famous for fish; from hence all the good turbutt, pearle and Dorea and all sort of sea ffish Comes to supply ye wells and London, but I could get little. Ye faire took up ye ffishermen. Indeed here I dranke Right french white wine and Exceeding good and then returned to ye wells 38 miles. In the Road from thence to London you go either by Fair lane and so Come just by Sr Harry Vaines house (now Lord Barnett), wch Lookes very finely wth ye Rows of trees about it, or Else you go by Sevenoake a sad deep Clay way after wett. You Come in sight of a great house on a hill Called Summerly, looks like a Little town it runs on so much ground, it was the Lord Purbeckes.

You also Come in sight of Nonsuch wch was a great house of the Kings Built by Charles the Second. You pass on to the Riverhead as they Call it, a fine spring of Cleare water yt runs thence in a Little River. this is at the foote of a great hill Called Madam Scott hill so steepe as seldome is Either Rode down or up, and few Coaches but gaines the top of it by a Compass round it wch is steep Enough. This is 15 mile from the wells – thence to Ffarnburough: about 8 mile, thence to Brumley, and to London 15 more.

 

MY GREAT JOURNEY TO NEWCASTLE
AND TO CORNWALL,

the account of many journeys into most parts of England, what observation and distance of one place to another in my travels.

Ffrom London to Albins in Essex 17 mile Sr Robert abdys, Whose house stands very pleasantly in a parke full of deer. The house on an advanced ground appeares to view at ye Entrance, but its old building: Large Roomes – some Rows of trees Lead up to it. Thence I returned home 17 mile more, from London to Bednal-green twice, and back againe 16 mile, from London to Highgate 4 miles to Mr Thomas's house, where is a most exact garden wth all sorts of greens and flowers and fish ponds. There my Nephew Ffiennes Harrison wth Mr Showers went to fish wth me. Thence we went to Hampstead, so made it 5 mile home againe. I went from London twice and back againe from Kensington, in all 8 mile – this I put in only to know the number of miles yt I went in one yeare.

Ffrom London to Amwell bery wch is in Hartfordshire 19 mile, where I staid a day or two: thence to Bishopstafford in Essex 13 mile, thence to Dunmew 8 long miles thro' severall Little villages; its very deep way Especially after raine. This is a Little Market town: they are altogether taken up about the spinning and prepareing for the Bayes. All along between that and Colchester you pass but halfe a mile Ere one Comes to two or 3 houses all along the road; its from Dunmow to Colchester 22 miles and mostly Clay deep way. Colchester is a Large town in the Compass of Ground. Fformerly there was 16 Churches tho' now much of it is ruinated. A mile before you Come to the new town one Enters a little village which still is in the Limits of ye Citty and Majors jurisdiction; there is a pretty good house of ye Lord Lucas.

You Enter the town by a gate; there are 4 in all; there is a Large Streete wch runs a great Length down to the bridge, near a mile long: about the middle of it runs another broad streete and near its Length like stalls on purpose to Lay their Bayes when exposed to saile. Great quantetyes are made here and sent in Bales to London that is 44 miles distant. Ye whole town is Employ'd in spinning weaveing, washing drying and dressing their Bayes in wch they seeme very Industrious. There I saw ye Card they use to Comb and dress the Bayes, wch they Call ym testles, wch are a kind of Rush tops or something Like them wch they put in frames or Laths of wood. The town Looks Like a thriveing place by the substantiall houses and well pitched streetes wch are broad Enough for two Coaches to go a breast, besides a pitch'd walke on Either side by ye houses secured by stumps of wood, and is Convenient for 3 to walke together. Their buildings are of timber of Loame and Lathes and much tileing: the fashion of the Country runs much in Long Roofes and great Cantilivers and peakes. Out of these great streetes runs many Little streetes, but not very narrow – mostly old buildings Except a few houses builded by some Quakers, yt are brick and of the London mode. The town did Extend itself to the sea but now its ruines sets it 3 mile off. Ye low Grounds all about ye town are used for ye whitening their Bayes for wch this town is remarkable, and also for Exceeding good oysters, but its a dear place and to Grattifye my Curiosity to Eate them on ye place I paid dear. Its a town full of Dessenters, 2 meeteings very full besides anabaptists and quakers. Formerly the famous Mr Stockton was minister there till he Dyed. From Colchester to jpswitch is 10 mile, and thence to Dedom 9 miles, the way pretty good Except 4 or 5 miles they Call ye severalls, a sort of deep moore Ground and woody. At this place I passed over a wooden bridge, pretty Large, wth timber railes of wch make they build their bridges in these parts; and now I go into Suffolk wch is not so rich Land as ye part of Essex I passed through, wch was meadows and grounds wth great burdens of grass and Corn. So I went to jpswitch 9 mile more; this is a very Clean town and much bigger than Colchester is now. Ipswitch has 12 Churches, their streetes of a good size well pitch'd wth small stones; a good market Cross railed in. I was there on Satturday wch is their market day and saw they sold their Butter by ye pinte 20 ounces for 6 pence and often for 5d or 4d ; they make it up in a Mold just in the shape of a pinte pot and so sell it. Their Market Cross has good Carving, ye ffigure of justice Carv'd and Gilt. There is but 3 or 4 good houses in ye town – ye rest is much Like ye Colchester buildings, but it seems more shatter'd, and Indeed the town Looks a Little disregarded, and by Enquiry found it to be thro' pride and sloth, for tho' the sea would bear a ship of 300 tun up quite to ye Key, and ye ships of ye first Rate Can Ride wth in two mile of the town, yet they make no advantage thereof by any sort of manufacture, wch they might do as well as Colchester and Norwitch, so that ye shipps that brings their Coales goes Light away, neither do they address themselves to victual or provide for shipps. They have a Little dock where formerly they built ships of 2 or 3 tun, but now Little or Nothing is minded save a Little ffishing for ye supply of ye town. There is one pretty good house of ye Earle of Herrifords that marry'd one of Mr Norborns Daughters, that was Killed by Sr Tho: Montgomery. You Enter thro' two Courts walled and divided by a breast wall on wch are Iron spikes pallasadoes: the Middle is a broad gravell walk fenced in wth stone walls; on Each side 3 or 4 steps up into the other Court, and so many steps more thro' an arch into a third Court. This arch joyns a Low building wch are the offices Leaded on the top, and rail'd round, and Each End Enters into Chambers joyning to ye house, that is built round this Last Court from whence you Enter ye porch. The house is handsome all brick worke and brick pillars; a good hall, parlour, and drawing roome, and Large Closet, 2 or 3 other Roomes less, answereing it and a Billyard Roome above wth as many roomes of state all ffurnish'd wth good old things: a pretty staircase, but its all Little. There are 3 gardens on the one side wth grass and gravell walkes all kept neate, and good fruite; on the other side is one Large garden wth a sumer house in wth stands a Large statue, black, of a Gigantick form and proportion; this answeres the fine green house on ye other side. This town has many dessenters in it. Thence I went to Woodbridge 7 miles mostly Lanes, Enclosed Countrys. This is a Little Market town but has a great meeting for ye dessenters. Thence to Wickham 5 mile more but these are all very Long miles.

Thence to Saxmunday 8 miles more: this is a pretty bigg market town. The wayes are pretty deep, mostly Lanes very Little Commons. I pass'd by severall Gentlemens seates, one, Mr Dormers wch stands in a fine parke. Ye Entrance from ye Road thro' rows of trees Discover'd the front and building very finely to view, being built wth stone and Brick and many sashes: Lookes like a new house wth ye open jron barr gates between pillars of stone the breadth of ye house. So to Bathfort 8 miles where is the remaines of ye walls of an abby and there is still a very fine Church all Carv'd in stone hollow work one tire above another to ye tower that ascends not very high but finely Carv'd: also hence I descended with Lowr grounds banck'd on Each side wth a brick wall, but Low and so a walk on it for foote people, and severall arches here and there to draine off the water, so that those bancks are to secure the Road from the Marshy ffenny water that of a great Extent on both sides is subject to. Thence I passed by some woods and Little villages of a few scattered houses, and Generally ye people here are able to give so bad a Direction that passengers are at a loss what aime to take: they know scarce 3 mile from their home, and meete them where you will and Enquire how farre to such a place they mind not where they are then, but tell you so farre, wch is the distance from their own houses to yt place. I saw at a distance as I descended some of their hills a Large place that Look'd nobly and stood very high Like a Large town. They told me it was called Either Stowle or Nole I cannot tell wch. I Rode in sight of St Georges Channell In the way from Colchester and Ipswitch and so to Norwich. Sometymes it was in view then Lost againe. To Beckle is 8 mile more wch in all was 36 miles from Ipswitch, but Exceeding Long miles; they do own they are 41 measured miles. This is a Little market town but its the third biggest town in ye County of Suffolke – Ipswitch Berry and this. Here was a good big meeteing place at Least 400 hearers and they have a very good minister one Mr Killinghall; he is but a young man but seemed very serious. I was there ye Lords day. Sr Robert Rich is a great supporter of them and Contributed to ye building the meeteing place wch is very neate. He has a good house at ye End of the town wth fine gardens. There are no good buildings the town, being old timber and plaister work Except his and one or two more. There is a pretty bigg market Cross, and a great Market kept. There is a handsome stone built Church and a very good publick minister whose name is Armstrong: he preaches very well they say notwithstanding the town is a sad Jacobitish town. This Chooses no parliamt men. At ye towns End one passes over the river Waveny on a wooden bridg railed wth timber and so you Enter into Norfolk: its a Low flatt ground all here about, so that the Least raines they are overflowed by ye River and Lye under water as they did when I was there, so that the roade Lay under water wch is very unsafe for strangers to pass by reason of ye holes and quicksands and Loose bottom. The ordinary people both in Suffolk and Norfolk knitt much and spin, some wth ye Rock and fusoe as the French does, others at their wheeles out in the streete and Lanes as one passes. Its from this town to Norwitch 12 miles, and its 10 to Yarmouth where they build some small shipps, and is a harbour for them and where they victual them. Also Harwitch about 12 or 14 miles also, but the miles are here as long again as about London and pretty deep way, Especially after raines: these miles are much Longer than most miles in Yorkshire.

Norwitch opens to view a mile distance by the help of a hill whereon is a little village. As I observe most of ye great towns and Cittys have about them Little villages as attendants or appendix's to them wch are a sort of Subburbs, there being stragling houses for ye most part all the way between yt and ye gates. You pass over a high bridge yt leads on over a high Causey of a pretty Length wch Lookes somewhat dangerous being fenced with trenches from its bancks (pretty deep) that's on both sides to secure it from the water, and these trenches runns in many places round the Low grounds to drain them, wch Employ'd to whiten and Bleach their woollen stuff the manufacture of the place. This Long Causey brings you to the Large stone bridge over the river into wch those trenches Empty themselves.

Then you proceed to the Citty wch is walled round full of towers Except on the river side wch serves for the wall. They seeme ye best in repaire of any walled Citty I know tho' in some places there are little breaches, but the Carving and battlements and towers Lookes well. I enter'd the west gate. There are 12 gates in all and 36 Churches, which is to be seen in a Clear Day altogether on the Castle walls – I told 30 myself there. They are built all of flints well headed or Cut wch makes them Look blackish and shineing. The streetes are all well pitch'd wth small stones and very Clean, and many very broad streetes: yt I Entred in first was very broad for 2 Coaches or Carts to pass on Either side, and in the middle was a great well house wth a wheele to wind up the water for the good of ye publick. A Little further is a Large pond walled up wth brick a mans height wth an Entrance on one End. A Little farther was a building on which they were at work, design'd for a water house to supply ye town by pipes into their houses wth water. At a Little distance was another such a pond walled in as I described before. These things fill up the middle of this spacious streete wch is for use and also ornament, ye spaces Each side being so broad. This brings you into a broad space Called the Hay market wch is on a hill, a very steep descent all well pitch'd as before: this Comes to another space for a market to sell hoggs in, and opens farther into divisions of buildings that begins severall streetes yt runs off good Lengths and are of a tollerable size. One runs along behind wch is all for stalls for ye Country butchers that bring their meate for ye supply of ye town, wch pay such a Rent for them to ye town. On ye other side are houses of ye town butchers, ye Inhabitants: by it is a Large market for fish, wch are all at a Little distance from ye heart of ye Citty, so is not annoy'd wth them. There is a very Large market place and hall and Cross for fruite and little things Every day, and also a place under pillars for ye Corn market.

The building round here is Esteemed ye best and here is the town Hall, but all their buildings are of an old form, mostly in deep poynts and much tileing as has been observ'd before, and they playster on Laths wch they strike out into squares like broad free stone on ye outside, wch makes their fronts Look pretty well; and some they build high and Contract ye roofes resembling the London houses, but none of brick Except some few beyond the river wch are built of some of ye Rich factors like ye London buildings. There is in ye middle of ye town the Duke of Norfolks house of Brick and stone, wth severall towers and turrets and balls yt Looks well, wth Large gardens, but ye Inside is all demolished only ye walls stand and a few Roomes for offices but nothing of state or tollerable for use.

On ye Castle hill you see ye whole Citty at once, being built round it: its a vast place and takes up a Large tract of ground, its 6 miles in Compass.

Here is the County hall and Goale where ye assizes are held and ye Sessions. Nothing of ye Castle remaines but a green space, and under it is also a Large space for ye beast market, and 3 tymes in ye year is there a very great faire kept to wch resort a vaste Concourse of people, and wares – a full trade. Ye whole Citty Lookes Like what it is, a Rich thriveing Industrious place; Satturday is their great market day. They have beside ye town hall a hall distinct wch is the scaleing hall where their stuffs are all measured, and if they hold their breadths and Lengths they are scaled, but if they are deffective there is a fine Layd on ye owner and a private marke on ye stuff wch shews its defficiency.

There was also ye mint which they Coyn'd, but since the old money is all new Coyn'd into mill'd money, that Ceases. Here there is a ffine large Cathedrall and very Loftly, but nothing remarkable of monuments or else: by it is 3 hospitalls for boys girls and old people who spinn yarne, as does all ye town besides for ye Crapes, Callimancos and damaskes wch is ye whole business of the place. Indeed they are arrived to a great perfection in worke, so fine and thinn and glossy; their pieces are 27 yards in Length and their price is from 30 shillings to 3 pound as they are in ffineness. A man Can weave 13 yards a day, I saw some weaveing; they are all Employ'd in spinning, knitting weaveing, dying, scouring or bleaching stuffs. Their hospitalls are well provided for; there are 32 women in one as many men in ye other, there is also a good free schoole. There is a great many Cerimonyes in ye Choice and Swearing their major: they Elect him the first day of May and yn prepare for his being sworne on Holly Thursday. They new washe and plaister their houses wth in and without wch they strike out in squares like free stone. All ye streete in wch this mayor Elect's house, is very exact in beautifying themselves and hanging up flaggs ye Coullrs of their Companyes, and dress up pageants and there are playes and all sorts of show that day – in Little what is done at ye Lord major of London show. Then they have a great feast wth fine flaggs and scenes hung out, musick and danceing. I was in ye hall they keep their feast in and saw some of their preparations: for that day being about a fortnight to it. The town is a mile and a halfe from ye North to ye South gate. Just by one of ye Churches there is a wall made of flints that are headed very finely and Cut so exactly square and Even to shutt in one to another that ye whole wall is made without Cement at all they say, but it appears to be very little if any morter; it Looks well, very smooth shineing and black.

A great many descenters are in this Citty, the Gentlewoman that was my acquaintance there dyed 10 dayes before I came thither so I made no great stay there but to see about ye town.

Thence I went to Windham a Little market town 5 miles, mostly on a Causey ye Country being Low and moorish, and ye Road on ye Causey was in many places full of holes tho' its secured by a barr at which passengers pay a penny a horse in order to the mending ye way, for all about is not to be Rode on Unless its a very dry summer. Thence we went mostly through Lanes where you meete ye ordinary people knitting 4 or 5 in a Company under the hedges. To Attlborough, 5 mile more to a Little village, still finding the Country full of spinners and Knitters: thence to Thetford 6 miles more, wch was formerly a large place but now much decay'd and the ruines only shews it dimentions. There is a very high hill quite round stands up on one side of it and Can scarcely be ascended so steep. Here I Lay, wch is still in Norfolk. Next day I went to Euston Hall wch was ye Lord arlingtons and by his only daughters marriage wth ye Duke of Grafton is his sons by her. Its two mile from thetford, it stands in a Large parke 6 miles about. Ye house is a Roman H of brick: 4 towers wth balls on them; the windows are Low and not sashes Else ye roomes are of a good size and height, a good stair case full of good pictures, a Long gallery hung wth pictures at Length, on ye one side the Royal family from K: Henry ye 7th by ye Scottish race, his Eldest daughter down to ye present King William and his queen Mary. The other side are forreign princes from ye Emperour of Moroccoe, ye Northern and Southern princes and Emperour of Germany. There is a square in ye middle where stands a billiard table, hung wth outlandish pictures of Heroes; there is Count Egmint and Horn &c &c, but ye End of ye Roome is ye Duke and Dutchess of Grafton's picture at length. Thence I enter'd into dineing and drawing roome and bed Chambers of a very good size and good fret work on ye Cieling: in one of the roomes was ye Dutchess of Cleavelands picture in a sultaness dress, the Duke of Grafton being King Charles ye seconds base son by her. There was also another picture of ye Royal family. K Charles ye firsts 5 Children altogether. I have often seen 3 wch was K: Charles ye second, K: James and ye Princess of Orange; but here was also ye Lady Elizabeth and ye Duke of Glocester a Little Infant on a pillow. In another place there is the queen mothers picture the Lady Henrietta drawn Large. There is a fine hall and parlour below pav'd wth free stone. There are good gardens wth fountaines and some stone statutes, a Cannall by ye side, a Large Court at ye Entrance wth 3 Iron barr gates wch open to ye ffront, divided wth stone pillars and balls. Ye Court wth out is walled round and ye wall is Carry'd a great Length round ye back yards. Within this is another Court wth Iron spike pallasadoes divided Every 2 or 3 yards by little stone pillars with balls. There are severall Rows of trees runs of a great length thro' the parke a visto to ye front of ye house, wch lookes nobly tho' not just of ye new modell'd way of building. At ye back gate I crossed over ye river Waveney wch is ye division of ye two County's and enter'd Suffolk and pass'd over perfect downs, Champion Country just like Salisbery plaine; and ye winds have a pretty power here and blows strongly in ye winter not well to be Endured.

So to St Edmundsbery 8 mile, but as has been often observ'd before, the miles are very long. I pass'd by two or 3 Little villages, and about 2 mile off there is ye town of St Edmds Bury wch appeares standing on a great hill, ye towers and buildings Look so Compact and well together wth the trees and gardens thick about it ye prospect was wonderfully pleasant. A mile off by a little village I descended a hill which made ye prospect of ye town still in view and much to advantage, its but two parishes. Ye market Cross has a dyal and Lanthorn on ye top, and there being another house pretty Close to it high built wth such a tower and lanthorn also, wth ye two Churches towers and some other buildings pretty good, made it appear nobly at a distance. This high house is an apothecarys – at least 60 stepps up from ye ground and gives a pleaseing prospect of ye whole town. Severall streetes but no good buildings Except this, the rest are great old houses of timber and mostly of ye old forme of ye Country wch are long peaked roofes of tileing. This house is the new mode of building; 4 roomes of a floore pretty sizeable and high, well furnish'd, a drawing roome and Chamber full of China and a damaske bed Embroyder'd: 2 other Roomes, Camlet and Mohaire beds; a pretty deale of plaite in his wives Chambers and parlours below, and a large shop. He is esteem'd a very Rich man. He shewed me a Curiosity of an Herball all written out wth Every sort of tree and herb dryed and Cut out and pasted on the Leaves; it was a doctor of Physicks work that left it him a Legacy at his Death, it was a fine thing and would have delighted me severall dayes but I was passant. There was two streetes were broad and very Long, out of wch ran a Cross 5 or 6 streetes more wch are as good as in most Country towns – they are well pitch'd wth small stones. There are many descenters in ye town – 4 meeteing places wth ye quakers and anabaptists. There is only the ruines of ye abby walls and the fine gate at the Entrance that remaines – stone, well Carv'd. It seemes to be a thriveing Industrious town; 4 gates in it.

There are a great deale of Gentry wch Lives in ye town, tho' there are no good houses but wch are old and rambling ones. They are in that they Call the green, a space by ye Churches wch are pretty near together. They are pretty Large but nothing Curious in them – stone buildings – no monuments worth notice. They keep them very Clean and neate and have a moveable scaffold to Clean the roofe and windows and walls. Its a very dear place, so much Company Living in the town makes provision scarce and dear: however its a good Excuse to raise the Reckoning on strangers.

Thence I went to admiral Russells who is now Lord orfford, a long 10 mile, and Loseing my way made it 12 mile; its pretty good way. I passed by a village or two, and in a mile of Lord orffords house I Enter Cambridgeshire, wch stands 3 mile from New market. You Ride in sight of New market heath where the Races are – its good Road; here are severall good gardens well kept good gravell and green walks wth fine greens and flowers, walled in and all the outhouses very handsome. A Coach yard and stables in the middle of wch is a Large gate into ye ground, and built over wth a high lanthorn where hangs the Clock and bell: this stands higher than ye house like a tower; ye house being a flatt Roofe leaded and railed round full of Chimneys, but this tower I saw 10 mile off. All ye out offices built round a Court very handsome. The hall is very noble paved wth free stone, a squaire of black marble at Each Corner of ye freestone: there are two fine white marble tables veined wth bleu; its wanscoated wth wall nut tree, the pannells and Rims round wth mulbery tree yt is a Lemon Coullour, and ye moldings beyond it round are of a sweete outlandish wood not much differing from Cedar but of a finer Graine, the Chaires are all the same: its hung wth pictures att full proportion of ye Royal family all in their Coronation Robes, from Charles the first to his Majesty wth ye Queen also, and at the End is Prince George and Princess Ann in their Robes of Crimson velvet and Dukes Coronet as Duke and Dutchess of Cumberland. The whole house is finely furnish'd wth differing Coulld Damaske and velvets, some ffigured and others plaine, at Least 6 or 7 in all Richly made up after a new mode. In ye best drawing roome was a very Rich hanging gold and silver and a Little scarlet, mostly tissue and brocade of gold and silver and border of green damaske round it; ye window Curtain ye same green damaske round it ye window Curtain ye same green damaske, and doore Curtains. There was no Looking-glass but on ye Chimney piece and just opposite in ye place a Looking glass used to be was 4 pannells of glass in Length and 3 in breadth set together in ye wanscoate. Ye same was in another drawing roome wch was for my Lord. The dining roome had this Looking glass on ye top peers between the three windows; it was from ye top to ye bottom 2 pannells in breadth and 7 in Length so it shews one from top to toe. The roomes were all well wanscoated and hung and there was ye finest Carv'd wood in fruitages, herbages, gumms, beasts, fowles &c. very thinn and fine all in white wood wth out paint or varnish. Ye severall sorts of things thus Carv'd were Exceeding naturall all round. The Chimney pieces and ye sconces stand on Each side the Chimney, and the glasses in those Chambers where were Loose Looking-glasses, wch were wth fine Carv'd head and frames some of the naturall wood others Gilt, but they were ye largest Looking-glasses I Ever saw. There was a great flower pott Gilt Each side the Chimney in the dineing Roome for to sett trees in. Ye great Curiosity of this wood Carving about ye Doores Chimneys and sconces, together wth ye great Looking Glass pannells is much talked of and is ye finest and most in quantety and numbers thats to be seen any where. There is very fine China and silver things and irons and jarrs and perfume potts of silver. Ye common Roomes are all new, Convenient and neate with Double doores lined to prevent noises. Ye Stair Case is wanscoated, very noble, fine Pictures, there is ye battle at la Hogue a Large sea piece wth an jnscription of ye admiralls valour when ye great ship ye Gunn was burnt and mightily valued by ye ffrench King.

From thence I went 8 mile to Ely wch were as long as the 12 I Came from St Edmondsbery, ye wayes being very deep; its mostly Lanes and Low moorish ground on Each Side deffended by ye ffendiks wch are deep ditches wth draines. Ye ffenns are full of water and mudd these also Encompass their grounds, Each mans part 10 or a dozen acres a piece or more, so these dieks are the fences. On Each side they plant willows so there is 2 rows of trees runns round ye ground wch Looks very finely to see a flatt of many miles so planted but it must be ill to Live there. All this while Ely minster is in one's view at a mile distant you would think, but go, it is a Long 4 miles. A mile distant from ye town is a Little Hamlet from wch I descended from a steep hill and so Cross a bridge over water wch Enters into ye Island of Ely, and so you pass a flatt on a Gravel Causey wch way ye Bishop is at ye Charge to repaire Else there would be no passing in ye summer. This is secured by some dikes wch surround more grounds as ye former, full of Rows of trees and willows round them wch makes Ely looke finely through those trees, and yt stands very high. In the winter this Caussey is over flowed and they have no way but boates to pass in. They Cut peate out of some of these grounds. The raines now had fallen so as in some places near ye Citty ye Caussey was Covered, and a Remarkable deliverance I had, for my horse Earnest to drinke ran to get more depth of water than ye Caussey had, was on ye brinke of one of these dikes, but by a speciall providence wch I desire never to forget and allways to be thankfull for, Escaped. Yt bridge was over the River Linn wch Comes from Norfolke and does almost Encompass the jsland of Ely wch is 20 mile in bigness, in wch are severall Little towns as Wisbech and many others. There is another River that joyns wth ye Linn wch Compasses this land into an jsland. At this bridge is a gate, but by reason of ye great raines ye roades were full of water, even quite to ye town wch you ascend a very steep hill into, but ye dirtyest place I ever saw, not a bitt of pitching in ye streetes, so its a perfect quagmire ye whole Citty, only just about ye palace and Churches the streetes are well enough for breadth, but for want of pitching it seemes only a harbour to breed and nest vermine in of wch there is plenty Enough, so that tho' my Chamber was near 20 Stepps up I had froggs and slow worms and snailes in my Roome, but suppose it was brought up wth ye faggotts. But it Cannot but be jnfested wth all such things being altogether moorish ffenny ground wch Lyes Low: it is true were the Least Care taken to pitch their streetes it would make it Looke more properly an habitation for human beings and not a Cage or nest of unclean Creatures. It must needs be very unhealthy tho' the natives say much to the Contrary wch proceeds from Custom and use, otherwise to persons born in up and dry Countryes it must destroy them Like Rotten sheep in Consumptions and Rhums.

The Bishop does not Care to stay long in this place not being for his health; he is the Lord of all the jsland, has the Command and ye jurisdiction. They have lost their Charter and so are no Corporation but all things are directed by the Bishop and its a shame he does not see it better ordered and ye buildings and streetes put in a better Condition. They are a slothful people and for little but ye takeing Care of their Grounds and Cattle wch is of vast advantage. Where the yeares prove drye they gaine so much that in Case 6 or 7 wet yeares drown them all over, the one good yeare sufficiently Repaires their loss.

There is a good palace for the Bishop built of stone, but it was unfurnished. There are two Churches; Ely minster is a Curious pile of Building all of stone, the outside full of Carvings and great arches and fine pillars in the front, and the jnside has the greatest variety and neatness in the works. There are two Chappels most Exactly Carved in stone all sorts of figures, Cherubims Gilt and painted in some parts. Ye Roofe of one Chappell was one Entire stone most delicately Carved, and hung down in great poynts all about ye Church. The pillars are Carv'd and painted wth ye history of ye bible, Especially the new testament and description of Christs miracles. The Lanthorn in ye quire is vastly high and delicately painted and fine Carv'd worke all of wood, in it the bells used to be hung, five, the dimention of ye biggest was so much when they rung them it shooke ye quire so and ye Carv'd worke that it was thought unsafe, therefore they were taken down. Its 80 odd steps to the top of ye Lanthorn and 160 steps round in Compass. There are very good monuments and abundance of niches in the walls where Statues have been; there is one of white marble Laying at length and so Exactly Cut yt ye hand lookes Extreamely natural, the sinewes and veines and every turn of ye fingers so finely done as to appear very proper. There is another that was a Bishop made by Queen Elizabeth whose garments and all are marble and so finely Embroydered Carv'd and painted and gilt and a verge all down before and Round ye neck wth ye ffigures of the apostles done in Embroydery as it were, all marble very fine. There was 4 or 5 more good Marble Statues. There was on one of ye Pillars ye shape of ye seameless Coate wch Christ wore. In another place there is a great Red Cross very high on some of ye arches, and its very dangerous to go or Climbe round, the pillars to it being of a vast height and this used to be as a pennance to ye people in ye tyme of popery. There is one Chappell for Confession wth a Roome and Chaire of State for ye priest to set to hear ye people on their knees Confess into his Eare through a hole in ye wall. This Church has ye most popish remaines in its walls of any I have seen. There still remaines a Cross over the alter; the Candlesticks are 3 quarters of a yd high massy silver gilt very heavy. The ffont is one Entire piece of White Marble stemm and foote, the Cover was Carv'd wood wth ye image of Chsts being baptised by John and the holy Dove Descending on him, all finely Carv'd white wood wth out any paint or varnish. They Draw up the Cover by a pully and so Let it down again wch shutts Close unless against raines then it swells open as it did now and I believe in yt Citty its usually annoy'd with wet. This Cathedrall was much frequented by the priests in K James the Seconds tyme and many of their Relicts washed ffaire to be seen, and ye woman told me the priest use to shew her where Every thing was, and they hoped quickly to be in possession of it, and made many promises how kind they would be to them their retainers to the Church; but blessed be God yt put a tymely stop to the protestants utter ruin and ye hopes of the papists. When I was upon the tower I Could see Cambridg and a great prospect of ye Country wch by reason of ye great rains just before under water, all the ffenny ground being all on a flatt unless it be one side of the town wch is all the high dry grounds, into wch they drive up their Cattle to secure them in the wet seasons. There is no tradeing in the town, their maine buissiness and dependance is on draining and fencing their Grounds and breeding and grasseing Cattle. There is a fine gate of stone arch'd Like a Church wch is Called the abbey, but no remaines of ye Abby Left, only as its built into houses for the Doctors and Clergy, within which is the palace for the Bishop which is their temporall as well as spiritual prince or Lord. From this Citty I passed over those higher grounds on wch was some good Corn but mostly is for grass for their Cattle. You see many pretty Little towns 4 or 5 in view together 2 or 3 miles distant. I went to Sutton, one of them, 6 miles off the Citty, this was a Little Market town; thence to ye ffenn banks on ye top of which I Rode at Least two miles wth ye ffenns on both sides wch now were mostly under water, a vast tract of such grounds wch are divided by the Dikes wth out trees, as those I observ'd before, and these high banks are made to draine and ffence out ye water from ye Lower grounds, and so from one banck to another wch are once in many acres of Land 100, so that at length it does bear off the water but in the winter it returns, so as they are forced to watch and be all wayes in repaireing those bancks; and Considering ye vast allowance yearly for draining those fenns at least 3000£ P an. I wonder they have not perfectly runn off ye water and so Barracadoed it as not to (?) soe it often overflows it againe as it does in many places; but they are all a lazy sort of people and are afraid to do too much. Here I see yt many swans nests on Little Hillocks of Earth in the wett ground that they Look as if swimming wth their nests, some were with their young signetts, 3 or 4 in heape wth their damms hovering over them for their security. This brought me to the Armitage along 8 mile in all from Ely town, and here I Repass'd the River Lin on a wooden Bridge and so went out of ye jsland of Ely wch was in Cambridgshire and Entred into Huntingdonshire.

There was another bridge over a deep place of ye River under wch the boates and barges went, and this bridge was in the water; one must pass thro' water to it and so beyond it a good way, and ye Road was so full of holes and quicksands I durst not venture, ye water Covering them over and a stranger there Cannot Easily Escape ye danger, tho' I see the Carryers went yt way to save the Expense of ye fferry, but I Rather chose to Ride round and fferry over in a boate 2 pence a horse to a Little town. This river runs along by St Ives wch was an old monastery and a Rich one. From this fferry its 8 mile to Huntington town; one goes much in sight of ye River and ye severall places built on its bancks wch Looks well – these are pretty long miles. From Huntington town I went to Stillton 9 mile more, and thence I went to ye Citty of Peterborough in Lincolnshire wch was 5 long miles, the wayes deep and full of Sloughs. It stands very high and to be seen at a great distance ye towers of ye minster being all in view – one would think it but a quarter of a mile when you have a mile or two still to it. Ye whole Citty Looks very well and handsomely built but mostly timber worke: you pass over a Long stone bridg. The Streetes are very clean and neate, well pitch'd and broad as one shall see any where, there is a very spacious market place, a good Cross and town Hall on the top. The Cathedrall is a magnificent building standing in the midst on advanced ground, all stone, ye walls very neately wrought, the front is in 3 great arches full of Small stone pillars smoothly turn'd and halfe paces as it were in ye 2 side arches, the head is wth no high tower but 5 Little ones, 3 of wch in the middle are higher and bigger than the other; between Each are 3 peakes Like great Canteliver windows but all finely Carv'd in stone. Ye middle arch is the Entrance wch is Exceeding Lofty, as is the Roofe of ye whole, and so well painted that it appears to be hollow Carving, this seems to be the two remarkable things in ye whole. Its a spacious place, but one large jsle wch is in ye middle Leading up to ye quire, where I observed they put ye seate of any of their deceased dignatorys of ye Church in Black wth an Escutcheon: here was one, so now here was ye Statue of ye person yt was last abbott and first Bishop of ye place; there was also ye 2 monuments of 2 queens, yt of Catherine of Spain being Harry ye 8ths queen, and also the statute of ye queen Mary of Scotts that was both beheaded and buried here, and there is also ye picture of an old man wth ye Inscription of ye whole matter, wch was ye Sexton and dugg both their graves. Here is a pallace for ye Bishop, of stone Building very neate, and ye Doctors houses, all in a space Called the Colledg – very neate but nothing Curious. The river Linn washes the town almost round; it Looks like a very jndustrious thriveing town – spinning and knitting amongst ye ordinary people.

I went thence to Wansford and passed by Mrs St Johns house wch stands on a hill a mile from ye town in a fine parke. There was no gate to Peterborough town and as I pass'd ye Road I saw upon ye walls of ye ordinary peoples houses and walls of their out houses, ye Cow dung plaister'd up to drie in Cakes wch they use for fireing, its a very offensive fewell, but ye Country people use Little Else in these parts. Wansford is 5 mile from Peterborough, where I passed over the Bridge wch Entred me into Northhamptonshire, the town being part in that shire wch is towards London, ye other in Lincolnshire wch a mile or two farther joyns wth Rutlandshire at Stamford, wch town stands in ye 3 Countyes, where I Lay at "ye Swan in Wansford in England," being a jest on a man makeing hay fell a sleep on a heap of it, and a great storme washed ye Hay and man into ye River and Carry'd him to ye Bridge, where he awoke and knew not where he was, Called to ye people in ye grounds and told them he liv'd in a place Called Wansford in England wch goes for a jest on ye men of Wansford to this Day.

Thence I went to Durant 5 miles and passed over a very good stone bridge. Here we are neare ye quarry's of stone, and all ye houses and walls are built of stone as in Glocestershire. This River and bridge Enter'd me into Leicestershire wch is a very Rich Country – Red land, good Corne of all sorts and grass, both fields and jnclosures. You see a great way upon their hills ye bottoms full of Enclosures, woods and different sort of manureing and Herbage, amongst wch are placed many little towns wch gives great pleasure of ye travellers to view. Ye miles are long but hither its pretty hard good way; to Coppingham 5 mile more wch is a neate market town. Satturday is their market wch is very good affording great quantetyes of Corn, Leather garne and Cattle; such a Concourse of people yt my Landlord told me he used to have 100 horse set up at his jnn, and there were many publick houses. Here you see very Large fine sheep and very good land, but very deep bad roads. From hence to Leister wch they Call but 13 miles, but ye longest 13 I ever went and ye most tiresome being full of sloughs, yt I was near 11 hours going but 25 mile, as they Reckon it, between Wansford and Leicester town – a footman Could have gone much faster than I Could Ride. Their fewell here is as I said but Cowdung or Coale wch they are supplyed with out of Warwickshire. Leicester town stands on the Side of a little riseing Ground, tho' at a distance from ye adjacent hills it Looks Low, but its a good prospect. It has 4 gates, ye streetes are pretty Large and well pitch'd, there are five parishes; the Market place is a Large space very handsome wth a good Market Cross and town hall. Ye river Sow wch runs into ye river Reeke and both Empts themselves into ye Trent. Trent to ye Bow Bridge wch is one arch over into ye Priory, wch King Richd ye third pass'd over out of ye Priory when he went to fight in Bosworth field wth King Henry the seventh, but the stone he struck his heele at and against, wth wch his head was struck at his return when brought athwart the horse Dead, I Could not see it, being removed, but I saw a piece of his tombstone he Lay in, wch was Cut out in exact form for his body to Lye in; yt remains to be seen at ye Greyhound in Leaster but is partly broken. There I saw a piece of ye jury wall as its Called being in arches and was a place where the Jews burnt their sacrifices.

There are two Hospitalls, one for old men ye other women 24 in number; they are allowed 2s : 8d pr weeke, Candle, fewell oatmeale, butter and salt. I saw the Library wch is pretty large, there was two Large Divinity Books the arch-Bishop gave them lately, and the names of all their Benefactors; there was one book all written hand by a scribe before printing was found out, it was a fine vellum; and there was another Book of ye New Testament in Chineaze Language and Characteur. Ye town is old timber building Except one or two of Brick. There is Indeed that they Call ye Newark wch is Encompass'd wth a wall of a good thickness and two great gates wth towers as the town gates are, in wch they keep their arms and amunition, Ye walls now are only to secure gardens that are made of ye ruin'd places that were buildings of strength. In this Newark wch is a large space of ground are severall good houses some of stone and Brick In which some Lawyers Live ffrank; there is also a new pile of Building all of Brick wch is the Guild Hall where ye assizes are kept twice in ye yeare and ye session quarterly.

St Martins Church wch is one of ye biggest – there is none very big and none fine – but here I saw Hyricks tomb who was major of ye town and was married to one wife 52 years in all, wch tyme he buried neither man woman or Child tho' most tymes he had 20 in his family, his age was 79 and his widdow 97 at her death, she saw 142 of her posterity together. They have a water-house and a water mill to turn ye water in deep Leaden tubbs or Cisterns for their use: there are wells in some streetes to draw water by a hand wheele for ye Common use of the town.

The major and alderman goes about in procession on Holy Thursday which was ye day I was there. Here are a great many descenters in this town. This Country as I sd was all Rich deep land, and they plough their land all wth ploughs wth out wheeles as they do in Oxfordshire and other deep lands. From thence I passed to Bosworth 8 miles, and went by a Gentlemans house and thro' a little parke where the deer were very tame, and passed through Bosworth and over ye ground where was ye battle between King Richard yt Lost his Life by ye hand of ye Earle of Richmond afterwards King Henry ye Seventh, who was Crown'd in this Bosworth field wth ye Crown taken off from King Richards head, who being dead was Ignominiously Cast aCross a horse and Carried to Leicester and buried there as a just judgmt of God for Killing his two nephews and reigning in their stead.

This is a great flatt full of good Enclosures. Near this is Narsby where was ye great battle fought between King Charles ye First and ye parliamt of England. From thence I went to Fallmouth 7 miles more and so into Warwickshire over a bridge. This is a little market town; thence 3 miles more to Tamworth a neate town built of Brick and mostly new; in sight at its approach it look'd like Litchfield but not a quarter so big a market town, it stands halfe in Warwickshire and halfe in Staffordshire, and so to Litchfield over a large stone bridg that Crosses ye Tamworth river that gives name to ye town. To Litchfield is 5 mile more all very good way mostly Gravel; I went it in an hour. This side Entring ye town I Came by a Large good Almshouse wch I saw not before. They have in this town a Custome at Whitsontide ye Monday and Tuesday Call'd ye green Bower feast, by which they hold their Charter. The Bailiff and Sheriff assist at ye Cerimony of dressing up Baby's wth garlands of flowers and Carry it in procession through all ye streetes, and then assemble themselves at ye Market place and so go on in a solemn procession through the great streete to a hill beyond ye town where is a Large Bower made wth greens in wch they have their feast. Many lesser Bowers they make about for Conveniency of ye Whole Company and for selling fruite Sweetemeetes and Gingerbread wch is a Chief Entertainment.

Thence I went to Woolsely 7 mile farther, to Sr Charles Woolsley where I staid 6 weekes it being my aunt his Lady who Engaged My stay. His seate stands very finely by ye river Trent; there is also a moate almost round ye house. Ye house is old timble building, only a Large parlour and noble stair Case wth handsome Chambers Sr Charles has new built. It is built round a Court wth a gate house wch Leads to ye outward Court that has a paved walke, broad stone ye same as ye first Court is paved with.

There are green spaces and a fine green banck wth box or philteroy hedge Cut round. There are very good gardens abundance of fruite of all sorts and ye ffinest dwarfe trees I ever saw, so thick like a hedge and a huge Compass Every single tree, and very full of fruite of apples, pears and Cherries; there are fine flowers, Heber roses white and yellow; there was a fine Sena trees yt bears a great Branch of yellow fflowers. Ye ground Lyes all well about ye house and a fine park by the End of it, part of wch is on a high hill ye side of wch the deer sport themselves, wch looks just on ye house and is wonderfull pleasant: its a Large parke 6 miles round full of stately woods and replenish'd wth red and fallow deer, one part of it is pretty full of Billberryes wch thrive under ye shade of ye oakes, its a black berry as big as a large pea and are Ripe about Harvest. There is a very ill Custome amongst them now not to be broken, when they are Ripe. The Country Comes and makes Boothes and a sort of faire ye outside of ye parke, and so gather ye berries and sell ym about ye Country. The greenes they Call Wissums and on these wissums the Deer Brouse in ye winter and on holly of which there is great quantetys. In Kankwood just by there is also great quantety's of fferne wch tho' it over runs their ground and so spoiles ye grass where its much, yet ye usefullness of it renders it necessary to be preserv'd; when it is at its maturity wch happens just before harvest or hay tyme, ye whole Country are Employ'd in Cutting it up and burning it in heapes for ye sake of ye ashes wch they make fine and Rowle them up in Balls and so sell them or use them all ye year for washing and scouring, and send much up to London, ye ashe balls being Easily sent about, without wch they would have no ashes in the Country for such uses; for their fewell is altogether Coales wch Indeed are very good and plenty, you might have a load for 3 or 4 shillings brought home yt would serve a poore mans familly ye winter. Its in great pieces and so Cloven burns light so as the poorer sort works by it and so it serves for heate and light: its very shineing Coale all about this Country tho' they Complaine they have lost ye vein of the best sort wch they Call Channell Coale and is ye sort they have still in Wales and Lancashire wch burnt much Lighter and less waste, but this I thought to be very good, no better than it. I have in London given 40s for such a Load.

In this parke is severall ponds wch affords good ffish, as does ye moate and ye Trent as trout, Eeles, tench, perch &c, the Largest perch I ever saw just Caught and dress'd immediately wch Eates in perfection. Ye hill in ye parck Called Hartshill is so high that from ye top of it you see near 20 miles round, and shews all ye Country wch in this part of Staffordshire is full of woods and jnclosures and good land, Except ye Kanck-wood wch is but a barren heath ground, but good wood – its fine for Hawking in ye heath. Its full of little Brookes and Rivulets wch abounds with Crawfish and they were the sweetest and Largest I have seen any where. From hence to Stafford town is 5 mile – you go by ye banck of ye Trent most of ye way and passing over two Rivers on stone bridges, Called ye Sore and the Pink wch both Empt themselves into ye Trent and so Enter ye town through a gate. Its an old built town, timber and plaister pretty much, in Long peaked Rooffes of tileing; 3 gates to the town – there was another wch Leads to the Castle wch now is ruinated, and only remaines on a hill the fortification trenches yt are grown over wth green. Ye streetes are pretty Large and well pitched; a broad space for ye market place Wherein is a good Market house on stone pillars wth a handsome town hall over it – some of the houses are pretty good. This Country is much for Entertainments, in every house you must Eate and drinke.

From thence back to Woolsley againe 5 miles, from thence to Heywood parke wch was 2 mile where Lived a Daughter of my aunt Woolsley – marryed Mr Hedgewood – a little neate box they Live in.

From thence back againe 2 miles. To the Kank wood is pleasant Rideing, its 20 mile long belongs to ye Lord Paget, there are 4 lodges; in it a great deale of wood and deer and goates. I went to Ffurnes Coppice wch is 4 mile – on it a fine Covert of tall trees on a hill and a mile farther was a fine wood Called Hedgford; Poole a quarter of a mile long full of good fish; thence home 5 mile. Another day I went to Stiles Coppice 3 mile off wch is on a high hill and a fine tufft of trees, it Looks but Little at a distance but is a fine Covert for ye sheep and Cattle: I went quite round it from whence Could see ye Country a good distance and see into 7 Countys together, Warwickshire, Leicestershire Glocestershire Derbyshire Staffordshire Shropshire and Cheshire; so home againe by Ridgly a mile aboute so it was 4 mile.

Another day I went to Boudezworth the Lord Pagets house 4 mile off, and passed by ye Coale pitts where they were digging: they draw up the Coale in baskets with a Little wheele or Windlass like a well – its very good.

Lord Paget's house is old Brick built, ye ffront is uniforme and very handsome with towers, but there is no good roome but a Long gallery thats worth seeing: its a fine parke; just by it is a high hill on wch is the remaines of an old ffortification, they Call it the Castle wall, its of very great antiquity but now grown over wth grass; from thence the prospect of the Country is great. The parke is of Large Extent and some of those pitts are in it – ye Channell Coales, but ye water has over flow'd some of them and spoyl'd their digging; thence I went home againe 4 miles – Another day I went to Panckeridge race over ye Kankwood 7 mile, where were most of ye Gentlemen and Ladies of the Country, severall Coaches and six horses, Indeed ye miles are Long and ye wayes bad in the winter that obliges them to drive more horses; these were persons of good Estates also. There appear'd only one horse to run for ye plaite which was a salver; thence to Woolesley again 7 mile more. Its a fine Country here about for Rideing one has a pleaseing prospect Every way Especially on any advanc'd ground.

I went to Brinsy Coppice wch was 4 mile, thence Could see towards Shrewsbury and ye high hill the Reekee, and in a Cleare day Could see something of Chester, and so home againe 4 mile more. Another day I went upon Jtching hill 1 mile wch is a sort of Rock, but ye stone is of a Red Coullour and looks Like a sandy stone by its Moldring, but they tell me when its wrought in a wall and have been season'd wth ye weather it grows very hard and serviceable in building. From thence I went a Compass round to Heywood parke 4 mile off and yn home againe 2 miles; and another day I went the same tour about to Heywood parke and back wch was 6 mile more. While I stay'd at Woolsley I went directly to Heywood parke above what I mentioned before and returned home wch was in all 8 miles, and another day I went to a poole in the Kanckwood 3 mile to ffish and from thence to Heywood parke thro' a very fine Coppice of trees on a hanging brow of a hill wch Look'd very fine, and so home 2 mile more. I name ye number of miles I went only to see ye whole acco of miles I travell'd this yeare. These Coppices there are many of them wch is a good shelter for ye Cattle.

Another journey to Darby town from Woolsley by Colton and Blithbery 3 mile, thence to Yoxwell 3 mile over Nedwood forest of ye King, wch is 40 mile in Extent, all ye way you have a fine prospect of ye Country, Enclosed good lands, admirable Corne of all sorts, good grass: I went in sight of Tetbery Castle wch is ye Kings – a great ffortification, but all decay'd – here 4 mile more and there it was that I pass ye river Dove on a stone Bridge Called Dovebridge wch Enters me into Darbyshire and thence its 8 mile more to Darby town.

Darby town Lies down in a bottom built all of brick or for ye most part; in it are 5 Churches built of stone ye biggest of wch I was in, ye tower was finely Carv'd full of niches and Pedistals where on Statues had been set, but nothing worth notice in ye jnside except a monument wch was over ye vault of ye Duke of Devonshire, on wch stands 2 Effigees at length all of white marble ye Earle and his Countess of Devonshire wth an arch or Cannopy of Stone over their heads; this is rail'd in wth Iron gates. There is also another statue of marble painted and Gilded lying at length wch is also railed in. Ye River Derwent runns by the town and turns many mills, and ye water Engine wch turns ye water into ye pipes that serves ye town, ye same wheele grinds also, but they do it for a half penny a strike wch is the same measure as our Bushill. At this Engine they Can grind if its never so high a flood, wch hinders all ye other from working at ye flood, they are quite Choaked up, but this they Can set higher or lower just as the water is. There are bays wch they make wth stones to keep the water to run to ye mill and thence it falls againe into ye Derwent; there is also a fine stone Conduit in the Market place, wch is very spacious, well pitch'd a good Market Cross. This is a dear place for strangers notwithstanding ye plentyfullness of all provision. My Dinner Cost me 5s and 8d, only 2 servant men wth me and I had but a shoulder of mutton and bread and beer.

Here they mak great quantetys of gloves, I did not observe or Learn any other trade or Manufacture, they had only shops of all sorts of things. They Carry much of their Carriages on sledges to secure their pitching in the streetes. Thence I went to Chartly 6 mile Lord Fferrers, and thence Bradby Lord Chesterfields, and passed by a fine parke of some Gentlemans in wch was a summer house on ye side of ye hill amongst fine tall trees wch Look'd very well, and on ye Right hand I turned up to ye Earle of Chesterfields parke full of fine Rows of trees running up ye avenue to ye house. One Enters an outward Court and drives round a Little pond like a ditch all pav'd wth stone, or great basin of stone, in which were two swans swimming about in yt little Compass; ye gates are all jron barrs and the whole front of ye house open jron pallasadoe spikes in a Compass round Like a half moone. Answerable to yt beyond ye stable yard is another such a demy Circle of open pallasadoe, yt lets you out to ye prospect of ye grounds beyond, full of regular Rows of trees. Ye house has a visto quite thro, by a glass bellcony door into ye gardens, and so to ye parke beyond on yt side. Ye front have something surpriseing in it; its all of free stone wch is dipt in oyle that adds a varnish to its Lustre as well as security to its foundation. Ye Roofe is not flatt as our Modern buildings so ye garret windows Come out on ye tileing wch is all flatt. None of ye windows are sashes which in my opinion is ye only thing it wants to render it a Compleate building: its halfe a roman H. There is an ascent of 5 or 6 steps all stone to ye gates, and so you proceed on a broad paved walke wch is divided by a Cross walke of ye same towards ye upper End; thence ye ascent by as many more stone steps into a noble hall yt has a Row of white marble pillars at ye upper End. Ye middle a Little roome wth a marble table in the middle wch is ye Balcony into ye Garden, but yts without Steps down into ye Garden. From these Rows of Pillars on ye Right hand runs a passage to ye Servants roome and all the offices, and at ye End is a Chappell wch was very neate. Over ye alter is a large ovall of Glass of ye sort of Private glass used in Windows to obscure ye Sight from without, but hinders not ye Light wth inside; this Look'd pretty as being particular and uncomon.

There was a little organ and Closets for ye Lord and Ladies to sitt in. From ye hall on the left hand Enters into a Large roome wth a billiard table, from thence into a Large parlour and 2 drawing-roomes, – there was a good dineing roome. Above, ye drawing Roome had Company in it, ye Earle having just marry'd his Eldest daughter Lady Mary to one Mr Cooke a Gentleman of a good Estate hard by, so there was Company to wishe her joy; but I was in severall bed Chambers, one had a Crimson damaske bed, ye other Crimson velvet set upon halfe paces: this best was ye bride Chamber wch used to be Call'd ye Silver roome where ye stands, table, and fire utensills were all massy silver, but when plaite was in nomination to pay a tax, ye Earle of Chesterfield sold it all and ye plaite of ye house, so that when ye table was spread I saw only spoones, salts and forks and ye side board plaite, noe plaites or dishes and but few salvers. Ye pictures was all burnt by a fire and so there are only bare walls. One Roome was painted over head – ye others frettwork, but yt wch is most admired, and justly so to be by all persons, and Excite their Curiosity to Come and see is ye gardens and waterworks. Out of ye Billiard Roome ye first was with Gravell walks, and a large fountaine in the middle with flower potts and Greens set Round ye Brimm of ye fountaines that are paved wth stone. You see but one garden at a tyme. The Pipes in ye fountaines play very finely, some of a great height, some fflushes ye water about; then you Come to a descent of severall steps wch discovers anothr fine garden wth fountaines playing through pipes besett on ye branches wth all sort of Greens and flower trees, dwarfe honeysuckles in a Round tuff growing upright, and all sorts of flower trees and greens finely cutt and Exactly kept. In one garden there are 3 fountaines wherein stands great statues; Each side on their pedistalls is a dial one for ye Sun ye other a Clock wch by ye water worke is moved and strikes ye hours, and Chimes ye quarters, and when they please play Lilibolaro on ye Chimes: all this I heard when I was there. On one side of this garden is a half Compass wth a breast wall on wch are high jron pallisadoes divided with severall Pillars, stone with Images on their tops about 2 yards distance; this opens to view ye parke and a sort of Cannall or pond wch is in it of a good bigness. Beyond this Garden is a Row of orange and Lemon trees set in ye ground, of a man's height and pretty big, full of flowers and some Large fruit almost Ripe: this has a pent house over it wch is Cover'd up very Close in the winter. This Leads on to a great wilderness and Just by it is another Square wth a fountaine whose brim is deck'd with flower potts full of flowers and all sorts of greens; on Either side is 2 or 3 rows of orange and Lemon trees in boxes one below another in growth.

Just against this is a wall Cover'd over wth Lawrell finely Cutt, and also in ye middle is an arch, and on Either side stone staires ascends it wch terminate in a sort of half pace all Cover'd over wth Lawrell, and this Enters a doore into another Garden through a little garden house. This also has a fine fountaine Like ye others, only as most of ye others was green walks this was Gravell, so was the garden on ye Right side of ye house. Ye front Garden wch has ye Largest fountaine has also a fine Green house and very fine flowers, and ye beds and borders are Cut in severall formes; ye Greens are very fine and ye hedges Cutt in severall formes; there was one tree not much unlike ye Cyprus green but ye branches were more spread and of a Little yellower green, ye Barke of ye Limbs yellow – it was ye Cedar of Lebonus. There was also fine strip'd stocks, Double Like a Rose. There was a Large Ewe tree in ye middle of one Garden Cut in forms, fine ffirrs and Cyprus and ffilleroy of wch some was striped Like silver, white, others yellow Like Gold, wch gave them their different names, and fine gilded and striped Hollys.

There was one green in a pott Call'd St John ye baptists herb, it was full of many Leaves and ye Coullour not much unlike the green they Call Solomons Seale but longer and bigger Leaves; its an annual plant. Here just by ye wilderness is ye tulip tree wch runns up of a great height and ye flower is on ye top; it flowers in August. There is a great avery of Birds wch stands Like a sumer house open; there is also many Close averys of Birds and severall Green shady walks and Close arbours. There are very fine woodbines grows like tuffs all in flower Red and white. There is some of ye fountaines that have figures in them that throws up water a greate height – a Cascade of water.

Then I returned into ye hall and so into a Coole roome in wch was a fountaine where I dranke a Glass of wine and so proceeded. This was 3 miles from Chartry, thence through a fine visto or Glide of trees wch runs along ye parke and so to Burton on ye Trent 2 long miles. This is a pretty large town; here is a very long stone bridge over ye Trent: the Streetes are very well pitch'd and some very broad.

Thence over Nedwood fforest 6 mile, and thence to Yoxsell, wch is 6 mile more to Woolsley and they are all Long miles; then I went againe to Stafford town 5 miles and from thence to Jnstree Mr Thetwins – its bad way. You go by St Thomas's wch was some old abbey – its still a good house.

Going along ye side of ye hill gives a great view of ye Country that is mostly jnclosures we passed between two parkes, ye one is Lord astons, and goe in sight of Tixall hall wch is a good house and Looks handsomely of stone building: the other was Mr Thetwins parke wch has fine Rows of trees – ffirrs Scots and Noroway and ye picanther – the ffront lookes nobly. Noe flatt Roofed houses in this Country but much in windows. Two Large bow windows on Each side runns up ye whole building, ye middle the same besides much flatt window between, so that ye whole is Little besides window. Its built brick and stone, the part to ye garden ward is new building of ye new fashion and sash windows. Ye Court is 2 or 5 stepps up wth open jron pallasadoes ye breadth of ye house and a broad paved walk wch Leads up to ye doore in the Middle. Ye visto is quite through ye house to ye gardens and through a long walke of trees of a mile through the parke to a Lodge or summer house at ye End, wch Lookes very finely, it being a Riseing ground up to ye parke. There is a Crosse paved walke in ye Court wch Leads to a little house on Each End like summer houses, wth towers and balls on ye top; ye one Leads through to ye Churchyard wch is planted wth Rows of Ewe trees very uniforme and Cutt neately. Ye Church is new and very handsome, good frettworke on ye top, the wood worke well Carv'd, its seates good wanscoate and with locks.

In the Chancell are two monuments of Marble, one all white, ye other white with a border Black, and with white pillars; the middle at ye bottom is alabaster. The pillars of ye Church is made of ye Red stone wch is plenty in this Country and they are all polished over; the ffront is all white marble; stem ye same veined bleu, ye foot is black, ye Cover is wood Carv'd very well. The porch is very high on wch is a dyal, it almost breakes ones neck to Looke up at it for yt ye tower in wch are 5 bells. There is just against this a garden.

On ye other side the dwelling house wch is severall steps up it – Gravell walkes full of flowers and greens and a box hedge Cut finely with Little trees, some Cut round, and another hedge of strip'd holly Cut Even and some of Lawrell Cut Even Likewise. Out of this you go into a flower garden divided into knotts, in which were 14 Cyprus trees wch were grown up very tall some of them, and kept Cutt Close in four squares down to ye bottom. Towards ye top they Enclined to a point or spire. Thence into another garden wth gravell walkes, and so into a summer house through wch you Enter a good Bowling green, wch also goes out of another garden, wch takes in ye whole breadth of ye house and is full of flowers and greens and dwarfe trees and little borders of Severall sorts of greens Cut Even and Close, of tyme, severall sorts and of savin wch is another Coullour, and of Lavender Cotten another Coullour, and Rosemary and severall others. From this Bowling green in ye Middle you descend 18 stepps in a Demi Circle inwards halfe way, then ye stones are set round and so ye half pace is, and ye other stepps are Round turned outward, and ye Lowest much ye Largest as was ye uppermost of ye first. This leads to a place designed for ponds to keep ffish, in but this place will not admitt of any water works altho' its a deep Dirty Country. They neither have good gravell or marle to make a pond secure to hold water, nor are they near Enough ye springs, but are forced to be supply'd wth water by pipes from ye River trent that is a mile off, and yet the whole place seems a quage, and when one is descended ye hill this seemes to be the only thing wanting, for just by the Bowling-green is a very fine wilderness with many Large walks of a great Length full of all sorts of trees, scycamores, willows, Hazel, Chesnutts, walnuts, set very thicke and so shorn smooth to ye top wch is left as a tuff or Crown – they are very Lofty in growth wch makes ye Length of a walke Look Nobly. There is also a Row on ye outside of firrs round Every grove 2 yards or 3 distant – some silver ffirrs – some Norroway – some Scotts and pine trees: these hold their beauty round ye groves in ye winter when ye others Cast their Leaves. This was from Stafford 3 mile and to Woolsley was 3 mile more through narrow stoney Lanes through great Heywood.

Att Jnstree, Mr Shetwins, I saw a fine pomegranate tree as tall as myself, the Leafe is a long slender Leafe of a yellowish green Edged wth red and feeles pretty thicke, ye Blossom is white and very double. There was a terrass walke in one of ye Gardens that gave ye full prospect of ye Country a great way about – its a deep Country – you are going these 3 miles to Woolsley a great while. There was at Sr Charles Woolsly's some of ye best good land and some of ye worst, as is ye Kankwood, but here ye Roads are pretty good and hard wch makes it pleasant. There is much fine fruite here Sr Charles takeing great delight in his Gardens, I must say I never saw trees so well dress'd and pruned, ye walls so Equally Cover'd as there. There is severall sorts of strawbery's but ye vermillion is ye finest, very large as any Garden strawbery and of a fine scarlet Coullour, but its a Later sort; there was a pretty almond tree in Bloome ye flower not unlike a Rosemary flower. From thence I tooke my progress Northward and went from hence to NewCastle under Line, through Stone wch was 9 miles, and then to Trentum, and passed by a great house of Mr Leveston Gore, and went on the side of a high hill below which the River Trent rann and turn'd its silver streame forward and backward into s. s wch Looked very pleasant Circleing about ye fine meadows in their flourishing tyme bedecked wth hay almost Ripe and flowers. 6 mile more to NewCastle under Line where is the fine shineing Channell Coale; so ye proverb to both ye NewCastles of bringing Coales to ym is a needless Labour, one being famous for this Coale thats Cloven and makes white ashes as is this, and ye NewCastle on ye Tyne is for ye sea Coale yt Cakes and is what is Common and famillier to every smith in all villages. I went to this NewCastle in Staffordshire to see the makeing of ye fine tea potts. Cups and saucers of ye fine red Earth in imitation and as Curious as yt wch Comes from China, but was defeated in my design, they Comeing to an End of their Clay they made use of for yt sort of ware, and therefore was remov'd to some other place where they were not settled at their work so Could not see it; therefore I went on to Beteby 6 miles farther and went by a Ruinated Castle ye walls still remaining Called Healy Castle – this was deep Clay way. This town is halfe in Staffordshire and halfe in Cheshire, one side of ye streete in ye one, and ye other in ye latter, so yt they often jest on it in travelling one wheele goes in Staffordshire ye other wheele in Cheshire.

Here is a great mer or standing water 2 miles Compass – great store of good fish; it belongs to one Mr Egerton: thence I went to Nantwitch 5 long miles. Nantwitch is a pretty large town and well built: here are ye salt springs of wch they make salt and many salterns wch were a boyling ye salt. This is a pretty Rich land; you must travell on a Causey; I went 3 miles on a Causey through much wood Its from Nantwitch to Chester town 14 long miles, ye wayes being deep: its much on Enclosures and I passed by severall large pooles of waters, but what I wonder'd at was yt tho' this shire is remarkable for a greate deale of greate Cheeses and Dairys I did not see more than 20 or 30 Cowes in a troope feeding, but on Enquiry find ye Custome of ye Country to joyn their milking together of a whole village and so make their great Cheeses. West Chester town lies in a bottom and runs a greate length and is pretty big – there are 10 Churches.

The Cathedrall is Large and Lofty, ye quire well Carv'd, fine tapistry hangings at ye alter, a good organ: The Bishops pallace is on the Right hand of it and the Doctors houses, all built of Stone. There is a new hall building wch is for ye assize and it stands on great Stone pillars wch is to be ye exchange wch will be very Convenient and handsome; the hall is round, its built of Bricke and Stone Coynes, there are Leads all round wth battlements and in the middle is a tower, there are ballconies on ye Side and windows quite round ye Cupillow that shews ye whole town round. There is another town hall – a long Lofty place, and another by the Side wch is Called the Councill Roome both for ye Major and Aldermen to meete for ye buissinesse of ye Corporation. Ye town is walled all aboute wth battlemts and a walke all round pav'd wth stone, I allmost Encompass'd ye walls. Ye streetes are of a greate breadth, but there is one thing takes much from their appeareing so and from their beauty, for on each side in most places they have made penthouses so broad set on pillars wch persons walk under Covert, and is made up and down steps under which are ware houses. Tho' a penthouse or pallasadoe be convenient for security from ye sun or weather and were it no broader than for two to passe one by ye other it would be well and No dissight to ye grace of ye Streetes, but this does darken ye streetes and hinder ye Light of ye houses in many places to ye streete ward below, indeed in some places were it only before ye Chiefe persons houses it would be Convenient where its flatt and Even wth the streetes. The town is mostly timber buildings, the trade and Concourse of people to it is Chiefly from the jntercourse it has with Ireland – most take this passage; and also ye jntercourse wth Wales wch is parted from it and England by ye river Dee wch washes ye Castle Walls in wch they keep their Stores, but nothing fine in it. The walls and towers seemes in good repaire. At the End of ye town just by the Castle you Crosse over a very large and Long Bridge over the River Dee wch has the tyde Comes up much beyond the town; its 7 mile off yt it falls into ye sea, but its very broad below ye town, when at high tyde is like a very broad sea: there they have a little Dock and build shipps of 200 tunn, I saw some on the stocks.

Cross this River by this Bridge Enters Fflintshire and so Crossed over ye marches wch is hazardous to strangers, therefore Mr Wm Allen – wch was ye major of Chester that time and gave me a very Civil treate being an acquaintance of my Brother Sr Edmund Harrison – so order'd his son and another Gentleman to Ride wth me to Direct, to Harding wch was 5 miles. Just by that was a very fine new built house of Brick and in ye Exact forme of ye London Architecture wch was this Mr Majors house and good gardens.

Att Harding, where was my Relation Dr Percivalls wife who was Minister of yt place: his parish was 8 miles in Extent and 2 lordships in it, and ye ruines of two great Castles in it remaines – its good Rich Land here, much on Enclosures and woods.

In a tarresse walke in my Relations garden I could very plainly see Chester and ye River Dee with all its Washes over the Marsh ground wch look'd very finely: here are sands wch makes it very difficult for strangers to passe wth out a guide. From hence my Relation Carry'd me to Holly Well and pass'd thro' Flint town wch is the shire town 5 mile from harding; its a very Ragged place many villages in England are better, ye houses all thatched and stone walls, but so decay'd that in many places Ready are to tumble down. There was a town hall such a one as it was; it was at a Session tyme wn I was there wch shew'd it at its Prime. There is a Castle wch still remaines wth its towers built of stone, its down to ye water side: from thence to Holy well is 3 mile mostly by ye water side wch is Reckon'd the sea – here I went just in sight of high Lake where were many shipps Rideing along that harbour.

St Winfreds Well is built over wth stone on Pillars Like a Tryumphall arch or tower on ye gates of a Church, there is a pavemt of stone wth in – round 3 sides of ye well wch is joyn'd on ye fourth side by a great arch of stone wch Lies over ye water yt runs of from ye well; its many springs wch bubbles up very fast and Lookes Cleane in a Compass wch is 8 square walled in wth stone. In ye bottom wch you see as Clear as Chrystall are 9 stones Layd in an oval on wch are dropps of Red Coullour some almost quite Covering the top of ye stone, wch is pretended to be ye blood of this holy saint whose head was struck off here and so where her body Laid this spring burst forth and remaines till now a very Rapid Current, wch runs off from this well under a barre by wch there are stone stepps for ye persons to descend wch will bathe themselves in the well, and so they walke along ye Streame to the other End and then come out, but there is nothing to Shelter them but are Exposed to all the Company that are walking about ye well and to ye Little houses and part of ye Streete wch runs along by it but ye Religeuse are not to mind it, it seemes the saint they do honour to in this place must beare them out in all things. They tell of many lameness's and aches and distempers wch are Cured by it, its a Cold water and Cleare and runs off very quick so yt it would be a pleasant refreshmt in ye sumer to washe ones self in it, but its shallow not up to ye Waste so its not Easye to Dive and washe in, but I thinke I Could not have been persuaded to have gone in unless I might have had Curtains to have drawn about some part of it to have shelter'd from ye Streete, for ye wett garments are no Covering to ye body; but there I saw abundance of ye devout papists on their Knees all round a well. Poor people are deluded into an jgnorant blind zeale and to be pity'd by us yt have the advantage of knowing better and ought to be better. There is some stones of a Reddish Coullour in ye well sd to be some of St Winifred's blood also, wch ye poore people take out and bring to ye strangers for Curiosity and Relicts, and also moss about ye bancks full of great virtue for Every thing. But its a Certaine gaine to ye poore people – every one gives them something for bringing them moss and ye stones, but lest they should in length of tyme be quite gather'd up they take Care to replenish it dayly from some mossy hill and so stick it along ye sides of ye well – there is good streames runs from it and by meanes of steepe descent runs down and turns mills. They come also to drinke of ye water wch they take up in ye first square wch is walled round and where the springs Rise and they say its of wonder full operation. Ye taste to me was but like good spring water wch wth wine and sugar and Lemons might make a pleasant Draught after walking amongst those shady trees of wch there is a great many and some straight and tall like a grove but not very uniforme. From thence I went back to Harding wch is 8 very Long Miles. At Holly well they speake Welsh; the inhabitants go barefoote and bare leg'd – a nasty sort of people. Their meate is very small here, Mutton is noe bigger than Little Lamb, what of it there is was sweete; their wine good being Neare ye Sea side, and are well provided with ffish – very good Salmon and Eeles and other ffish I had at Harding. This shire is improperly Called Fflintshire there being noe flints in all ye Country. There are great Coale pitts of the Channell Coale thats Cloven huge great pieces: they have great wheeles that are turned wth horses yt draw up the water and so draine the Mines wch would Else be over flowed so as they Could not dig the Coale; they have also Engines yt draw up their Coale in sort of baskets Like hand barrows wch they wind up like a Bucket in a well, for their mines are dug down through a sort of well and sometymes its pretty Low before they Come to ye Coales; it makes ye Road unsafe because of ye Coale pitts and also from ye Sloughs and quicksands, all here about being mostly near ye bancks of ye water. In this Country are quarrys of Stone, Copper and Iron Mines and salt hills, its a hilly place, very steep descents and great many very high hills, but I went not so farre as Pen Ma Mower but Cross'd ye river Dee haveing first went two mile by these Coale mines (at least 10) in a place (?) its a thing wch holds neer two bushell that is their Basket they draw up wch is bought for 6 pence. I forded over ye Dee when ye tide was out all upon the sands at Least a mile, wch was as smooth as a Die being a few hours left of ye flood. Ye sands are here soe Loose yt the tydes does move them from one place to another at Every flood, yt the same place one used to ffoard a month or two before is not to be pass'd now, for as it brings the sands in heaps to one place so it leaves others in deep holes wch are Cover'd wth water and Loose sand that would swallow up a horse or Carriages; so I had two Guides to Conduct me over. The Carriages wch are used to it and pass Continually at ye Ebbs of water observes ye drift of sands and so Escape ye danger. It was at least a mile I went on ye sands before I Came to ye middle of ye Channell wch was pretty deep and with such a Current or tyde wch was falling out to sea together wth ye wind, the horses feete could scarce stand against it, but it was but narrow just the deep part of the Channell and so soone over. When the tyde is fully out they frequently fford in many places wch they marke as the sands fall and Can go near 9 or 10 mile over ye sands from Chester to Burton or to Flint town almost; but many persons that have known the ffoards well yt have Come a year or halfe a year after, if they venture on their former knowledge have been overwhelm'd in the Ditches made by ye sands wch is deep Enough to swallow up a Coach or waggon; but they Convey their Coales from Wales and any other things by waggon when the tyde is out to Chester and other parts. From Burton wch was on ye side of England the shore, I went to ye fferry 9 miles to the river Meresy another great River and a perfect sea for 20 mile or more. It Comes out of Lancashire from Warrington and both this and ye Dee Empts themselves into ye sea almost together a few Leagues from Leverpoole, wch poole is form'd by a poynt of land that runs almost round the Entrance from ye sea, being narrow and hazardous to strangers to saile in in the winter. Ye mouth of ye river by reason of ye Sands and Rocks is a gate to ye River; this I ferry'd over and was an hour and halfe in ye passage, its of great breadth and at low water is so deep and salt as ye sea almost, tho' it does not Cast so green a hew on ye water as ye sea, but else the waves toss and ye Rocks grate all round it and is as dangerous as ye sea. Its a sort of Hoy that I ferried over and my horses – ye boate would have held 100 people.

Leverpoole wch is in Lancashire is built just on the river Mersy mostly new built houses of brick and stone after the London fashion; ye first original was a few fishermens houses and now is grown to a large fine town and but a parish and one Church, tho' there be 24 streetes in it. There is Indeed a little Chappell and there are a great many dessenters in the town. Its a very Rich trading town, ye houses of Brick and stone built high and Even that a streete quite through Lookes very handsome – the streetes well pitched. There are abundance of persons you see very well dress'd and of good fashion, ye streetes are faire and Long, its London in miniature as much as ever I saw anything. There is a very pretty Exchange stands on 8 pillars besides the Corners wch are Each Arche pillars all of stone and its railed in, over wch is a very handsome town hall – over all is a tower and Cupilow thats so high that from thence one has ye whole view of ye town and the Country round – in a Clear day you may see ye Jsle of Man wch also was in view from out of Wales at Harding on the high tarrass walke in my Cos'n Percivalls garden.

Thence to Prescote 7 very long miles, but pretty good way, mostly Lanes; there I passed by Nosel the Earle of Darbys house wch Looked very nobly wth many towers and balls on them; it stands amongst tall trees and Lookes like a pleasant grove all about it, its an old house runs a great Compass of ground. Ye town of Prescote stands on a high hill, a very pretty neate Market town – a Large market place and broad streetes well pitch'd.

Thence to Wiggon, 7 long miles more mostly in Lanes and some hollow wayes and some pretty deep stony way so forced us upon ye high Causey, but some of ye way was good wch I went pretty fast and yet by reason of the tediousness of ye miles for length I was 5 hours going that 14 mile; I could have gone 30 miles about London in ye tyme. There was pretty much woods and Lanes through which I passed, and pass'd by a mer or Lake of water; there are many of these here about, but not going through Ormskerk. I avoided going by the famous Mer Call'd Martin mer that as ye proverb sayes has parted many a man and his mare – indeed it being neare evening and not getting a Guide I was a little afraid to go that way it being very hazardous for Strangers to passe by it. Some part of yt mer one Mr Ffleetewood has been at ye Expence to draine so as to be able to use the ground for tillage, having by trenches and floodgates wth banks shutt out ye waters yt still kept it a marsh and moorish ground, but it was a very great Charge; however it shews by industry and some Expence, if Gentlemen would set about it, Most of ye waste ground thats now a ffenny Moor and Mostly water might be rendered usefull and in a few yeares answere ye first great Charge on it. Wiggons is another pretty Market town built of stone and brick : here it is that the fine Channell Coales are in perfection – burns as light as a Candle – set the Coales together wth some fire and it shall give a snap and burn up light. Of this Coale they make Saltcellars, Stand-dishes and many boxes and things wch are sent about for Curiositys and sold in London and are often offer'd in the Exchange in Company wth white or black marble and most people deceived by them wch have not been in those Countrys and know it, but such persons discover it and will Call for a Candle to trye them whether marble or Coale: its very finely pollish'd and Lookes much like jett or Ebany wood for wch one might Easily take it when in boxes &c &c. I bought some of them for Curiosity sake. 2 mile off Wigon towards Warrington (wch was some of my way back againe but for ye Curiosity's sake I did,) is the Burning well wch burns like brandy; its a little sorry hole in one of ye grounds 100 yards from ye Road that Comes from Warrington to Wiggon just by a hedge or banck, its full of dirt and mud almost but the water Continually bubbles up as if it were a pott boyling wch is the spring or severall springs in that place; Nevertheless I felt ye water and it was a Cold Spring. Ye man wch shewed it me, wth a dish tooke out a good quantety of ye water and threw away and then wth a piece of Rush he lighted by a Candle yt he brought in a lanthorne, he set ye water in ye well on fire and it burn'd blewish just like spirits and Continued a good while, but by reason of ye great raines yt ffell ye night before ye spring was weaker and had not thrown off the raine water, otherwise it used to flame all over ye well a good height, now it burnt weaker; at last the wind blew out ye mans Candle and he severall tymes lighted ye bitt of Rush or splinter of wood by ye flame yt burnt in ye well. This is a little unaccountable; I apprehend its a sort of an unctious matter in ye Earth and soe through its veines the springs run wch Causes it so to burn, for I observ'd when they dug into ye banche and opened the sort of Clay or mudd, it burnt fiercer and more from ye well. I returned againe to Wiggon two mile and thence to Preston and passed by Sr John Bradshaws house wch stood on ye declineing of a hill in ye midst of a fine grove of trees. Severall fine walkes and Rows of trees thereabout; just in the Road on the banck where on the hedge stood was Errected a high stone pillar Carv'd and a ball on ye top with an jnscription Cutt on it shewing the Cause of it, being the monument of an officer that in a fight just there, his horse takeing ye hedge and Ditch on some distaste he tooke at ye Gunns and smoake, flung out his sword out of ye scabbard and flung his Master down on ye poynt of it wch ran him through that he dyed and Lyes buried on ye Spott.

Preston is reckon'd but 12 mile from Wiggon but they Exceed in Length by farre those yt I thought long the day before from Leverpoole; its true to avoid the many Mers and marshy places it was a great Compass I tooke, and passed down and up very steep hills, and this way was good Gravell way; but passing by many very Large arches yt were only single ones but as Large as two great gate wayes, and ye water I went through yt ran under them was so shallow notwithstanding these were Extreme high arches, I enquired the Meaneing and was inform'd that on great raines those brookes would be swelled to so great a height that unless those arches were so high, noe passing while it were so.

They are but narrow bridges for foote or horse and at such floods they are fforced in many places to boate it till they Come to those arches on the great Bridges wch are across their great Rivers; this happens sometymes on sudden great showers for a day or two in ye summer, but ye winter is often or mostly soe that there are deep waters so as not Easily Cross'd; but once in 3 or 4 years there is some of those very greate floods I mentioned before, that they are fforced to boate from bridge to bridge wch is little Enough then to secure them. I passed by at Least half a dozn of these high single arches besides severall great stone Bridges of 4 or 6 arches which are very high also over their greatest rivers. Preston stands on a hill and is a very good market town; Satterday is their market wch day I was there and saw it was provided with all sorts of things – Leather, Corn Coales, butter, Cheese and fruite and garden things: there is a very spacious Market place and pretty Church and severall good houses. At ye Entrance of ye town was a very good house wch was a Lawyers all stone work 5 windows in ye front and high built according to ye Eastern building near London; the ascent to ye house was 14 or 15 stone stepps Large and a handsome Court with open jron Pallasadoes in the gate, and on Each side, the whole breadth of ye house, wch discover'd the gardens on Each side of the house, neately kept flowers and greens; there was also many steps up to ye house from ye Court – it was a Compleate building. There was 2 or 3 more such houses in ye town and Indeed the Generallity of ye buildings, Especially in 2 or 3 of ye great streetes were very handsome, better than in most Country towns and ye streetes spacious and well pitch'd. I was about 4 houres going this twelve mile and Could have gone 20 in the tyme in most Countrys, nay by the people of these parts this twelve is as long and as much tyme taken up in going it as to go from thence to Lancaster wch is 20 mile, and I Can Confirme this by my own Experience for I went to Goscoyne wch is 10 miles and halfe way to Lancaster in two houres, where I baited, and here it was I was first presented wth ye Clap bread wch is much talked of made all of oates. I was surpris'd when the Cloth was Laid, they brought a great Basket such as one uses to undress Children with and set it on the table full of thin waffers as big as Pancakes and drye that they Easily breake into shivers, but Coming to dinner found it to be ye only thing I must Eate for bread. Ye taste of oate bread is pleasant enough and where its well made is very acceptable, but for ye most part its scarce baked and full of drye flour on ye outside. Ye description of how its made ought to Come in here but I Reserve it to ye place I saw it made at the best way. As I Come to this place which was much over downs or a Race ground I Came along by some of ye old Picts walls, ye ruines of which here and there remaines in many parts of ye Country. Gascoyn is a little market town – one Church in it wch is a mile off from ye town, and ye parish is 8 miles long, which discourag'd me in staying there being Satterday night and so pressed on to Lancaster.

I percieve most of ye parishes are a great tract of Land and very Large and also beneficial, for all over Lancastershire the revenues of ye parsonages are Considerable 2 and 300£ 500 and 800 a piece, ye parson at Liverpool has 1100 a yeare, and its frequent Everywhere 3 or 400£. Thence to Lancaster town 10 mile more which I Easily Reached in 2 hours and a halfe or 3 hours; I passed through abundance of villages almost at ye End of Every mile, mostly all along Lanes being an Enclosed Country. They have one good thing in most parts of this principality, or County palatine its rather Call'd, that at all Cross wayes there are posts wth hands pointing to each road wth ye names of ye great town or market towns that it Leads to, wch does make up for ye Length of ye miles yt strangers may not Loose their Road and have it to goe back againe. You have a great divertion on this road haveing a pleasing prospect of ye Countrys a great distance round, and see it full of jnclosures and some woods, three miles off ye town you see it very plaine and ye sea, Even ye main ocean; in one place an arm of it Comes up wth in 2 mile of ye town. Ye River Liene runs by the town and so into ye sea. Ye situation of Lancaster town is very good, ye Church neately built of stone, ye Castle wch is just by, both on a very great ascent from ye Rest of ye town and so is in open view, ye town and River Lying Round it beneath. On ye Castle tower walking quite round by ye battlements I saw ye whole town and river at a view, wch runs almost quite round and returns againe by ye town, and saw ye sea beyond and ye great high hills beyond yt part of ye sea, wch are in Wales, and also into Westmoreland to the great hills there Called ffurness ffells or hills, being a string of vast high hills together: also into Cumberland to ye great hill Called Black Comb hill whence they digg their black Lead and no where Else; but they open ye mine but once in Severall yeares. I also saw into Yorkshire, – there is Lead, Copper, gold and silver in some of those hills and marble and Christall also.

Lancaster town is old and much decay'd: there has been a monastery, the walls of part of it remaine and some of ye Carv'd stones and ffigures; there is in it a good garden and a pond in it wth a little jsland on wch an apple tree grows – a Jenitin; and Strawberys all round its Rootes and ye banks of the Little jsle. There are 2 pretty wells and a vault that Leads a great way under ground up as farre as ye Castle, wch is a good distance. In the River there are great weres or falls of water made for Salmon ffishing, where they hang their nets and Catch great quantety's of ffish, wch is neare the bridge. The town seemes not to be much in trade as some others, but the great store of fish makes them Live plentifully as also the great plenty of all provisions. The streets are some of them well pitch'd and of a good size; when I came into the town the stones were so slippery Crossing some Channells that my horse was quite down on his nose, but did at length recover himself, and so I was not thrown off or jnjured wch I desire to bless God for, as for the many preservations I mett with. I Cannot say the town seemes a lazy town and there are trades of all sorts, there is a Large meeteing house, but their minister was but a mean preacher; there are 2 Churches in the town which are pretty near Each other.

Thence I went to Kendall in Westmoreland over steepe stony hills all like Rocks, 6 miles to one Lady Middleton, and by some Gentlemen wch were travelling that way that was their acquaintance, had the advantage of going through her parke, and saved the going Round a bad stony passage. It was very pleasant under the shade of the tall trees. It was an old timber house, but the family being from home we had a free passage through it on to the Road againe, much of wch was stony and steep – far worse than the Peake in Darbyshire. This Lady Middleton was a papist and I believe the Gentlemen yt was travelling were too. Thence to Kendall ten mile more, most of ye way was in Lanes when I was out of the stony hills, and then into jnclosed Lands, here in 6 miles to the town you have very Rich good Land Enclosed – Little round green hills flourishing wth Corn and grass as green and fresh, being in the prime season in July. There is not much woods but only the hedge rows round the grounds wch Looks very fine. In these Northern Countyes they have only the summer Graine, as barley, oates, peas, beans, and Lentils, noe wheate or Rhye for they are so cold and Late in their yeare they Cannot venture at that sort of tillage, so have none but what they are supply'd out of other Countys adjacent. The Land seemes here in many places very ffertile; they have much Rhye in Lancashire Yorkshire and Stafford and Shropshire and so Herriford and Worcestershire, wch I found very troublesome in my journeys, for they would not own they had any such thing in their bread, but it so disagrees wth me as allwayes to make me sick wch I found by its Effects whenever I met wth any, tho' I did not discern it by the taste; in Suffolke and Norfolke I also met wth it, but in these parts its altogether ye oatbread. Kendall is a town built all of stone, one very broad streete in which is the Market Crosse; its a goode tradeing town mostly famed for the Cottons: Kendall Cotton is used for blanckets and the Scotts use them for their Plodds and there is much made here and also Linsiwoolseys, and a great deale of Leather tann'd here, and all sorts of Commodityes – twice a weeke is ye market ffurnished wth all sorts of things.

The River Can wch gives name to the town is pretty Large but full of Rocks and stones that makes shelves and falls in the water, its stor'd wth plenty of good ffish and there are great ffalls of water partly naturall and added to by putting more stones in manner of Wyers, at wch they Catch Salmon when they Leape with speares. The Roaring of ye water at these places sometymes does foretell wet weather; they do observe when the water roares most in the fall on the Northside it will be ffaire, if on the Southside of the town it will be wet. Some of them are falls as high as a house. The same observation is at Lancaster at the Wires where they Catch Salmon; against Stormes or raines it will be turbulent and Rore as may be heard into the town. There are 3 or 4 good houses in the town, ye rest are like good traders houses very neate and tight. The streetes are all pitch'd wch is Extreame Easy to be repair'd, for the whole Country is like one Entire Rock or pitching almost all ye Roads. At the Kings arms, one Mrs Rowlandson, she does pott up the Charr ffish the best of any in the Country: I was Curious to have some and so bespoke some of her, and also was as Curious to see the great water wch is the only place that ffish is to be found in, and so went from Kendall to Bondor 6 miles thro' narrow Lanes, but the Lands in ye jnclosures are Rich. But here Can be noe Carriages, but very narrow ones like Little wheele-barrows that with a horse they Convey their fewell and all things Else. They also use horses on which they have a sort of Pannyers some Close, some open, that they strew full of hay turff and Lime and Dung and Every thing they would use, and the reason is plaine, from the narrowness of the Lanes where is good Lands they will Loose as Little as they Can, and where its hilly and stoney no other Carriages Can pass, so they use these horse Carriages, and abundance of horses I see all about Kendall streetes with their Burdens. This Kendall is the biggest town and much in ye heart of Westmoreland, but Appleby 10 mile off is the shire town where the session and assizes are held and is 7 miles to this great Lake Wiandermer or great standing water wch is 10 mile long and near halfe a mile over in some places. It has many Little hills or jsles in it, one of a great bigness of 30 acres of ground on which is a house, ye Gentleman that is Lord of ye Manour Lives in it – Sr Christopher Phillips; he has a great Command of ye water and of ye villages thereabout and many Priviledges, he makes a Major or Bailiff of ye place during life; its but a small mean place, Mr Majors was the best Entertaining house where I was. Ye Isle did not Looke to be so bigg at ye shore, but takeing boate I went on it and found it as large and very good Barley and oates and grass. The water is very Cleer and full of good ffish, but ye Charr ffish being out of season Could not Easily be taken, so I saw none alive but of other ffish I had a very good supper. The season of the Charr ffish is between Michaelmas and Christmas; at that tyme I have had of them, wch they pott with sweete spices. They are as big as a small trout, Rather slenderer and ye skinn full of spotts, some Red Like the finns of a Perch and the jnside flesh Looks as Red as any salmon if they are in season; their taste is very Rich and fatt tho' not so strong or Clogging as the Lamprys are, but its as fatt and Rich a food. This great water seemes to flow and wane about with ye wind but it does not Ebb and flow Like the sea with the tyde, neither does it run so as to be perceivable, tho' at ye End of it a Little Rivulet trills from it into the Sea, but it seemes to be a standing Lake Encompass'd with vast high hills, yt are perfect Rocks and barren ground of a vast height, from which many Little Springs out of ye Rock does bubble up and descend down and fall into this water. Notwithstanding great raines ye water does not seem much Encreas'd tho' it must be so, then it does draine off more at the End of the Lake. These hills wch they Call Ffurness Ffells a long Row Continued some miles, and some of them are Call'd Donum ffells and soe from the places they adjoyne to are named, but they hold the whole length of the water wch is 10 mile; they have fome parts of them that has wayes that they Can by degrees in a Compass ascend them and so they go onward. In the Countrys, they are fferried over the Lake when they go to market. On ye other side over those ffells there is a sort of Stones Like Rubbish or Broken pieces of stones, wch Lies about a quarry, that Lies all in the bottom of ye water; where its so shallow as at the shores it is and very Cleer you see the bottom; between these stones are weeds wch grows up, that I had some taken up just Like samfyer and I have a fancy its a sort of sampire that Indeed is gather'd in ye Rocks by the sea and water, and this grows in the water but it resembles it in Coullour, ffigure and the taste not much unlike – it was somewhat waterish. There was also fine moss growing in the bottom of ye water. Here it was I saw ye oat Clap bread made. They mix their flour with water, so soft as to rowle it in their hands into a ball, and then they have a board made round and something hollow in the middle riseing by degrees all round to the Edge a little higher, but so little as one would take it to be only a board warp'd, this is to Cast out the Cake thinn and so they Clap it round and drive it to ye Edge in a Due proportion till drove as thinn as a paper and still they Clap it and drive it round, and then they have a plaite of jron same size wth their Clap board, and so shove off the Cake on it and so set it on Coales and bake it; when Enough on one side they slide it off and put the other side; if their jron plaite is smooth and they take Care their Coales or Embers are not too hot but just to make it Looke yellow, it will bake and be as Crisp and pleasant to Eate as any thing you Can jmagine, but as we say of all sorts of bread there is a vast deal of difference in what is housewifely made and what is ill made, so this if its well mixed and Rowled up and but a little flour on the outside which will drye on and make it mealy is a very good sort of food. This is the sort of bread they use in all these Countrys, and in Scotland they breake into their milk or broth or Else sup that up and bite off their bread between while they spread butter on it and Eate it with their meate. They have no other Sort of bread unless at market towns and that is scarce to be had unless the market dayes, soe they make their Cake and Eate it presently, for its not so good if 2 or 3 dayes old. It made me reflect on the description made in Scripture of this Kneeding Cakes and bakeing them on the hearth whenever they had Company Come to their houses, and I Cannot but thinke it was after this manner they made their bread in ye old tymes Especially those Eastern Countryes where their bread might be soone dry'd and spoil'd. Their little Carts I was speakeing of they use hereabout, the wheeles are fastned to the axletree and so turn altogether, they hold not above what 5 wheelbarrows would Carry at three or four tymes, which the Girles and Boys and women does go about with drawn by one horse to Carry any thing they want. Here is a great deal of good grass and Summer Corn and pastures, its Rich Land in the bottoms as one may Call them Considering the vast hills above them on all sides, yet they Contain a number of Lesser hills one below another, so that tho' at one Looke you think it but a little Land Every body has; Yet it being so full of hills its many acres wch if at Length in a plain would Extend a vast way. I was about a quarter of an hour in the boate before I reach'd ye island wch is in the midst of the water so by that you may guesse at the breadth of the water in the whole, they fferry man and horse over it; its sometymes perfectly Calme. Thence I Rode almost all the waye in sight of this great water, some tymes I lost it by reason of ye great hills interposeing and so a Continu'd up hill and down hill and that pretty steep, even when I was in that they Called bottoms wch are very rich good grounds, and so I gained by degrees from Lower to higher hills wch I allwayes went up and down before I Came to another hill. At last I attained to the side of one of these hills or ffells of Rocks, wch I passed on the side much about the Middle, for Looking down to the bottom it was at Least a Mile all full of those Lesser hills and jnclosures, so Looking upward I was as farre from the top which was all Rocks, and something more barren tho' there was some trees and woods growing in ye Rocks and hanging over all down ye Brow of some of the hills. From these great ffells there are severall springs out of ye Rock that trickle down their sides, and as they meete with stones and Rocks in the way, when something obstructs their passage and so they Come with more violence, that gives a pleaseing sound and murmuring noise. These descend by degrees at last fall into the Low grounds and fructifye it wch makes ye Land soe ffruit full in the valleys, and upon those very high ffells or Rocky hills its (tho') soe high yet a moorish sort of ground whence they digg abundance of Peat wch they use for their fewell, being in many places a barren ground yeilding noe wood &c. I rode in sight of this Winander water as I was ascending another of those barren ffells wch tho' I at last was not halfe way up, yet was an hour going it up and down on the other side, going only on the side of it about ye middle of it, but it was of such a height as to shew one a great deale of ye Country when it happens to be between those hills, Else those interposeing hinders any sight but of ye Clouds. I see a good way behind me another of those waters or mers but not very bigge. These great hills are so full of Loose stones and shelves of Rocks yt its very unsafe to Ride them down.

There is good Marble amongst those Rocks. As I walked down at this place I was walled on both sides by those inaccessible high rocky barren hills wch hangs over ones head in some places and appears very terrible, and from them springs many Little Currents of water from the sides and Clefts, wch trickle down to some Lower part where it runs swiftly over the stones and shelves in the way, wch makes a pleasant Rush and murmuring noise, and Like a snowball is Encreased by Each spring trickling down on either side of those hills, and so descends into the bottoms wch are a moorish ground in wch in many places the waters stand, and so forme some of those Lakes as it did here. Ye Confluence of all these little springs being gathered together in this lake, wch was soe deep as the Current of water yt passed through it was scarce to be perceived till one Came to the farther End from whence it run a good little River and pretty quick, over wch m any bridges are Laid. Here I Came to villages of sad little hutts made up of drye walls, only stones piled together and ye Roofs of same slatt; there seemed to be little or noe tunnells for their Chimneys and have no morter or Plaister within or without. For the most part I tooke them at first sight for a sort of houses or Barns to fodder Cattle in, not thinking them to be dwelling houses, they being scattering houses, here one, there another, in some places they may be 20 or 30 together; and the Churches the same. It must needs be very Cold dwellings, but it shews some thing of ye Lazyness of ye people; indeed here and there there was a house plaister'd, but there is sad Entertainment – that sort of Clap bread and butter and Cheese and a Cup of beer all one Can have, they are 8 mile from a market town and their miles are tedious to go both for illness of way and length of ye miles.

They reckon it but 8 mile from the place I was at the night before, but I was 3 or 4 hours at Least going it. Here I found a very good smith to shoe ye horses, for these stony hills and wayes pulls off a shoe presently, and wears them as thinn that it was a Constant Charge to shoe my horses every 2 or 3 dayes, but this smith did shoe them so well and so good shoes yt they held some of the shooes 6 weekes. Ye stonyness of the wayes all here about teaches them ye art of makeing good shooes and setting them on fast. Here I cross'd one of ye stone bridges yt was pretty Large wch Entred me into Cumberlandshire. This River together with ye additionall springs Continually running into it all the way from those vaste precipices Comes into a Low place and form a broad water wch is very Cleer and Reaches 7 mile in Length, Uleswater its Called, such another water as that of Wiandermer only that reaches 10 mile in Length, from Amblside to ye sea, and this is but 7 such miles Long. Its full of such sort of Stones and flatts in the bottom as ye other, neer the brimm where its Shallowe you see it Cleer to ye bottom; this is secured on Each side by such formidable heights as those Rocky ffells in same manner as the other was. I rode the whole Length of this water by its side, sometyme a Little higher upon the side of the hill and sometyme just by the shore, and for 3 or 4 miles I Rode through a fine fforest or Parke where was deer skipping about and haires, wch by meanes of a good Greyhound I had a Little Course, but we being strangers could not so fast pursue it in the grounds full of hillocks and ffurse and soe she Escaped us. I observed the boundaries of all these great waters (which are a sort of deep Lakes or kind of standing waters) are those sort of Barren Rocky hills wch are so vastly high. I Call this a standing water because its not like other great Rivers as ye Trent Severne, Hull or Thames &c. to appear to Run wth a streame or Current, but only as it Rowles from side to side Like waves as the wind moves it; its true at the End of this being a Low fall of Ground it runs off in a Little streame. There is Exceeding good ffish here and all sorts of provision at ye market towns. Their market town was Peroth 10 long miles. A mile or two beyond this Ullswater, – Tuesday is the market day wch was the Day I came thither. Its a Long way for ye market people to goe but they and their horses are used to it and go wth much more facility than strangers. At ye end of this Ullswater is a fine round hill Look'd as green and full of wood very pleasant, wth grass and Corne very ffruitefull, and hereabout we Leave these Desart and Barren Rocky hills, not that they are Limitted to Westmoreland only for had I gone farther to ye Left hand into Cumberland I should have found more such, and they tell me farr worse for height and stony-nesse about White haven side and Cockermouth, so yt tho' both the County's have very good land and fruitfull, so they equally partake of ye bad, tho' Indeed Westmoreland takes it name from its aboundings in springs which distilling itself on Lower ground, if of a spungy soile made it marshy or Lakes, and in many places very fruitfull in summer graine and grasse, but ye northerly winds blow Cold so long on them yt they never attempt sowing their Land with wheate or Rhye. Ye stones and slatt about Peroth Look'd so Red yt at my Entrance into the town thought its buildings were all of brick, but after found it to be the Coullour of the stone wch I saw in the Quarrys Look very Red, their slatt is the same wch Cover their houses. Its a pretty Large town – a good Market for Cloth that they spinn in the Country – hempe and also woollen. Its a great Market for all sorts of Cattle, meate Corne &c &c. Here are two Rivers one Called ye Emount wch parts Cumberland and Westmoreland, wch bridge I should have passed over had I Come the direct Roade from Kendall to Peroth, but strikeing off to Ambleside to Wiandermer I came another End of ye town. In this River are greate falls of waters Call'd Cataracts, by Reason of the Rock and shelves in it wch makes a great noise wch is heard more against foul weathers into the town, tho' the bridge be halfe a mile out of ye town. The other River is Called Louder wch gives name to Lord Landsdown's house Call'd Louder hall wch is four mile from Peroth. I went to it through fine woods, the front is just faceing the great roade from Kendall and Lookes very nobly, wth severall Rows of trees wch Leads to Large jron gates, open barres, into the stable yard wch is a fine building on ye one side of ye house very uniform, and just against it is such another Row of buildings ye other side of ye house Like two wings wch is the offices. Its built Each Like a fine house jutting out at Each End and ye middle is wth Pillars, white, and Carvings Like the Entrance of a building. These are just Equal and alike and Encompass the two sides of the first Court wch Enters, with Large jron gates and jron Palasadoes in the breadth, and then there is an ascent of 15 stone steps turned round, very Large, and on the top Large jron gates pallisad of jron betweene stone pillars, wch runs the breadth of the front. This Court is with paved walks of broad stone, one broad one to the house, ye other of same breadth runs aCrosse to the stables and offices, and so there is 4 Large Squares of grass in wch there is a large Statue of Stone in the midst of Each, and 4 Little Cupids or Little Boys in Each Corner of the 4 squares. Then one ascends severall more steps to another Little Court vth open Iron Railes, and this is divided Into severall grass plotts by paved walks of stone to the severall doores, some of wch are straight, others slope: the grass plotts being seven and in Each statue the middlemost is taller than the rest, this is just the front of ye house where you Enter a porch wth Pillars of Lime stone, but yc house is ye Red sort of stone of ye Country. Below staires you Enter a space that Leads severall wayes to all the offices, and on one side is a Large parlour wch Lookes out on these green plotts wth images. The staircase very well wanscoated and Carv'd, at ye top you are Landed into a noble hall very Lofty, the top and sides are exquisitely painted by ye best hand in England which did the painting at Windsor. The Top is the Gods and goddesses that are sitting at some great feast and a great tribunal before ym ; Each Corner is the seasons of the yeare wth the variety of weather Raines and rainbows, stormy winds, sun shine, snow and frost with multitudes of other fancys and varietyes in painting and Looks very natural – it Cost 500£ that roome alone. Thence into a Dineing room and drawing roome well wanscoated of oake, Large pannells plaine, no frettwork nor Carvings or Glass worke, only in Chimney pieces. 3 handsome Chambers, one scarlet Cloth strip'd and very fashionably made up, the hangings the same, another flower'd Damaske Lined with fine jndian Embroidery, the third Roome had a blew satten bed Embroider'd. In this Roome was very fine orris hangings in wch was much silk and gold and silver; a Little Roome by in wch was a green and white Damaske Canopy bed wch was hung wth some of the same hangings being made for ye Duke of Lortherdale and had his armes in many places – by his Dying were sold to Lord Landsdon.

They Containe a Scottish story of the 4 quarters of the yeare. The roomes are all well pitch'd and well ffinish'd, and many good Pictures of ye family, and severall good fancy's of human and animals, a good gallery so adorn'd wch Leads to a Closet that Looks into ye Chappell; all things very neate tho' nothing Extraordy besides ye hall painting. The Chimney pieces are of a dark Coulld Marble wch is taken out of the ground just by – its well polish'd. There was some few white marble vein'd, but that is not Dug out of this Country. The house is a flatt rooffe and stands amidst a wood of Rows of trees, wch wth these statues and those in two gardens on Each side (wch for their walks and plantations is not ffinish'd but full of Statues) which with the house is so well Contrived to be seen at one view. Ye Lady Landsdown sent and treated me with a Breakfast, Cold things and sweete meates all serv'd in plaite, but it was so Early in the morning that she being jndisposed was not up. So I returned back 4 mile to Peroth and Came in sight of Severall Genteele seates or Gentlemens houses, and Came by a Round green spott of a Large Circumfference which they keep Cut round wth a banke round it like a Bench; its story is that it was the table a great Giant 6 yards tall, used to Dine at, and there Entertain'd anothr of nine yards tall which he afterwards killed; there is the Length in the Church yard how far he Could Leape – a great many Yards. There was also on the Church at Peroth a fine Clock wch had severall motions – there was the Starrs and signes, there was the Encrease and Changes of ye moone, by a Darke and golden side of a Little Globe. A mile from Peroth in a Low bottom and moorish place stands Mag and her sisters; the story is that these soliciting her to an unlawfull Love by an Enchantment are turned wth her into stone; the stone in the middle wch is Call'd Mag is much bigger and have some fforme Like a statue or ffigure of a body, but the Rest are but soe many Craggy stones, but they affirme they Cannot be Counted twice alike as is the story of Stonidge, but the number of these are not above 30. However what the first design of placeing them there Either as a marke of yt sort of moorish Ground or what Else, the thing is not so wonderfull as that of Stonidge, because there is noe such sort of stone in 20 miles off those downs and how they of so vast a bulk and weight should be brought thither, whereas all this Country abounds with Quarrys of stone and its mostly Rocks. The waye from thence to Carlisle over much heath where they have many stone Quarrys and Cut much peate and turff wch is their Chief fuel. Its reckon'd but 16 mile from Peroth to Carlisle, but they are pretty Long, besides my going out of ye waye above 3 or 4 mile wch made it 20. They were very Long and I was a great while Rideing it. You pass by the Little hutts and hovels the poor Live in Like Barnes – some have them daub'd wth mud-wall – others drye walls.

Carlisle stands in view at Least 4 mile distant, ye town is walled in and all built of stone. The Cathedrall stands high and very Eminent to be seen above ye town. You Enter over the Bridge and Double gates wch are jron grates and Lined wth a Case of doores of thick timber, there are 3 gates to the town, one Called the English gate at which I entred. The other the jrish wch Leads on to Whitehaven and Cockermouth, the other ye Scottish gate through which I went into Scotland. The walls of the town and Battlements and towers are in very good Repaire and Looks well. Ye Cathedrall all built of stone which Looked stately but nothing Curious; there was some few houses as ye Deans and treasurer and some of ye Doctors houses walled in with Little gardens, their fronts Looked Gracefully; Else I saw no house Except the present Majors house of brick and stone, and one house which was ye Chancellors built of stone very Lofty, 5 good sarshe windows in ye front, and this within a Stone wall'd Garden well kept, and Iron gates to discover it to view with stone Pillars. Ye streetes are very broad and handsome well Pitched.

I walked round the walls and saw the River wch twists and turns itself round the grounds, Called the Emount, wch at 3 or 4 miles off is flow'd by the sea. The other River is the Essex wch is very broad and Ebbs and flows about a mile or two off. There Remaines only some of the walls and ruines of ye Castle, wch does shew it to have been a very strong town formerly. The walls are of a prodigious thickness and vast great stones, its moated round and with draw bridges. There is a Large Market place wth a good Cross and hall, and is well supply'd as I am Inform'd wth provision at Easye rate, but my Landlady notwithstanding ran me up the Largest Reckoning for allmost nothing, it was ye dearest Lodging I met with and she pretended she Could get me nothing else; so for 2 joynts of mutton and a pinte of wine and bread and beer I had a 12 shilling Reckoning, but since I find tho' I was in the biggest house in town I was in the worst accomodation, and so found it, and a young giddy Landlady yt Could only Dress fine and Entertain the soldiers. From hence I tooke a guide the next day and so went for Scotland and Rode 3 or 4 mile by ye side of this River Emount wch is full of very good ffish. I Rode sometymes on a high Ridge over a hill, sometymes on the sands, it turning and winding about that I went almost all the way by it and saw them with boates fishing for Salmon and troute, wch made my journey very pleasant. Leaving this River I Came to the Essex wch is very broad and hazardous to Crosse Even when the tyde is out, by which it leaves a broad sand on Each side, which in some places is unsafe, made me take a good guide which Carry'd me aboute and a Crosse some part of it here, and some part in another place, it being Deep in ye Channell where I did Crosse wch was in sight of ye mouth of the river that runs into the sea. On the sand before the water was quite gone from it I saw a great bird wch Look'd almost black picking up ffish and busking in the water, it Looked like an Eagle and by its dimentions Could scarce be any other bird. Thence I went into Scotland over the river Serke which is also flowed by ye sea, but in the Summer tyme is not soe deep but Can be pass'd over – tho' pretty deep but narrow. It affords good ffish, but all here about wch are Called borderers seem to be very poor people wch I impute to their sloth. Scotland this part of it is a Low Marshy ground where they Cutt turff and peate for the fewell, tho' I should apprehend ye sea might Convey Coales to them. I see Little that they are Employ'd besides ffishing wch makes provision plentifull or Else their Cutting and Carving turff and peate, wch the women and great Girles bare legged does Lead a horse wch draws a sort of carriage, the Wheeles like a Dung-pott and hold about 4 wheele barrows. These people tho' with naked Leggs are yet wrapp'd up in plodds, a piece of woollen Like a Blanket, or Else Rideing hoods – and this when they are in their houses. I tooke them for people wch were sick, seeing 2 or 3 great wenches as tall and bigg as any woman sat hovering between their bed and Chimney corner, all jdle doing nothing or at Least was not settled to any work tho' it was nine of the Clock when I Came thither, haveing gone 7 long miles that morning. This is a Little Market town Called Adison Bank the houses Look just Like the booths at a fair, I am sure j have been in some of them that were tollerable dwellings to these, they have no Chimneys, their smoke Comes out all over the house and there are great holes in ye sides of their houses wch Letts out the smoake when they have been well smoaked in it. There is no Roome in their houses but is up to ye thatch and in which are 2 or 3 beds, Even to their parlours and buttery, and notwithstanding ye Cleaning of their parlour for me I was not able to beare the roome; the smell of the hay was a perfume and what I Rather Chose to stay and see my horses Eate their provender in the stable than to stand in yt roome for I Could not bring my self to sit down. My Landlady offered me a good dish of ffish and brought me butter in a Lairdly Dish with the Clap bread, but I Could have no stomach to Eate any of the ffood they should order, and finding they had noe wheaten bread I told her I Could not Eate their Clapt out bread, soe I bought the ffish she got for me wch was full Cheape Enough, nine pence for two pieces of Salmon halfe a one neer a yard Long, and a very Large trout of an amber Coullour, soe drinking wth out Eateing some of their wine wch was Exceeding good Claret wh they stand Conveniently for to have from France, and Indeed it was the best and truest Ffrench wine I have dranck this seven year and very Clear, I had ye first tapping of ye Little vessell and it was very fine. Then I went up to their Church wch Looks Rather Like some Little house built of stone and bricke such as our ordinary people in a village Live in. Ye doores were and ye Seates and pulpit was in so disregarded a manner that one would have thought there was no use of it, but there is a parson which Lives just by, whose house is ye best in the place, and they are all fine folks in their Sundays Cloathes. I observe ye Church yard is full of grave stones pretty Large with Coates of armes, and some had a Coronet on the Eschutcheons Cut in the stone. I saw but one house that Look'd Like a house about a quarter of a mile, wch was some gentlemans that was built 2 or 3 roomes and some over them of brick and stone, the rest were all Like Barns or hutts for Cattle. This is threescore miles from Edenborough and the neerest town to this place is 18 miles, and there would not have been much better entertainement or accomodation, and their miles are soe long in these Countrys made me afraid to venture, Least after a tedious journey I should not be able to get a bed I Could Lye in. It seemes there are very few towns Except Edenborough, Abberdeen and Kerk wch Can give better treatement to strangers, therefore for the most part persons yt travell there go from one Noblemans house to another. Those houses are all Kind of Castles and they Live great tho' in so nasty a way as all things are in even those houses one has Little Stomach to Eate or use anything, as I have been told by some that has travell'd there, and I am sure I mett with a sample of it enough to discourage my progress farther in Scotland. I attribute it wholly to their sloth for I see they sitt and do Little. I think there were one or two at Last did take spinning in hand at a Lazy way. Thence I tooke my ffish to Carry it to a place for the English to dress it and repass'd the Serke and the River Essex and there I saw ye Common people men women and Children take off their shooes, and holding up their Cloathes wade through the rivers when ye tide was out, and truely some there were that when they Come to ye other side put on shoes and stockings and had ffine Plodds Cast over them and their Garb seemed above ye Common people; but this is their Constant way of travelling from one place to anothr – if any river to pass they make no use of Bridges and have not many. I Came to Long town wch is 3 long mile from Addison Bank and is Called a Border and Indeed is very like ye Scotsland. Thence I Cross'd over a tedious long heath to Brampton a mile over Lime River and here I had my dinner dress'd – thence to Mucks hall 6 miles. Here I pass'd by my Lord Carletons which stands in the midst of woods. You goe through Lanes and Little sort of woods or hedge rows and many Little purling rivers or Brooks out of ye rocks. At Muneks Hall I Cross'd such another brooke and so out of Cumberland I Entred Northumberland. This is ye place ye judges Dine, its a sorry place for Entertainement of such a Company; here the Sherriffs meete them, it being the Entrance of Northumberland wch is much Like the other County. This it seemes Camden relates to be a Kingdom. This I am sure of, the more I travell'd Northward the Longer I found ye miles, I am sure these 6 miles and ye other 6 miles to Hartwhistle might with modesty be esteemed double the Number in most of ye Countys in England, Especially in and about 30 or 40 miles off London. I did not go 2 of those miles in an hour. Just at my Entrance into Northumberland I ascended a very steep hill of wch there are many, but one about 2 mile forward was Exceeding steep, full of great Rocks and stone – some of it along on a Row (the remainder of the Picts walls or ffortification) at ye bottom of wch was an old Castle the walls and towers of which was mostly Standing. Its a sort of Black moorish ground and so wet I observ'd as my Man Rode up that sort of precipice or steep his horses heeles Cast up water every step, and their feete Cut deepe in, Even quite up to ye top. Such up and down hills and sort of boggy ground it was and ye night Drawing fast on, ye miles so Long, that I tooke a guide to direct me to avoid those ill places. This Hartwhistle is a Little town, there was one Inn but they had noe hay nor would get none, and when my servants had got some Else where they were angry and would not Entertaine me, so I was forced to take up in a poor Cottage wch was open to ye Thatch and no partitions but hurdles plaistered. Indeed ye Loft as they Called it wch was over the other roomes was shelter'd but wth a hurdle; here I was fforced to take up my abode and ye Landlady brought me out her best sheetes wch serv'd to secure my own sheetes from her dirty blanckets, and Indeed I had her fine sheete to spread over ye top of the Clothes; but noe sleepe Could I get, they burning turff and their Chimneys are sort of fflews or open tunnills, yt ye smoake does annoy the roomes. This is but 12 miles from another part of Scotland, the houses are but a Little better built, its true the inside of them are kept a Little better. Not far from this a Mile or two is a greate hill from which rises 3 rivers: the Teese wch is ye border between Durham and York, ye Ouse that runns to Yorke, and the River Tyne which runns to NewCastle and is the divider of Northumberland and Durham. This river Tyne runns 7 miles and then joyns wth the other river Tyne that Comes out of Northumberland and so they run on to NewCastle. From Hartwhistle I went pretty much up hill and down and had the River Tyne much in view for 6 miles, then I cross'd over it on a Large stone bridge and so Rode by its bank or pretty much in sight of it on the other side to Hexholme 6 mile more. This is one of the best towns in Northumberland Except NewCastle, wch is one place the Sessions are kept for the shire; its built of Stone and looks very well, there are 2 gates to it, many streetes, some are pretty broad, all well pitch'd, wth a spacious Market place wth a town hall on the Market Crosse. Thence I went through ye Lord Darentwaters parke just by his house wch is an old building not very Large, for 3 mile in all, to a Little village where I cross'd over the Tyne on a Long Bridge of stone wth many arches. The river is in some places broader than in others, its true at this tyme of ye yeare being Midsumer the springs are the Lowest and the Rivers shallow, and where there is any Rocks or stones Left quite bare of water.

Thence I went 4 mile along by the Tyne, the road was good hard gravelly way for the most part, but very steep up hills and down; on one of these I Rode a pretty while wth a great precipice on the Right hand down to the river, it Looked hazardous, but the way was very broad. The River Looked very reffreshing and ye Cattle Coming to its sides and into it where shallow to Coole themselves in the heate, for hitherto as I met wth noe Raines, notwithstanding the great raines yt fell the 2 dayes before I Left Woolsley, and ye Little showers I had when I went to Hollywell I was not annoy'd wth wet nor Extream heat, the Clouds being a shade to me by day and Gods good providence and protection all wayes. This after noon was the hottest day I met with but it was seasonable being in July. As I drew nearer and nearer to NewCastle I met with and saw abundance of Little Carriages wth a yoke of oxen and a pair of horses together, wch is to Convey the Coales from ye pitts to ye Barges on the river. There is Little sort of Dung-potts. I suppose they hold not above 2 or three Chaudron. This is the sea Coale which is pretty much small Coale tho' some is round Coales, yet none like the Cleft coales and this is what ye smiths use and it Cakes in ye ffire and makes a great heate, but it burns not up Light unless you put most round Coales wch will burn Light, but then its soon gone and that part of ye Coale never Cakes, there fore ye small sort is as good as any – if its black and shineing, that shows its goodness. This Country all about is full of this Coale, ye sulpher of it taints ye aire and it smells strongly to strangers, – upon a high hill 2 mile from NewCastle I could see all about the Country wch was full of Coale pitts.

New-Castle Lies in a bottom very Low, it appears from this hill a greate fflatt. I saw all by the river Tyne wch runns along to Tinmouth 5 or 6 miles off, wch Could see very plaine and ye Scheld wch is the key or ffort at the mouth of ye river wch disembogues itself into ye sea; all this was in view on this high hill wch I descended – 5 mile more, in all nine from that place.

NewCastle is a town and County of itself standing part in Northumberland part in ye Bishoprick of Durham, the river Tyne being ye division. Its a noble town tho' in a bottom, it most resembles London of any place in England, its buildings Lofty and Large, of brick mostly or stone. The streetes are very broad and handsome and very well pitch'd, and many of them wth very ffine Cunduits of water in Each allwayes running into a Large stone Cistern for Every bodyes use. There is one great streete where in ye Market Crosse, there was one great Cunduit with two spouts wch falls into a Large ffountaine paved wth stone which held at Least 2 or 3 hodsheads for the jnhabitants. There are 4 gates wch are all Double gates with a sort of Bridge between Each. The west gate wch I entred I came by a Large building of bricke within bricke walls, which is the hall for the assizes and sessions for the shire of Northumberland. This is NewCastle on ye Tyne and is a town and County. There is a noble Building in the middle of the town all of stone for an Exchange on stone pillars severall rows. On the top is a building of a very Large hall for the judges to keep the assizes for the town; there is another roome for ye Major and Councill and another for the jury out of the Large roome wch is the hall, and opens into a Balcony wch Looks out on ye River and ye Key. Its a Lofty good building of stone, very uniforme on all sides wth stone pillars in the ffronts both to the streete and market place and to the waterside. There is a ffine Clock on the top just as ye Royal Exchange has. The Key is a very ffine place and Lookes itself Like an Exchange being very broad and soe full of merchants walking to and againe, and it runs off a great Length wth a great many steps down to ye water for the Conveniency of Landing or boateing their goods, and is full of Cellars or ware houses. Ye harbour is full of shipps but none that is above 2 or 300 tun Can Come up quite to the Key: its a town of greate trade. There is one Large Church built of stone wth a very high tower finely Carv'd full of spires and severall devises in the Carving – all stone. The Quire is neate as is the whole Church and Curious Carving in wood on each side the quire, and over the ffront is a great Piramidy of wood ffinely Carv'd full of spires. There was a Castle in this town but now there is noe remaines of it but some of ye walls wch are built up in houses and soe only appears as a great hill or ascent, wch in some places is 30 or 40 steps advance to the streetes that are built on ye higher ground where the Castle was. There was one place soe Like Snow Hill in London wth a fine Conduite. Their shops are good and are of Distinct trades, not selling many things in one shop as is ye Custom in most Country towns and Cittys; here is one market for Corne, another for Hay, besides all other things wch takes up two or three streetes. Satturday was their biggest Market day wch was the Day I was there, and by Reason of the extreame heate resolved to stay till the sun was Low ere I proceeded farther, so had the opportunity of seeing most of the Market wch is Like a ffaire for all sorts of provision, and good and very Cheape. I saw one buy a quarter of Lamb ffor 3d and 2d a piece: good Large poultry. Here is Leather, Woollen and Linnen and all sorts of stands for baubles. They have a very jndifferent sort of Cheese – Little things, Looks black on the outside. There is a very pleasant bowling-green, a Little walke out of the town wth a Large gravel walke round it wth two Rows of trees on Each side Makeing it very shady: there is a fine entertaineing house yt makes up the ffourth side, before wch is a paved walke and Epyasses of bricke. There is a pretty Garden, by ye side a shady walk, its a sort of spring garden where the Gentlemen and Ladyes walke in the Evening – there is a green house in the garden, its a pleasant walke to the town by ye walls. There is one broad walke by the side of ye town runns a good Length made wth Coale ashes and so well trodden, and the raines makes it firm. There is a walke all round the walls of the town. There is a good ffree school and 5 Churches. I went to see the Barber Surgeons Hall wch was within a pretty garden walled in, full of flowers and greens In potts and in the Borders; its a good neate building of Brick. There I saw the roome wth a round table in it railed round wth seates or Benches for ye Conveniency in their disecting and anatomiseing a body, and reading Lectures on all parts. There was two bodyes that had been anatomised, one the bones were fastned wth wires the other had had the flesh boyled off and so some of ye Ligeament remained and dryed wth it, and so the parts were held together by its own Muscles and sinews that were dryed wth it. Over this was another roome in wch was the skin of a man that was taken off after he was dead, and dressed, and so was stuff'd – the body and Limbs. It Look'd and felt Like a sort of parchment. In this roome I Could take a view of the whole town, it standing on high ground and a pretty Lofty building.

Just by is a very good Hospital for 14 widdows of tradesmen of the town, 2 good roomes a piece, a walke under a pyasse wth pillars of brickwork, as is the whole building: there is a Large ffountaine or Cunduite of water for their use and an open Green before their house all walled in, its in ye major and aldermans disposition, there is 2 or 300 pound a yeare to it, I thinke its 10 pound a piece. There is a very good fountaine belongs to it, and there is a fine bridge over the Tyne river wth 9 arches all built on as London bridge is, which Enters you into Durham, and on this side of ye Bridge are so many streets and buildings just Like Southwarke. Its a Little town but all is in the Liberty of ye County town of New-Castle and soe Called, but its all in the Diocess of Durham. Through part of this you do ascend a greate height and steepness wch is full of Rocky stony stepps, and afterwards the hill Continues when out of ye town till it has set you as high as on the former hill on the other side the town – wch I Entred out of Northumberland – and as that gave a Large prospect of the town and whole Country aboute on that side, soe this gives as pleasing a sight of it on this side and the whole river and shipps in the harbour. Thence I proceeded a most pleasant gravell Road on the Ridge of ye hill and had the whole Country in view, wch seems much on a flatt to this place, tho' there be a few Little steep up hills and descents, but the whole Country Looks Like a fruitfull woody place and seemes to Equal most Countys in England. 7 mile to Chester streete wch is a Little Market town, and I Rode neare Lumly Castle wch gives title and name to the Lord Lumly: the buildings Looke very Nobly, its in a 4 square tower running up to the top wth three Round towers at the top between the windows – Lookes well – its a front the four wayes, its not finely ffurnish'd.

At this Little Market town I pass'd over the River Weire wch runns to Durham, wch is 7 mile farther over a pleasant Road and Country yt resembles Black heath, you see the towns and Countrys Round full of Woods. One sees the Citty of Durham four mile off from a high hill, not but the Citty stands on a great rise of Ground and is a mile and halfe in Length. The river runs almost round the town and returns againe, that Casts the Citty into a tryangular; its not Navigeable nor possible to be made so because its so full of Rocks and vast stones, makes it difficult for any such attempt. Durham Citty stands on a great hill, the middle part much higher than the rest, the Cathedrall and Castle wch is ye pallace wth ye Colledge and all the houses of the Doctors of the Churches is altogether built of stone and all Encompass'd wth a wall full of battlements above the walke, and this is about the middle of ye hill wch is a Round hill, and a steep descent into the rest of the town, where is the market place wch is a spacious place, and a very ffaire town hall on stone Pillars and a very Large Cunduite. From this all the streets are in a pretty greate descent to ye river, which Lookes very pleasant by meanes of its turning and winding to and agen, and so there are 3 Large Stone Bridges wth severall arches apiece. The abbey or yc Cathedrall is very Large, the quire is good but nothing Extraordinary, some good painting in the Glass of the windows and wood Carving. There is over ye alter a painting of a Large Catherine Wheele which Encompasses the whole window and fills it up. The Bishops seate has severall steps up, its Called ye throne, with a Cloth of Gold Carpet before it. The seate was King Charles the first, of Crimson damaske. A good organ and a fine Clock in wch is the signes, wth Chimes, and finely Carved wth four pirramidy spires on Each Corner, a much Larger and higher one in the middle well Carv'd and painted. The ffont is of marble, the top was Carv'd wood very high, and terminates in a poynt and resembles the picture of yc Building of Babel – its not painted. The Cloysters are good. A Chapple Called St Marys now used for to keep their spiritual Courts, and in the vestry I saw severall fine Embroyder'd Coapes – 3 or 4, I saw one above the rest was so Richly Embroider'd wth the whole Description of Christs nativity, Life, Death and ascention; this is put on the Deanes shoulders at the administration of the Lords supper, here is ye only place that they use these things in England, and severall more Cerimonyes and Rites retained from the tymes of popery. There are many papists in the town, popishly affected, and daily encrease. There was great striveing in the Choice of the parliament men, wch I had the trouble of in most of my journeys, ye Randan they made in the publick houses, jndeed I happen'd to get into a quiet good jnn a good accomodation, two Maiden sisters and brother kept it – at ye Naggs head.

The Castle wch is the Bishops pallace stands on a Round hill wch has severall green walks round it, wth high bancks to secure them one above another, and on the top are the towers. About the Middle of the hill is a broad Grass walk railed in and enters into a Dineing roome. There are very stately good roomes, parlours, drawing roomes, and a noble Hall, but the ffurniture was not very ffine the best being taken down in the absence of my Lord Crew, who is not a Barron of England but is a great prince as being Bishop of the whole principallity off Durham, and has a great Royalty and authority, is as an absolute Prince and has a great Command as well as revenue; his Spirituall is 5 or 6000lb and his temporalls since his brothers Death makes it much more. He Comes sometymes hither but for the most part Lives at another Castle wch is a noble seate about 12 mile off, which is very well ffurnish'd and ffinish'd; he is the Governour as it were of the whole province. His pallace here makes a good appearance wth the severall walks one below another with rows of trees, three or four descents and ye wall at the bottom. Just by the Castle is a place for the assizes, 2 open barrs Lookes out into what is the space the College and Doctors houses are, and there is in the Middle a very ffine Large Cunduite, the water falling into the Cistern from 4 pipes, wch gives a pleaseing sound and prospect, it being arch'd with stone, and stone pillars, and Carv'd, and alsoe a high top arch ending in a ball; its the ffinest of this kind I have seen and so I must say of the whole Citty of Durham, its the noblest – Cleane and pleasant buildings, streetes Large, well pitch'd. The market Crosse is Large, a fflatt Roofe on severall Rows of Pillars of Stone and here is a good Cundit alsoe of stone. The walks are very pleasant by the river side. I went by its banck of one end of the town to the meeteing house wch stands just by the River, there was a Company of hearers at Least 300, wch on the Consideration of its being under the Dropings of ye Cathedrall its very well. They have a very good minister there, but its New-Castle that has the greate meeteing place and many Descenters; they have two very Eminent men one of their Name was Dr Gilpin whose book I have read in, but he not being at home Could not have the advantage of hearing him.

In the Evening I walk'd out at Durham to another part of the town, by another turn of the river along by its Banck, and the river here would meete were it not for a Ridge of a hill runs between, it in wch are buildings and ascends up a mile in Length, wch is one of the Parishes. In walking by this river we Came to Sr Charles Musgroves House wch is now old and ruinous but has been good. The Gardens are flourishing still wth good walks and much ffruite of wch I tasted; its a place that is used Like our Spring Gardens for the Company of the town to walk in the Evening, and its most pleasant by the river, wch by means of severall bays or wires which is of Rock, the waters has greate falls from thence, wch adds a murmuring sound acceptable to the people passing. They have good ffish in the river but its full of rocks; they talk much of makeing it Navigeable but I ffancy the many Rocks all along in it will render it a Difficult work. I went a mile to see the spaw waters and to see a salt spring in the Rock in the middle of ye river. In halfe a mile I came to a well wch had a stone Bason in it and an arch of stone over it; the taste was Like ye Sweete Spaw in Yorkshire and the Tunbridge waters.

About halfe a mile farther I Came to a well wch is Like the Sulpher Spaw, taste and Looke agreeing thereto, wch is from brimstone, but its not quite soe strong for it was a Longer tyme before the silver was Changed in it. Here I went a very bad and hazardous passage full of stones Like stepps, the water trilling Down them, and a very narrow passage by the Bushes and Bancks, but when I was got in there was noe returning, so on I went to the river wch was a Large step to goe down into, and all the river full of Shelves and Rocks.

The Spring is in the Cleft of the Rocks wch stands up in the river, and soe springs up, but when much raines falls it washes down soe fast upon it that weakens the taste. From this place I came back againe a mile. Durham has about 7 Churches wth the Cathedrall, its a noble place and the aire so Cleer and healthy that persons Enjoy much health and pleasure. From thence to Darlington wch is 14 pretty Long miles but good way, but by the way I Lost some of my nightCloths and Little things in a Bundle that the Guide I hired Carry'd. This is a Little Market town, the Market day was on Munday wch was the day I passed through it: it was a great Market of all things, a great quantety of Cattle of all sorts but mostly Beeves – it seemes once in a fortnight its much fuller. Two miles from Darlington I Came to the Ground the Hell Kettles are they talk much of, its in Grounds just by the road where Cattle were ffeeding, there are 2 pooles or ponds of Water the one Larger than ye other; ye biggest seemed to me not to be the Deepest nor is it Esteem'd soe deep; there was some sedge or flaggs growing round that, but ye fathermost wch was not soe bigg Looked a Cross that had noe flaggs or sedge on its bancks but yet it Look'd to me to Cast a green hew, Roleing waves of the water just in Coullour as the sea, and as the wind moved the water it very much resembled the sea, but the water when taken up in ye hand Look'd White and ye taste was not the Least brackish but fresh. My Conception of the Cause of ye greenish Coullour was from the greate depth of water, for the reason they Call them Hell Kettles is that there is noe sounding a bottom, wch has been try'd by plumet and Line severall ffathoms down; the water is Cold and as any other water when took up, it seemes not to Decrease in a tyme of Drought nor to advance wth great raines, it draines itself insensibly into ye ground.

This Leads me the ffarthest way to Richmond it being but 8 mile the ready Road from Darlington to Richmond, but this way it was 10 miles and very tedious miles. Three miles off Darlington I passed over Crafton Bridge which Crosses ye river Teese which Divides Durham ffrom Yorkshire, and soe Entred the North Rideing of Yorkshire in which is that they Call Richmondshire a shire of 30 miles. The way was good but Long, I went through Lanes and woods an Enclosed Country; I passed by a house of Sr Mark Melborn on a hill, a Brick building and severall towers on the top, good gardens and severall rows of trees up to the house, it standing on a hill, ye trees Runns along on ye Ridge of ye same – Looks very finely.

Richmondshire has in it 5 waking takes as they Call them, answerable to that they Call hundreds in other Countys; Each waking takes has market towns in them and are under a Baliffe Each, which are nominated by the Earle of Holderness who is the Sole Lord of the whole – its 30 mile in Extent. Richmond town one cannot see till just upon it, being Encompass'd wth great high hills: I descended a very steep hill to it from whence saw the whole town which itself stands on a hill tho' not so high as these by it. Its buildings are all stone, ye streetes are Like rocks themselves, there is a very Large space for the Markets wch are Divided for the ffish market, fflesh market, and Corn; there is a Large market Crosse, a square space walled in with severall steps up, and its flatt on the top and of a good height. There is by it a Large Church and the ruines of a Castle, the pieces of the walls on a hill. I walked round by the walls, the River running beneath a great descent to it, its full of stones and Rocks and soe very Easye to Make or keep up their wires or falls of water, wch in some places is naturall yt ye water falls over Rocks wth great force wch is Convenient for Catching Salmon by speare when they Leap over those Bayes. All rivers are Low and Dryer in the Summer soe I saw them at the greatest disadvantage being in some places almost drye and the Rocks and stones appear bare, but by those high and Large stone bridges I pass'd wch Lay aCross the Rivers shewd the Great Depth and breadth they used to be ye Winter tymes. There was two good houses in ye town, one was Mr Dareys the Earle of Holderness' brother, the other was Mr Yorkes, both stood then and were Chosen Parliament men. They had good gardens walled in, all stone, as in the whole town, though I must say it Looks Like a sad shatter'd town and fallen much to Decay and Like a Disregarded place. I passed on towards Burrowbridge and Came not farre from Hornby Castle the Earle of Holderness, and also Suddber hall 2 mile off Richmond Mr Darcys house; this Road was much on Lanes wch were narrow but Exceeding Long, some 3 or 4 mile before you Came to any open place and then I Came to a Common wch was as tedious to me, at Least 5 or 6 mile before I Came to an End of it, then I pass'd through a few Little villages and so I Came the 19 mile to Burrowbridge in Yorkshire. Here I was the most sensible of the Long Yorkshire Miles, this North Rideing of that County is much Longer Miles than the other parts which I had been in before. At Burrowbridge I pass'd the River Lid or Ouse on a Large stone Bridge: this River affords very good ffish, salmon and Codffish and plenty of Crawffish. Here I met wth the Clutter of ye Chooseing Parliament men. Thence I went for Knarsebrough 5 mile more; this dayes journey was a Long 24 miles, jndeed ye wayes were very good and drye being ye midst of summer. Here I Came to my old Landlady Mason where I Lay the yeare before to Drink the spaw, and from thence I went to Harragate over Knarsbrough fforest to Leeds 12 mile, and I went by Harwood Castle – the ruined walls some remaines. It was much in Lanes and uphills and Down hills, some Little part was open Common; on the Hill that Leads down to the town gives a pleaseing prospect of it. Leeds is a Large town, severall Large streetes, Cleane and well pitch'd and good houses all built of stone. Some have good Gardens and Steps up to their houses and walls before them. This is Esteemed the Wealthyest town of its bigness in the Country its manufacture is ye woollen Cloth – the Yorkshire Cloth in wch they are all Employ'd and are Esteemed very Rich and very proud. They have provision soe plentiful yt they may Live wth very Little Expense and get much variety; here if one Calls for a tankard of Ale wch is allwayes a groate its the only dear thing all over Yorkshire, their ale is very strong, but for paying this Groat for your ale you may have a slice of meate Either hott or Cold according to the tyme of day you Call, or Else butter and Cheese Gratis into the bargaine; this was a Generall Custom in most parts of Yorkshire but now they have almost Changed it, and tho' they still retaine the great price for the ale, yet Make strangers pay for their meate, and at some places at great rates, notwithstanding how Cheape they have all their provision. There is still this Custome on a Market day at Leeds, the sign of ye bush just by the Bridge, any body yt will goe and Call for one tanchard of ale and a pinte of wine and pay for these only shall be set to a table to Eate wth 2 or 3 dishes of good meate and a dish of sweetmeates after. Had I known this and ye Day wch was their Market I would have Come then but I happened to Come a day after ye market, however I did only pay for 3 tankards of ale and wt I Eate, and my servants was gratis. This town is full of discenters, there are 2 Large meeting places, here is also a good schoole for young Gentlewomen; the streetes are very broad, the Market Large. Thence I went to Eland 12 long mile more pretty much steep, up hills and down the same. I crossed over a River at Leeds on a Large stone bridge; ye Country is much on Enclosures, good ground.

I goe by quarreys of stone and pitts of Coales wch are both very good, soe that for fewell and building as well as good grounds for feeding Cattle and for Corne they are so well provided that together with their Industry they must needs be very Rich. All the hills about Eland is full of jnclosures and Coverts of wood yt Looks very pleasant. This town gives title to ye Marquis Hallifax son, as does Hallifax to ye Marquis. This Lyes but 5 or 6 mile hence, its a stony town and the roads to it soe stony and difficult yt I was Discouraged in going, the town now being almost ruined and Come to Decay, and ye Engine that that town was famous for to behead their Criminalls at one stroake wth a pully this was destroyed since their Charter or Liberty was Lost or taken from them, because most barbarously and rigourously acted Even wth an absolute power wch they had of all ye town; on those Informations I resolved not to goe to that ragged town tho' there are many good people and a Large meeteing.

From Eland I went to ye Blackstone Edge 8 mile, when I had gone 3 of the miles I Came to a great Precipice or vast descent of a hill as full of stones as if paved and Exceedingly steep; I take it to be much steeper than Blackstone Edge tho' not soe long. Ye End of this steep was a Little village all stony alsoe. These parts have some resemblance to Darbyshire only here are more woody places and jnclosures. Then I Came to Blackstone Edge noted all over England for a dismal high precipice and steep in the ascent and descent on Either End; its a very moorish ground all about and Even just at the top, tho' so high, that you travel on a Causey wch is very troublesome as its a moist ground soe as is usual on these high hills; they stagnate the aire and hold mist and raines almost perpetually. As I ascended, ye Morning was pretty faire, but a sort of mist met me and small raine just as I attained ye top, wch made me feare a wet day and yt the aire would have been so thick to have quite Lost me ye sight of ye Country, but when I attained ye top where is a great heap raised up wch parts Yorkshire – and there I entred Lancashire – the mist began to Lessen, and as I descended on this side ye ffog more and more went off and a Little raine fell tho' at a Little distance in our view, the sun shone on ye vale wch Indeed is of a Large Extent here, and ye advantage of soe high a hill wch is at Least 2 mile up discovers the grounds beneath as a fruitfull valley full of jnclosures and Cut hedges and trees. That wch adds to the formidableness of Blackstone Edge is that on ye one hand you have a vast precipice almost the whole way both as one ascends and descends, and in some places ye precipice is on Either hand. This hill took me up Much tyme to gaine the top and alsoe to descend it and put me in mind of the Description of ye Alpes in Italy, where the Clouds drive all about and as it were below them, wch descends Lower into Mists, then into raines and soe tho' on the top it hold snow and haile falling on the passengers, wch at Length the Lower they go Comes into raine and so into sun-shine – at the foote of those valleys, fruitfull, ye sunshine and singing of birds. This was ye acco My father gave of those Alps when he passed them and I Could not but think this Carryed some resemblance tho' in Little, yet a proportion to that.

From ye foot of this Blackstone I went to Rochdale 4 mile, a pretty neate town built all of stone; here I went to an acquaintances house Mr Taylor and was Civilly Entertained. Here is a good Large Meeteing place well filled; these parts Religion does better flourish than in places where they have better advantages. Here I observ'd the Grounds were all Enclosed with Quicksetts Cut smoothe and as Even on fine Green Bancks, and as well kept as for a Garden, and so most of my way to Manchester I Rode between such hedges, its a thing remarked by most their great Curiosity in this kind.

Manchester Lookes exceedingly well at the Entrance, – very substantiall buildings, the houses are not very Lofty but mostly of Brick and stone, the old houses are timber work; there is a very Large Church all stone and stands high soe that walking round the Church-yard you see the whole town. There is good Carving in wood in the Quire of ye Church and severall Little Chappells where in are some Little Monuments; there is one that was ye founder of ye Colledge and Library where hangs his pictures, for just by the Church is the Colledge wch is a pretty neate building wth a Large space for ye boys to play in, and a good Garden walled in; there are 60 blew Coate boys in it, I saw their appartments and was in the Cellars and Dranke of their beer wch was very good; I alsoe saw ye Kitchen and saw their bread Cutting for their supper and their piggins for their beer. There is a Cloyster round a Court, in it is a Large roome for ye judges to Eate in, and also for ye roomes for heareing and dispatching their buissness, there is a Large Library – 2 Long walls full of books on Each side, – there is alsoe ye globes at ye End and Maps, there is alsoe a Long whispering trumpet, and there I saw ye skinn of ye Rattle Snake 6 ffoote Long wth many other Curiositys, their anatomy of a man wired together, a jaw of a shark; there was a very ffine Clock and weather glass. Out of ye Library there are Leads on wch one has the sight of ye town wch is Large, as alsoe ye other town that Lyes below it Called Salfor and is Divided from this by the river Ouall over wch is a stone bridge wth many arches. Salfor has only a Little Chappell of Ease and is belonging to ye Parish of Manchester.

There is another river Called the Shark wch runs into ye Uval. The market place is Large, it takes up two streetes Length when the Market is kept for their Linnen Cloth, Cottentickings wth is the manufacture of ye town. Here is a very fine Schoole for young Gentlewomen as good as any in London, and musick and danceing and things are very plenty here – this is a thriveing place. Hence I went a very pleasant roade Much on ye downs mostly Campion ground, some few Enclosures, I went by Dunum the Earle of Warringtons house wch stands in a very fine parcke, it stands Low but appeared very well to sight, its old fashioned building wch appeares more in ye Inside, and the furniture old, but good gardens walled in. I also passed by severall Gentlemens seates, one was Mr Cholmonlys, another Mr Listers, surrounded wth good Walks and shady trees in rows, and severall Large pooles of water some Containeing severall acres. I passed over two or three stone bridges Cross Little rivers, so to Norwitch wch is 14 mile. I Entred Cheshire 3 mile before I Came to ye town, its not very Large, its full of Salt works the brine pitts being all here about, and so they make all things Convenient to follow ye makeing the salt so yt ye town is full of smoak from ye salterns on all sides. They have within these few yeares found in their brine pitts a hard Rocky salt that Lookes Cleer Like Suger Candy and its taste shews it to be salt, they Call this Rock salt, it will make very good brine wth fresh water to use quickly. This they Carry to the water side into Wales and by those Rivers that are flow'd wth ye tyde, and soe they boile these pieces of Rock in some of the salt water when ye tyde's in, wch produces as strong and good salt as the others. Thence I went to Sandy head 3 mile farther. There was 12 salterns together at Norwitch – all ye witches are places they make salt in – Nantwitch and Droctwitch they make salt, for at Each place they have the salt hills where the brine pits springs: this is not farre from ye place whence they digg the mill stones.

From Sandy Lane head where I baited, to Whit Church is 16 long miles over a Long heath for 4 or 5 mile, then to Bestonwood and Came by Beston Castle on a very high hill, ye walls remaineing round it, wch I Left a Little on my Right hand just at ye foote of ye hill, and so I Crossed ye great Road wch Comes from Nantwitch to Chester being then just ye midd way to Either, being 7 mile to Each. There I think I may say was ye only tyme I had reason to suspect I was Engaged wth some highway men. 2 fellows all on a suddain from ye wood fell into ye Road, they Look'd truss'd up wth great Coates and as it were bundles about them wch I believe was pistolls, but they dogg'd me one before ye other behind and would often Look back to Each other, and frequently justle my horse out of ye way to get between one of my servants horses and mine, and when they first Came up to us did disown their knowledge of ye way and would often stay a little behind and talke together, then Come up againe, but the providence of God so order'd it as there was men at work in ye fields haymakeing, and it being market day at WhitChurch as I drew neer to yt in 3 or 4 mile was Continually met wth some of ye market people, so they at Last Called Each other off and soe Left us and turned back; but as they Rode wth us 3 or 4 miles at Last they described the places we should Come by, and a high pillar finely painted in ye Road about 3 mile off of Whitchurch (wch accordingly we saw as we pass'd on) wch shew'd them noe strangers to ye Road as they at first pretended. I passed over a Little brooke a mile before I Came to WhitChurch wch Entred me into Shropshire. This is a Large market town, here are two very fine gardens, one belongs to an apothecary, full of all fruites and greens; ye other was at ye Crown jnn where I staid, it was exceeding neate wth oring and Lemmon trees, Mirtle, striped and gilded hollytrees, box and ffilleroy finely Cut, and ffirrs and merumsuratum wch makes the fine snuff, and fine flowers all things almost in a little tract of Garden Ground. From thence its 14 mile to Shrewsbury and pretty Level way. Ye miles were long and ye wind blew very Cold, I went on a Causey 2 or 3 miles to ye town, so yt in ye winter the way is bad and deep but on the Causey.

Ye town stands Low, ye spires of 2 of ye Churches stand high and appear Eminent above ye town, there is ye remaines of a Castle, ye walls and battlements and some towers wch I walked round, from whence had ye whole view of ye town wch is walled round wth battlements and walks round, some of which I went on. Its here the fine river Severn Encompasses ye greatest part of ye town and twines and twists its self about, its not very broad here but its very deep and is Esteemed ye finest river in England to Carry such a depth of water for 80 or more miles together Ere it runns into ye sea wch is at Bristol. This Comes out of Wales, Ross and Monmouthshire, there it turns about and Comes to ye town. On Each side there are 3 bridges over it, in ye town one of them yt I walked over had some few houses built on it, as London bridge, at one End of it. Its pleasant to walk by ye river; there is just by it the Councill house an old building. Here are three free schooles together, built of free stone, 3 Large roomes to teach the Children, wth severall masters. Ye first has 150£ a year ye second 100 ye third 50£ a year and teach Children from reading English till fit for ye University, and its free for Children not only of ye town but for all over England if they Exceed not ye numbers. Here is a very fine Market Cross of stone Carv'd, in another place there is an Exchequer or hall for ye towns affaires, there is alsoe a hall for ye Welsh manufacture. There is a water house wch supplys ye town through pipes wth water, but its drawn up wth horses and it seemes not to be a good and Easye way, so they jntend to make it with a water Engine in the town. There are many good houses but mostly old buildings, timber; there is some remaines of a great abbey and just by it ye great Church, but nothing fine or worth notice save ye abbey Gardens wth gravell walks set full of all sorts of greens – orange and Lemmon trees: I had a paper of their flowers – were very fine, – there was alsoe ffirrs, myrtles and hollys of all sorts and a green house full of all sorts of Curiosityes of flowers and greens – there was ye aloes plant. Out of this went another Garden much Larger wth severall fine grass walks kept Exactly Cut and roled for Company to walke in. Every Wednesday most of ye town ye Ladyes and Gentlemen walk there as in St James' parke, and there are abundance of people of Quality Lives in Shrewsbury, more than in any town Except Nottingham; its true there are noe fine houses but there are many Large old houses that are Convenient and stately, and its a pleasant town to Live in and great plenty wch makes it Cheap Living. This is very near bordering on Wales and was reckon'd formerly one of ye Welsh County's as was Herifordshire. Here is a very good schoole for young Gentlewomen for Learning work and behaviour and musick.

From Shrewsbury I went through the great ffaire wch was just kept that day there, full of all sorts of things and all the roade for 10 mile at Least I met ye people and Commoditys going to the ffaire. 2 mile thence I passed over the River Cern on a Large stone bridge, this is deep and joyns the Severn and soe I Rode by the great hill Called the Reeke noted for the highest piece of ground in England, but it must be by those that only Live in the heart of ye Kingdom and about London, for there are much higher hills in the north and West and alsoe not 40 mile distant from it; Manborn hills seems vastly higher. This hill stands just by itself a round hill and does raise its head much above ye hills neare it, and on the one side does Looke a great steepe down, but still my thoughts of the ffells in Cumberland and Westmoreland are soe farr beyond it in height that this would not be mentioned there; it is seen 20 mile off and soe may many other hills, but when I Rode just under it I was full Convinc'd its height was not in Competition wth those in other parts that I have seen.

There are great hills all about wch I pass'd over full of Coale pitts. Here I Came into ye Whatling Streete wch is one of ye great roads of England wch divided ye Land into so many Kingdoms under ye Saxons. The roads are pretty good but ye miles are Long, from Shrewsbury to ye Reeke is 9 mile, from thence to Sr Thomas Patsells house 10 mile more; here I went to see his Gardens wch are talk'd off as ye finest and best kept, ye house is old and Low, if ye Gentleman had Lived he Did design a new house, its now his sons who is an Infant. Before you Come to ye house for a quarter of a mile you Ride between fine Cut hedges, and ye nearer ye approach the finer still, they are very high and Cut Smoothe and Even just Like ye hedges at Astrop waters, and of Each side beyond are woods, some regular Rows, some in its native Rudeness, wth ponds beyond in grounds beneath it. Ye End of this walke you Enter a Large gate of open Iron grates, wth as many more jron grates on Each side as the Breadth of ye gate, opposite to this is just another that opens into those grounds I first mention'd. There is a Large pitched Court wth some open jron gates and grates at Each End, yt gives the visto quite a Cross through to other Rows of trees wch runs up all about ye severall avenues.

In this Court stands two Dyals between wch is an open gate and pallasadoes, the whole breadth of ye front of this jron work wch Leads to the jnner Court, and on ye other side just in front, is another Large gate Carv'd Iron wth pillars brick and stone and flower potts; and on Each side to take the whole Breadth of ye house to wch it faces and soe give the sight of the garden is open pallisadoes, and a Little beyond are two more such open Pallisadoes that are Corner wayes, and discovers the Groves whose walks Looks Every way, so yt to stand in this outward Court you May see the house, and Court full of statues in Grass plotts, wth a broad pav'd walke to the house. In ye middle on ye one side are flower gardens and ye parke, ye other side other grounds wth rows of trees and by it very handsome stables and Coach houses, and then in the ffront this Large opening to this garden where is a ffountaine all wayes playing very high, the water, the Gravel walks, and fine flowers and greens of all sorts in potts and on the borders. This gate I mention'd had brick pillars wth stone heads on wch stood a turky Cock on each Cut in stone and painted proper. Ye grove I mention'd is the finest I Ever saw, there are six walks thro' it and just in the Middle you Look twelve wayes wch Discovers as Many severall prospects, Either to ye house or Entrance or fountaines or Gardens or ffields. The Grove itself is peculiar being Composed of all sorts of greens that hold their verdure and beauty all the yeare, and flourishes most in ye winter season when all other Garden beautys fades, of ffirrs, both silver, Scots, Noroway, Cyprus, Yew, Bays &c; the severall squares being set full of these Like a Maze; they are Compassed round Each square wth a hedge of Lawrell about a yd high Cut Exactly smooth and Even, there are also box trees in the middle. There are two other Large Gardens wth Gravell walkes, and grass plotts full of stone statues, the stone is taken out of ye quarry's about this Country, wch is not a very firme stone and so the Weather Cracks them.

In one of these Gardens just the side of ye house into wch it opens wth glass doors and just over against it is a Large Avery of birds wth branches of trees stuck into the Ground; by it is a Little Summer house neately painted, beyond this is another Garden wth a broad Gravel walke quite round. In the middle is a Long as well as Large ffountaine or pond wch is Called a sheete of water, at ye four Corners are seates shelter'd behind and on ye top and sides wth boards painted, on wch you sit secured from the weather, and Looks on the water wch has 348 Lead pipes at ye brims of it wch takes in the sides and End and wth the turning a sluce they streame at once into the fountaine wch Looks well and makes a pleaseing sound. If those pipes were but turned in a bow it would Cast the water in an arch and so would augment the Beauty of ye prospect. There are 2 Large Images stands in the Midst yt Cast out water and 4 sea horses all Casting out water. In the other Gardens there were Little figures wch bedewed the borders wth their showers.

This Large pond I spoke of before is very deep and good ffish Encreasing in it. There is another great pond in a ground beyond, wch Lyes to view thro' those green pallasadoes and is stored wth much good ffish. Thence I went to Aubery 2 miles, a Little Market town, thence to Pauckeridge and passed through some parcks wch belongs to some Gentlemens seate. I went by one Mr Peirpoynts, and Sr Walter Rochlys house, wch stands on a hill in a thicket of trees, and soe Came againe to the Whatling-street way and soe over Kankewood to Woolsly – in all 14 mile ffarther. From Woolsly to Haywood parke 2 mile, and home againe 2 mile, from Woolsley to Kanktown 6 mile, thence to Woolverhampton 6 mile. I went more in sight of Sr Walter Rochly wch stands very finely on a hill and woods by it – Lookes very stately. These miles are very Long thro' Lanes. I passed by a fine house Prestwitch Mr Philip Ffolies, a pretty seate in a parke, a mile beyond there is another house of ye same Gentlemans. Here we had ye Inconveniency of meeteing the Sherriffs of Staffordshire Just going to provide for ye Reception of ye Judges and officers of ye Assizes, whose Coaches and Retinue Meeteing our Company wch was encreased wth Cosen Ffiennes' Coach and horsemen, wch made us difficult to pass Each other in the hollow wayes and Lanes.

Thence to the Seven Starres where we baited, thence 2 miles ffarther we Entred out of Staffordshire into Worcestershire to Broad water, a place where are severall ffullers and Dyers mills.

Thence on ye Right hand are fforging mills for jron works wch belong to Mr Tho: Ffolie, there is a Rocky hill in wch is a Roome Cut out in the Rocks.

On ye Left hand you goe 7 mile to Ambusly, a very sad heavy way all sand, you goe just at Kederminster town End wch is a Large town much Employ'd about ye worstead trade, spinning and weaving. We also Rode by Sr John Packingtons house on the Left hand on the hill just by Droitwitch where are the 3 salt springs, divided by a ffresh spring that runs by it; of this salt water they boyle much salt that turns to good amount. All ye way from the Seven Starrs where we baited to Ambusly ye Road was full of ye Electers of ye Parliament men Coming from the Choice of ye Knights of the Shire, wch spake as they were affected, some for one some for another, and some were Larger in their judgments than others, telling their reason much according to the good Liquors operation, and of these people all the publick houses were filled that it was a hard Matter to get Lodging or Entertainmt.

We entered Worcester town next day just as ye Cerimony of the Election was performing, and soe they Declared it in favour of Mr Welsh and Sr John Packington. 4 mile more to this town – from broad water in all is 11 mile. Worcester town wch is washed by the river Severn is a Large Citty – 12 Churches, the streetes most of them broad, the buildings some of them are very good and Lofty, its Encompass'd wth a wall wch has 4 gates that are very strong. The Market place is Large, there is a Guildhall besides the Market house wch stands on pillars of stone. The Cathedrall stands in a Large yard, pitch'd, its a Lofty Magnificent building, the Quire has good Wood Carv'd and a pretty organ, there is one tombstone stands in the Middle of ye quire by the railes on which Lyes the Effigies of King John, the Left side of alter is prince Arthurs tomb of plaine Marble in a ffine Chappell wch is made all of stone ffinely Carv'd, both the Inside and the outside is very Curiously Carv'd in all sorts of works and Arms, beasts and flowers, under it Lyes the statues of severall Bishops, beyond this are two tombstones wth ye ffigure of ye body in their proper dress, of 2 Saxon Bishops on ye pavement.

The painting of ye Windows are good and they are pretty Large and Lofty tho' Nothing Comparable to the Cathedrall at york. The tower is high and about the Middle of it you may walke round ye Inside and Look down into the body of ye Church just as it is in york. Just against ye pulpit in ye body of the Church is a Little organ to set the Psalme. Ye ffont is all of white marble and a Carv'd Cover of wood.

From Worcester we pass'd a Large stone bridge over the Severn on wch were many Barges that were tow'd up by strength of men 6 or 8 at a tyme.

The water just by the town Encompasses a Little piece of Ground full of Willows and so makes it an jsland, part of wch turns Mills. Thence I went 4 mile where I Cross ye River Thames on a stone Bridge, this runs to Whitborne and is a very Rapid Streame Especially after raines, wch Just before we begun our Journey had fallen and made the roads, wch are all Lanes full of stones and up hills and down, so steep that wth ye raines ye waters stood or Else ran down ye hills, wch made it Exceeding bad for travelling. When we had gone 7 mile, at a Little Parish, you Enter out of Worcester into Herriffordshire and soe 7 mile ffarther to Stretton Grandsorm and new house, my Cos'n Fiennes's. This is the worst way I ever went in Worcester or Herriffordshire, its allwayes a deep sand and soe in the winter and wth muck is bad way, but this being in August it was strange and being so stony made it more Difficult to travell. From thence I went to Stoake 4 miles, where I saw Mr Folies new house wch was building and will be very ffine when Compleated. There is to be 3 flat ffronts to ye Gardens sides; the Right Wing of ye house is the severall appartments for the ffamily, 2 drawing roomes and bed Chambers and Closets opening both on a terrass of free stone pavements, Each End and the middle there is stone stepps goes down on Each side, wth half paces to the garden wch is by more stepps descending one below another. The other wing is to ye other Garden and are to be Roomes of State wch Lookes towards Herrifford town. this is to be Coupled together wth a Large Hall wch Composes the ffront and is of stone work, the rest is brick only Coyn'd wth stone and ye windows stone, and is in forme of a halfe moone Each side wth arches to the several offices and stables. To this ffront wch is to be the Entrance Large opening Iron spike gates wch Lookes into their Grounds and Meddowes below it, of a Great Length wth Rows of trees to yc river. The Roofe is Cover'd wth slatt wch shines and very much represents Lead, its adorn'd round ye Edges wth stone ffigures and flower potts. There is a noble parck and woods behind – it will be very ffine when ffinished, now I saw it only in the outside shell and platt form. thence I returned to Newhouse 4 mile. Thence I went to Canaan Ffroom a mile and one mile back wch was 2 mile more, then to Stretton four tymes and back wch was 8 mile, then from Newhouse to Aldbery 5 miles, thence to Marlow 3 mile and there Entred Gloucestershire. They are pretty long miles and in the winter deep way, though now it was pretty good travelling its 8 mile beyond to Glocestertown tho' in most places near London this would be reckon'd 20 miles; you may see the town 4 miles off. Glocester town Lyes all along on the bancks of ye Severn and soe Look'd Like a very huge place, being stretch'd out in Length, its a Low Moist place therefore one must travel on Causeys which are here in good repaire. I pass'd over a Bridge where two armes of the river meetes where yc tyde is very high and rowles in the sand in many places and Causes those Whirles or Hurricanes that will Come on storms wth great jmpetuosity.

Thence I proceeded over another Bridge into ye town whose streetes are very well pitch'd, Large and Cleane. There is a faire Market place and Hall for ye assizes wch happened just as we Came there, soe had ye worst Entertainemt and noe accomodation but in a private house. Things ought not to be Deare here, but Strangers are allwayes imposed on and at such a publick tyme alsoe they make their advantages. Here is a very Large good Key on the river, they are supply'd wth Coales by ye shipps and Barges wch makes it plentifull; they Carry it on sledges thro' ye town – its the great Warwickshire Coale I saw unloading. Here they follow knitting stockings, gloves wauscoates and peticoates and sleeves all of Cotten, and others spinn the Cottens. The Cathedrall or minster is Large, Lofty and very neate, the Quire pretty. At ye Entrance there is a seate over head for ye Bishop to sit in to hear the sermon preached in ye body of ye Church, and therefore the organ is in the Quire on one side wch used to be at ye Entrance. There was a tomb stone in ye middle wth a statue of Duke Roberts, second son to William the Conquerours son, wth his Legs across as is the manner of all those that went to the holy warre; this is painted and resembles marble tho' it is but wood and soe Light as by one ffinger you may move it up, there is an jron Grate over it. At ye alter the painting is soe ffine that ye tapistry and pillars and ffigure of Moses and Aaron soe much to the Life you would at Least think it Carv'd. There are 12 Chappells all stone finely Carv'd on ye walls and rooffs, the windows are pretty Large and high wth very good painting, there is a Large window just over ye Alter but between it and ye alter is a hollow walled in on each side wch is a Whispering place; speake never so Low just in the Wall at one End the person at ye other End shall heare it plaine tho' those wch stand by you shall not heare you speake – its ye Wall Carrys ye voyce. This seems not quite soe wonderfull as I have heard, for ye Large roome in Mountague house soe remarkable for fine painting I have been in it, and when ye Doores are shutt its so well suited in ye Walls you Cannot tell where to find the Doore if a stranger, and its a Large roome Every way. I saw a Lady stand at one Corner and turn herself to the wall and whisper'd, ye voice Came very Cleer and plaine to ye Company that stood at ye Crosse Corner ye roome soe yt it Could not be Carry'd by ye side wall, it must be the arch overhead wch was a great height. – But to return to ye Church, the tower was 203 stepps, the Large bell I stood upright in but it was not so bigg as ye great Tom of Lincoln, this bell at Glocester is raised by ten and rung by 6 men. On the tower Leads you have a prospect of ye whole town, gardens and buildings and grounds beyond and ye river Severn in its twistings and windings. Here are ye fine Lamprys taken in great quantetys in their season, of wch they make pyes and potts and Convey them to London or Else where, such a present being fitt for a king; this and ye Charr fish are Equally rare and valuable. Here are very good Cloysters finely adorn'd with ffretwork, here is the Colledge and Library but not stored wth many books. I think this was all the remarkable in Glocester. From thence I went in Company all this while wth my Cos'n Ffilmer and family. We Came to Nymphsffield after having ascended a very steep narrow and stony hill, 10 mile to Nympsfield all bad way, but the 20 mile afterwards made up for its badness, for these were Exceeding good wayes. 2 mile to Cold harbour thence 15 Landsdon – Long, but bowling green way. Here I passed by Babington, the Duke of Beaufforts house stands in a Parke on an advanc'd Ground wth rows of trees on all sides wch runns a good Length, and you may stand on ye Leads and Look 12 wayes down to ye parishes and Grounds beyond all thro Glides or visto of trees. The Gardens are very fine and water works. On Landsdon hill Summersetshire begins wch is a very pleasant hill for to Ride on for aire and prospect; I went 3 mile over it wch Leads to ye Bath down a vast steep descent of a stony narrow way as is all ye wayes down into ye town. The Bath is a pretty place full of good houses all for ye accommodation of the Company that resort thither to Drink or Bathe in the summer. The streetes are faire and well pitch'd, they Carry most things on sledges, and ye Company all ye morning ye Chaires of Bayes to Carry them to the Bath – soe they have the Chaire or Sedan to Carry them in visits. There is a very fine hall wch is set on stone pilllars wch they use for ye balls and dancing. This is the only new thing since I was at ye Bath before, Except the fine adornements on ye Cross in the Cross bath, fine Carving of stone wth the English arms and Saints and Cupids, according to the phaneze and Religion of King James the Seconds Queen Mary of Modina, as part of her thanks and acknowledgments to ye saints or Virgin Mary for the Welsh Prince she Imposed on us. From the Bath I went westward to Bristol over Landsdown 10 mile, and passed thro' Kingswood and was met wth a great many horses passing and returning Loaden wth Coales Dug just thereabout; they give 12 pence a horse Load wch Carrys two Bushells, it makes very good ffires, this is ye Cakeing Coale. Bristol Lyes Low in a bottom the Greatest part of the town, tho' one End of it you have a pretty rise of ground.

There are 19 Parish Churches beside the Cathedrall, wch has nothing fine or Curious in it. The Buildings of ye town are pretty high, most of timber work, the streetes are narrow and something Darkish because the roomes on ye upper storys are more jutting out, soe Contracts ye streete and the Light. The Suburbs are better buildings and more spacious streetes. There are at one place as you Enter the town 2 almshouses, 6 men and 6 women a piece at Each. There is alsoe at another part of ye town a Noble almshouse more Like a Gentlemans house, yt is all of stone work, a handsome Court wth gates and Pallisadoes before four grass plotts divided by paved walks and a walk round ye same. The one side is for ye women the other for ye men, the middle building is 2 Kitchins for Either and a middle roome in Common for washing and brewing, over all is a Chappell. They have Gardens behind it wth all things Convenient. They have their Coales and 3 shillings pr weeke allowed to Each to maintain them, this is for decayed tradesmen and wives that have Lived well; its set up and allowed to by Mr Coleson a mercht in London. This town is a very great tradeing Citty as most In England, and is Esteemed the Largest next London. The river Aven yt is flowed up by the sea into ye Severn and soe up the Aven to the town, Beares shipps and Barges up to the Key, where I saw ye harbour was full of shipps carrying Coales and all sorts of Commodityes to other parts. The bridge is built over wth houses just as London bridge is, but its not so bigg or Long – there are 4 arches here. They have Little boates wch are Call'd Wherryes such as we use on the Thames, soe they use them here to Convey persons from place to place, and in many places there are signes to many houses that are not Publick houses just as it is in London, the streetes are well pitch'd, and preserved by their useing sleds to Carry all things about. There is a very faire market place and an Exchange set on stone Pillars. In another place there is a very high and magnificent Cross built all of ye stone or sort of Marble of ye Country, its in the manner of Coventry Cross a Piramedy fform running up of a great height, wth severall divisions in nitches where is King Johns Effigy and severall other, adorned wth armes and figures of Beasts and birds and flowers. Great part of it Gilt and painted and soe terminates in a spire on ye top, the Lower part is white Like Marble. Just by the water side is a Long rope yard wch is Encompass'd wth trees on Either side wch are Lofty and shady, therefore its made Choice of for ye Company of ye town to take ye Diversion of walking in the Evening. This Compasses round a Large space of ground wch is Called ye marsh – a green ground. There was noe remaines of the Castle. There are 12 gates to ye Citty, there is a very Large Conduit by ye Key finely Carv'd, all stone, this Conveys the water about ye town but all ye water has a Brackish taste. There is one Church wch is an Entire worke all of stone, noe timbers but ye Rafters and beames belonging to ye Roofe and ye seates they sit in. Ye Leads are very high and Large and very neate kept, the tower 15 stepps upon wch the whole Citty is discover'd, wch by reason of the good gardens and grounds within its walls is a very Large tract of ground in ye whole. There you see the Colledge green in wch stands the Cathedrall and ye Doctors houses, wch are not very fine, built of stone. There are some few monuments in this Church wth good Carvings of stone round ye tombs and some Effigies, there are 8 bells in this Church, there is 2 men goes to ye ringing ye biggest bell. From thence I went 2 miles to ye hott spring of water wch Lookes Exceeding Cleer and is as warm as new milk and much of that sweetness. This is just by St Vincents Rocks yt are Great Clifts wch seeme as bounds to ye river Aven, this Channell was hewn out of those Rocks. They Digg ye Bristol Diamonds wch Look very Bright and sparkling and in their native Rudeness have a great Lustre and are pointed and Like ye Diamond Cutting; I had a piece just as it Came out of ye Rock wth ye Rock on ye back side and it appeared to me as a Cluster of Diamonds polish'd and jrregularly Cut. Some of these are hard and will Endure the Cutting and pollishing by art and soe they make rings and Earings of them, the harder the stone is more valuable, wch differences ye true Diamond that will bear the fire or ye greatest force, and Cannot be divided nor Cut but by some of itself, diamond dust being ye only way they Can Cut diamonds that itself is Capable of Impressing Carracters on Glass. Here I fferry'd over the Avon that Comes up to ye town wth a Great tyde in two parts; about 6 mile off it joyns ye Severn wch now begins to swell into a vast river of 7 mile over before it Enters the sea. Then I went to Aston a mile from ye water side thro' a fine park, an old Large house, and thence I passed over Large downs and saw 2 other good houses built of stone, wth towers on ye top, and severall Rows of trees Leading to them which made them appear very fine. Soe to Oakey Hole wch from ye water side where I ferry'd is Esteemed but 15 long mile, its ye same Distance from Bristole but I would not goe back to ye town, but twere better I had, for I made it at Least 17 mile that way. Oakey Hole is a Large Cavity under ground Like Poole Hole in Darbyshire, only this seemes to be a great hill above it. Its full of great Rocks and stones Lying in it just as if they were hewen out of a quarry and Laid down all in ye ground, ye wall and Roofe is all a Rocky stone, there is a Lofty space they Call the hall and another ye parlour, and another the Kitchen, the Entrance of Each one out of another is wth greate stooping under Rocks yt hang down almost to touch ye ground, beyond this is a Cistern allwayes full of water, it Looks Cleer to the bottom wch is all full of stones as is the sides, just Like Candy or Like the Branches they put in the boyling of Copperace for ye Copperice to Crust about it, in the same manner so yt ye water Congeales here into stone and does as it were bud or grow out one stone out of another. Where Ever this water drops it does not weare ye Rock in hollow as some other such subterranian Caves does but it hardens and does Encrease ye stone and that in a Roundness as if it Candy'd as it fell, wch I am of opinion it does; so it makes ye Rocks grow and meete Each other in some places.

They ffancy many Resemblances in the Rocks, as in one place an organ and in another 2 little Babys and in another part a head wch they Call the porters head and another a shape like a dog. They phancy one of ye Rocks resembles a woman wth a great belly wch the Country people Call the witch wch made this Cavity under ground for her Enchantments. The rocks are Glistering and shine Like diamonds and some you Climbe over where one meetes wth ye Congealed Drops of water just Like jceicles hanging down. Some of the stone is white Like alabaster and Glisters Like mettle. You walke for ye most part in ye Large spaces Called ye Roomes on a sandy floore, the Roofe so Lofty one Can scarce discern the top and Carry's a Great Eccho, soe that takeing up a great stone as much as a man Can heave up to his head and letting it fall gives a report Like a Cannon wch they frequently trye and Call ye Shooteing ye Cannons. At ye farther End you Come to a water Call'd ye well, its of a greate depth and Compass tho' by the Light of ye Candles you may discern the Rock Encompassing it as a wall round. These hollows are generally very Cold and damp by reason of ye waters distilling Continually wch is very Cold, as jce almost when I put my hand into ye Cistern. These Roads are full of hills, and those some of them high Ridge of hills wch does discover a vast prospect all wayes, behind me I saw a Great valley full of jnclosures and Lessar hills by which you ascend these heights, wch are all very fruitfull and woody. Alsoe I Could see the Severn when Encreased to its breadth of 7 mile over, and there it Disembogues into ye sea; then it gave me a prospect forward of as Large a vale replenish'd wth fruitefull hills and trees and good Ground, thence I Could discern Glassenbury tower; this was Maiden Hill just beyond ye Little town of same name and soe by degrees descending from a higher to a Lower hill wch had its ascents as well as its descents wch makes ye miles seem and are Indeed Long tracts of ground.

From Ocley Hole I went to Wells wch was on an Even ground one mile farther, this Wells is what must be Reckoned halfe a Citty this and ye Bath makeing up but one Bishops See. Here are two Churches wth ye Cathedrall. Ye Cathedrall has ye greatest Curiosity for Carv'd work in stone, the West front is full of all sorts of ffigures, ye 12 apostles, ye K and Q wth angells and figures of all forms, as thick one to another as Can be, and soe almost all round ye Church.

The assizes was in the town wch filled it Like a faire, and Little stands for selling things was in all the streetes. There I saw ye town hall. The streetes are well pitch'd, and a Large market place and shambles. The Bishops pallace is in a park moated round, nothing worth notice in it. St Andrews well wch gives name to the town Bubbles up so quick a spring and becomes the head of two Little rivers wch Encreases a Little way off into good rivers. Thence I went to Glasenbury 4 miles, a pretty Levell way till just you Come to the town, then I ascended a stony hill and went just by the tower wch is on a green Round riseing ground. There is only a Little tower remaines Like a Beacon, it had Bells formerly in it and some superstition observ'd there, but now its broken down on one side. From this I descended a very steep stony way into the town; Glasenbury tho' in ancient tymes was a Renowned place where was founded the first monastery, its now a Ragged poor place and the abbey has only the Kitchen remaining in it wch is a distinct Building, round like a pigeon house all stone. The walls of ye abbey here and there appeares and some Little places and ye Cellar or vault wch if they Cast a stone into the place it gives a great Echo, and ye Country people says its ye Devil set there on a tun of money wch makes ye noise Least they should take it away from him. There is the holly thorn growing on a Chimney, this the superstitious Covet much and have gott some of it for their gardens and soe have almost quite spoiled it, wch did grow quite round a Chimney tunnell in the stone. Here is a very pretty Church a good tower well Carv'd all stone 160 stepps up. Walking in the tower I Could have a prospect of the whole place wch appeared very Ragged and decayed. The Church is neate, there is the Effigee of the abbot on a tombstone Carved all about wth Eschuteons of a Camell, and round it an jnscription or motto in old Latin and an old Caracter. It was a phancy of his Stewards who was a very faithfull Dilligent servant, and as he made use of those Creatures in his masters service yt were strong and Industrious so ye motto described his services under that resemblance. The Effigee was very Curious and wth rings on the fingers, but in Monmouths tyme the soldiers defaced it much.

From thence to Tannton 16 miles through many small places and scattering houses, through Lanes full of stones and by the Great raines just before full of wet and Dirt. I passed over a Large Common or bottom of Deep black Land which is bad for the Rider but good for the abider as the proverb is; this was 2 or 3 mile long and pass'd and repass'd a river as it twin'd about at Least ten tymes over stone bridges. This river Comes from Bridge water 7 mile, the tyde Comes up beyond Bridge water, Even within 3 mile of Taunton its flowed by the tyde wch brings up the Barges wth Coale to this place, after having pass'd a Large Common wch on Either hand Leads a great waye, good rich Land wth ditches and willow trees all for feeding Cattle, and here at this Little place where the boates unlade the Coale ye packhorses Comes and takes it in sacks and so Carryes it to ye places all about. This is ye sea Coale brought from Bristole, the horses Carry 2 Bushell at a tyme wch at the place Cost 18d and when its brought to Taunton Cost 2 shillings. The roads were full of these Carryers going and returning.

Taunton is a Large town haveing houses of all sorts of buildings both brick and stone, but mostly timber and plaister, its a very neate place and Looks substantial as a place of good trade. You meete all sorts of Country women wrapp'd up in the mantles Called West Country rockets, a Large mantle doubled together of a sort of serge, some are Linsywolsey and a deep fringe or ffag at the Lower End, these hang down some to their feete some only just below ye wast, in the summer they are all in white garments of this sort, in the winter they are in Red ones. I Call them garments because they never go out wth out them and this is the universal ffashion in Sommerset and Devonshire and Cornwall. Here is a good Market Cross well Carv'd and a Large Market house on Pillars for the Corn. I was in the Largest Church, it was mending, it was pretty Large, the alter stood table wayes in the middle of the Chancell, there was one good stone Statue stood in the wall, the Effigee was very tall in a Ruff and Long Black dress Like some Religious wth his Gloves and book in his hand. There were severall Little monuments with Inscriptions Round them, they have Encompass'd the Church yard with a new Brick wall and handsom Iron gates, there is a Large space Called the Castle yard and some remaines of the Castle walls and Buildings wch is fitted up for a good dwelling house. From thence I went to Wellington, they Call it but 5 mile but its a Long 7 tho' the way was pretty good; this is a Little Market town. Thence to Culimton 13 mile more, but Indeed these were very long Miles, ye hostler at Tanton did say tho' they were reckon'd but 16 miles it really was a good 20 miles and I am much of that mind. I mostly pass'd through Lanes, I entred Into Devonshire 5 mile off from Wellington, just on a high ridge of hills wch discovers a vast prospect on Each side full of Inclosures and Lesser hills wch is the Description of most part of the West. You Could see Large tracts of grounds full of Enclosures good Grass and Corn beset with quicksetts and hedge rows, and these Lesser hills wch are scarce perceivable on ye Ridge of the uppermost, yet the Least of them have a steep ascent and descent to pass them. Culimton is a good Little market town, and market Cross and another set on stone pillars, such a one was at Wellington but on Brick work pillars. Here was a Large meeteing of neer 4 or 500 people, they have a very good minister but a young man, I was glad to see soe many tho' they were but of the meaner sort, for Indeed its the poor Receive the Gospell and there are in most of the market towns in the West very good meeteings. This Little place was one Continued Long streete but few houses yt struck out of the streete. From thence 10 mile to Exetter, up hills and down as before, till one attaines those uppermost Ridges of all wch discovers the whole valley, then you sometymes goe a mile or two on a Down till the Brow of the hill begins in a Descent on the other side. This Citty appears to view 2 mile distant from one of those heights, and also the River Ex wch runs to Topshum where ye shipps Comes up to the Barre; this is 7 mile by water from wch they are attempting to make navigeable to the town, which will be of Mighty advantage to have shipps Come up Close to the town to take in their Serges wch now they are forced to send to Topshum on horses by Land, wch is about 4 mile by Land. They had just agreed wth a man that was to accomplish this work for wch they were to give 5 or 6000£, who had made a beginning on it.

Exeter is a town very well built, the streets are well pitch'd, spacious noble streetes, and a vast trade is Carryed on, as Norwitch is for Coapes Callamanco and damaske, soe this is for serges. There is an Increadible quantety of them made and sold in the town. There market day is Fryday which supplys with all things Like a faire almost; the markets for meate, fowle, ffish, garden things and the Dairy produce takes up 3 whole streetes besides the Large Market house set on stone pillars, wch runs a great Length on wch they Lay their packs of serges. Just by it is another walke wth in pillars wch is for the yarne, the whole town and Country is Employ'd for at Least 20 mile round in spinning, weaveing, dressing and scouring, fulling and Drying of the serges. It turns the most money in a weeke of any thing in England. One weeke with another there is 10000 pound paid in ready money, Sometymes 15000 pound. The weavers brings in their serges and must have their money wch they Employ to provide them yarne to goe to work againe. There is alsoe a square Court with Penthouses round where the Malters are wth Mault and oat meal, but the serge is the Chief manufacture, There is a prodigious quantety of their serges they never bring into the market but are in hired roomes wch are noted for it, for it would be impossible to have it altogether. The Carryers I met going wth it, as thick, all Entring into town wth their Loaded horses, they bring them all just from the Loome and soe they are put into the ffulling-mills, but first they will Clean and Scour their roomes with them, wch by the way gives noe pleasing perfume to a roome, the oyle and grease, and I should think it would Rather foull a roome than Cleanse it because of the oyles, but I perceive its otherwise Esteemed by them wch will send to their acquaintances yt are tuckers the dayes the serges Comes in for a Rowle to Clean their house – this I was an Eye witness of. Then they Lay them in soack in vrine, then they soape them and soe put them into the ffulling-mills and soe worke them in the mills drye till they are thick enough then they turne water into them and so scower them. Ye mill does draw out and gather in ye serges, its a pretty divertion to see it, a sort of huge notch'd timbers Like great teethe; – one would thinke it should Injure the serges but it does not. Ye mills draws in wth such a great violence that if one stands neere it and it Catch a bitt of your Garments it would be ready to draw in ye person even in a trice. When they are thus scour'd they drye them in racks strained out wch are as thick set one by another as will permitt ye dresses to pass between, and huge Large fields occupy'd this way almost all round the town wch is to the river side; then when drye they pick out all knots then fold them wth a paper between Every fold and so sett them on an jron plaite and screw down ye press on them wch has another jron plaite on the top under wch is a furnace of fire of Coales, this is the hott press; then they fold them Exceeding Exact and then press them in a Cold press, some they dye but the most are sent up for London white.

I saw the severall ffatts they were a Dying in of black, yellow, blew and Green wch two Last Coullours are dipp'd in the same fatt, that wch makes it differ is what they were dipp'd in before wch makes them Either green or blew; they hang the Serges on a great beame or Great pole on the top of ye fatt and so keep turning it from one to another – as one turns it off into the ffatt ye other Rowles it out of it, soe they do it backwards and forwards till its tinged deep Enough of the Coullour. Their ffurnace that keepes their dye panns boyling is all under that roome made of Coale ffires. There was in a roome by itself a ffatt for the Scarlet that being a very Changeable dye noe waste must be allow'd in that, Indeed I think they make as fine a Coullour as their bowdies are in London.

These Rolers I spake of two men does Continually role on and off ye pieces of serge till Dipp'd Enough, the length of these pieces are or should hold out 26 yards. This Citty does Exceedingly resemble London for besides these buildings I mention'd for yc severall Markets, there is an Exchange full of shopps Like our Exchanges are, only its but one walke along as was the Exchange at Salisbury house in the Strand; there is also a very Large space Railed in just by the Cathedrall with walks round it wch is Called the Exchange for Merchants, that Constantly meete twice a day just as they do in London. There are 17 Churches in the Citty and 4 in the subburbs, there is some remaines of the Castle walls, they make use of the roomes wch are inside for ye assizes, there is the two Barrs besides being Large rooms wth seates and places Convenient and jury roome, here is a Large walke at ye Entrance between Rowes of Pillars, there is besides this just at ye market place a Guild hall the Entrance of wch is a Large place set on stone Pillars, beyond wch are ye roomes for the session or any town affaires to be adjusted. Behind this building there is a vast Cistern wch holds upwards of 600 hodsheads of water which supplyes by pipes the whole Citty; this Cistern is replenished from the river wch is on purpose turned into a Little Channell by it self to turn the mill, and ffills the Engine that Casts ye water into the truncks wch Conveys it to this Cistern. The water Engine is Like those at Islington and at Darby as I have seen, and is what now they make use of in Diverse places Either to supply them wth water or to draine a marsh or overplus of water. The river X is a fine streame, they have made severall bayes or wires above the Bridge wch Casts ye water into many Channells for the Conveniencys of turning all their mills, by wch meanes they have Composed a Little jsland, for at the End it againe returns into its own united Channell. Those wires makes great falls into ye water, it Comes wth great violence; here they Catch the Salmon as they Leap wth speares, the first of these Bayes is a very great one, there is one below the bridge wch must be taken away when the navigation is Compleate for they will need all their water together to fill it to a Depth to Carry the shipps for just by the Bridge is the Key design'd, or yt wch now is already they will Enlarge to that place. Just by this key is the Custome house, an open space below wth rows of pillars wch they Lay in goods just as its unladen out of the shipps in Case of wet. Just by are Severall Little roomes for Land waiters &c, then you ascend up a handsome pair of staires into a Large roome full of Desks and Little partitions for the writers and accountants, it was full of books and files of paper. By it are two other Roomes wch are used in the same way when there is a great deale of Bussiness. There are severall good Conduites to Supply ye Citty wth water besides that Cistern, there is alsoe a very fine market Cross.

The Cathedrall at Exetter is preserv'd in its outside adornments beyond most I have seen, there remaining more of ye fine Carv'd worke in stone, the ffigures and nitches full and in proportion, tho' Indeed I Cannot say it has that great Curiosity of work and variety as the great Church at Wells. Its a Lofty building in ye Inside, the Largest pair of organs * I have Ever seen wth fine Carving of wood wch runs up a Great height, and made a magnificent appearance. The Quire is very neate, but ye Bishops seate or throne was Exceeding and very high and ye Carving very fine and took up a Great Compass full of all variety of ffigures, something Like the worke over ye arch Bishops throne in St Pauls, London, but this was Larger if not so Curious. There was severall good monuments and Effigies of Bishops; there was one of a judge and his Lady that was very Curious, their Garments Embroyder'd all marble and Gilt and painted. There was a very Large good Library in wch was a press that had an anatomy of a woman. Ye tower is 167 steps up on which I had a view of ye whole town wch is Generally well built. I saw ye Bishops pallace and Garden, there is a long walke as well as broad, Enclosed wth rows of Lofty trees which made it shady and very pleasant, wch went along by the Ditch and banck on wch the town wall stands. There are 5 gates to ye town, there is alsoe another Long walke within shady trees on ye other side of the town, wch Leads to the Grounds where the drying frames are set up for the serges.

* The great pipe 15 inches diameter is two more yn the celebrated one at Coln.

Ffrom thence I pass'd the Bridge aCross the River Ex to Chedly wch was 9 mile, mostly Lanes and a Continual going up hill and down, some of them pretty steep hills and all these Lesser hills as I have observ'd rises higher and higher till it advances you upon the high Ridge wch discovers to view the Great valleys below full of those Lesser hills and jnclosures wth quicksett hedges and trees and Rich Land, but the Roads are not to be seen being all along in Lanes Cover'd over with ye shelter of the hedges and trees. Then when I was on ye top hill I went 3 or 4 miles on an open down wch brought me to the Edge of another such a Ridge, wch was by some steps to be descended as it was gained by ye Lesser hills one below another till I Came to ye bottom, and then I had about 2 or 3 mile along on a plaine or Common wch for the most part are a Little moorish by reason of their receiving the water that draines from the severall Great hills on Either side, and so then I am to rise up another such a Range of hills, and as neer as I Could Compute in my Rideing it was 6 or 7 miles between one high Ridge of hills to that over against it, whereas were there a Bridge over from one top to the other it Could not be 2 mile distant; but this does give them ye advantage of severall acres of Land by reason of the many hills wch if drawn out on plaines as in some other parts would appear much vaster tracts of Land. On these hills as I said one Can discern Little besides inclosures hedges and trees, rarely Can see houses unless you are just descending to them, they allwayes are placed in holes as it were and you have a precipice to go down to Come at them. Ye Lanes are full of stones and dirt for ye most part because they are so Close the sun and wind Cannot Come at them, soe that in many places you travell on Causeys wch are uneven also for want of a Continued repaire.

From Chedly to Ashburton is 11 mile more, in all 20 mile from Exeter, the Roads being much the same as before. This Ashburton is a poor Little town – bad was the best Inn. Its a market town and here are a Great many descenters and those of the most Considerable persons in the town; there was a presbiterian, an anabaptist, and quakers meeteing. Thence I went for Plymouth 24 long miles, and here the Roades Contract and ye Lanes are exceeding narrow and so Cover'd up you Can see Little about; an army Might be marching undiscover'd by any body, for when you are on those heights that shews a vast Country about you Cannot see one Road. The wayes now become so difficult yt one Could scarcely pass by Each other, Even ye single horses, and so Dirty in many places, and just a track for one horses feete, and the Banks on Either side so neer, and were they not well secured and mended wth stones stuck Close Like a Drye wall Everywhere when they discover the Bancks to Breake and molder down, which Else would be in Danger of swallowing up the way quite; for on these bancks (wch are some of them naturall Rocks and quarrys, others mended wth such stone or slate stuck Edgewayes to secure them) for the quicksetts and trees that grow on these Bancks Loosen the mold and so makes it molder downe sometymes. I pass'd through severall Little places and over some stone Bridges. Ye waters are pretty broad soe these are 4 or 5 arches most Bridges, all stone. The running of ye waters is wth a huge Rushing by reason of ye stones wch Lye in the water, some of them Great rocks wch gives some Interruption to ye Current wch finding another way Either by its sides or mounting over part of it Causes ye frothing of ye water and ye noise – the rivers being full of stones bigger or Less. About 4 or 5 mile from ashburton I Came to a Little place Called Dean and at ye End of it ascended a very steep hill, all rock almost; and so it was Like so many steps up, this is Called Dean Clapperhill, it was an untoward place but not soe fformidable to me as the people of ye place where I Lay described it,haveing gone much worse hills in the North. All along on the road where the Lanes are a Little broader you ride by rowes of trees on Each side, set and kept Exactly Even and Cut, ye tops being for shade and beauty and they in exact forme as if a Grove to some house. At first I thought it was neer some houses till the frequency and Length proved the Contrary, for there are very few if any houses neare the Road, unless the Little villages you passe through. This Country being almost full of stone the streetes and roades too have a naturall sort of paveing or Pitching tho' uneven. All their Carriages are here on ye Backs of horses, wth sort of hookes Like yoakes stands upon Each side of a good height, wch are the Receptacles of their goods Either wood, ffurse or Lime or Coale or Corn or hay or straw or what Else they Convey from place to place, and I Cannot see how two such horses Can pass Each other or Indeed in some places how any horse Can pass by Each other, and yet these are the roads yt are all here abouts. Some Little Corners may jutt out that one may a Little get out of ye way of Each other, but this but seldom. Two mile from Plymouth we Come to ye river Plym just by a Little town all built of stone and ye tyleing is all flatt wch with ye Lime its Cemented, wch makes it Look white Like snow, and in the sun shineing on the slatt it Glisters.

Here I Came in sight on ye Right hand of a very Large house built all with this sort of stone wch is a sort of marble. Even all quaryes are, and some ffine marble. This house Look'd very finely in a thicket of trees Like a Grove and was on the side of a hill and Led just down to the head of ye river Plym wch is fill'd with ye tyde from the sea, and here I Cross'd it on a stone bridge. Soe I Rode 2 miles mostly by the river wch encreases and is a fine broad streame and at ye town wch is its mouth it falls into the sea. The sea here runs into severall Creekes, one place it runs up to ye Dock and Milbrook, another arm of ye sea goes up to Saltash and Port Eliot.

Plymouth is 2 Parishes Called ye old town and ye new, the houses all built of this marble and ye Slatt at the top Lookes Like Lead and glisters in the sun. There are noe great houses in the town, the streetes are good and Clean, there is a great many tho' some are but narrow, they are mostly inhabitted wth seamen and those wch have affaires on ye sea, for here up to the town there is a Depth of water for shipps of ye first Rate to Ride. Its Great sea and Dangerous by reason of ye severall poynts of Land between wch the sea runs up a Great way, and there are severall Little jslands alsoe all wch beares the severall tydes hard one against ye other. There are two keyes, the one is a broad space wch Leads you up into the broad streete and is used in manner of an exchange for the merchants meeteing, for in this streete alsoe is a fine stone Crosse and alsoe a long market house set on stone Pillars. There are severall good Cunduits to Convey the water to the town wch Conveyance ye famous Sr Ffrancis Drake (wch did encompass ye world in Queen Elizabeths dayes and Landed safe at Plymouth) he gave this to ye town. There are two Churches in the town but nothing fine. I was in ye best and saw only King Charles the firsts Picture at Length at prayer just as its Cut on the frontispiece of the jnenicum. This picture was Drawn and given the Church when he was in his troubles, for some piece of service shewn him. The alter stands in the Chancell or Railed place, but it stands table wise the Length and not up against the wall. The ffont was of marble and Indeed soe is all buildings here for their stone is all a sort of Marble, some Coarser some finer. There are 4 Large meetings for the descenters in the town takeing in the Quakers and anabaptists.

The mouth of ye river just at ye town is a very good Harbour for Shipps, the Dockyards are about 2 mile from the town – by boate you goe to it ye nearest way – its one of ye best in England. A Great many good shipps built there, and the Great Depth of water wch Comes up to it tho' it runs for 2 mile between ye Land, wch also shelters ye shipps. There is a great deale of Buildings on the Dock, a very good house for the Masters and severall Lesser ones, and house for their Cordage and makeing Ropes, and all sorts of things required in building or Refitting ships, it Lookes Like a Little town. The Buildings are so many and all of marble wth ffine slate on ye Rooffs and at a Little Distance it makes all the houses shew as if they were Cover'd wth snow and Glisters in ye sunn wch adds to their beauty. Ye ffine and only thing in Plymouth town is the Cittadell or Castle wch stands very high above the town, the walls and battlements round it wth all their Works and Plattforms are in very good repaire and Lookes nobly, all marble full of towers wth stone Balls on the top and Gilt on the top; the Entrance being by an ascent up a hill Looks very noble over 2 drawbridges and Gates, wch are Marble as is the whole, Well Carv'd, the Gate wth armory and statues all Gilt and on the top 7 Gold balls. Ye buildings within are very neate, a Large appartment for the Governour, wth others that are Less for ye severall officers. There is a Long building alsoe wch is ye arsnell for ye arms and amunition, and just by it a round building well secured wch was for the powder round the works in the Plattform for the Gunns wch are well mounted and very well kept. Walking round I had the view of all the town and alsoe part off ye Main Ocean in wch are some jslands. There is St Nicholas jsland wth a ffort in it, there it was Harry Martin one of ye Kings judges was banished Dureing Life. There you Can just Discover a Light house wch is building on a meer Rock in the middle of ye sea, this is 7 Leagues off, it will be of Great advantage for ye Guide of ye shipps yt pass that way. From this you have a Good refflection on ye Great Care and provision ye wise God makes for all persons and things in his Creation, that there should be in some places where there is any Difficulty rocks Even in the midst of ye deep wch Can be made use of for a Constant Guide and mark for the passengers on their voyages, but the Earth is full of ye goodness of ye Lord and soe is this Great sea wherein are jnumerable beings Created and preserv'd by ye same almighty hand Whose is the Earth and all things there in, he is Lord of all. From the plattform I Could see ye Dock and also just agst it I saw mount EdgeComb a seate of Sr Richard EdgComes, it stands on the side of a hill all bedeck'd wth woods wch are Divided into several Rowes of trees in walks, the house being all of this white marble. Its built round a Court so the four sides are alike, at ye Corners of it are towers wch wth ye Lanthorne or Cupilow in the middle Lookes well, the house is not very Lofty nor the windows high but it Looked Like a very uniforme neate building and pretty Large. There is a Long Walke from one part of ye front down to ye waterside, wch is on a descent guarded wth shady Rowes of trees, there is a fine terrass walled in, at ye water side is open gates in ye middle and a sumer house at Each End, from whence a wall is Drawn Round the house and Gardens and a Large parck, the wall of which I Rode by a good while; so yt altogether and its scituation makes it Esteemed by me the finest seate I have seen and might be more Rightly named mount pleasant. From Plymouth I went 1 mile to Cribly Fferry wch is a very hazardous passage by reason of 3 tydes meeting. Had I known ye Danger before, I should not have been very willing to have gone it, not but this is ye Constant way all people goe, and saved severall miles rideings, I was at Least an hour going over, it was about a mile but Indeed in some places notwithstanding there was 5 men Row'd and I sett my own men to Row alsoe I do believe we made not a step of way for almost a quarter of an hour, but blessed be God I Came safely over; but those fferry boates are soe wet and then the sea and wind is allwayes Cold to be upon, that I never faile to Catch Cold in a fferry boate as I did this day haveing 2 more fferrys to Cross tho' none soe bad or halfe soe Long as this. Thence to Milbrooke 2 mile and went all along by the water and had the full view of ye Dock yards. Here I entred into Cornwall and soe passed over many very steep stony hills, tho' here I had some 2 or 3 miles of Exceeding good way on the downs, and then I Came to ye steep precipices – Great Rocky hills – ever and anon I Came down to the sea and Rode by its side on the sand, then mounted up againe on ye hills wch Carryed me along Mostly in sight of ye Southsea. Sometymes I was in Lanes full of Rowes of trees and then I Came down a very steep stony hill to Lonn 13 mile, and here I Crossed a Little arme of ye sea on a Bridge of 14 arches. This is a pretty bigg seaport, a Great many Little houses all of stone, and steep hill much worse and 3 tymes as Long as Dean Clapper hill, and soe I continued up and down hill. Here Indeed I met wth more jnclosed Ground and soe had more Lanes and a Deeper Clay Road wch by by the raine ye night before had made it very Dirty and full of water in many places, in the Road there are many holes and sloughs where Ever there is Clay Ground, and when by raines they are filled with water its difficult to shun Danger; here my horse was quite down in one of these holes full of water but by ye good hand of God's providence wch has allwayes been wth me Even a present help in tyme of need, for giving him a good strap he fflounc'd up againe tho' he had gotten quite down his head and all, yet did retrieve his ffeete and gott Cleer off ye place wth me on his Back. Soe I Came to Hoile 8 mile more, they are very Long miles ye ffarther West but you have ye pleasure of Rideing as if in a Grove in most places, ye Regular Rowes of trees on Each side ye Roade as if it were an Entrance into some gentlemans Ground to his house. I fferryed over againe Cross an arme of ye sea, here it was not broad but Exceeding deep. This is ye Southsea wch runs into many Little Creekes for severall miles into ye Land wch is all ye rivers they have. I observed this to be exceeding salt and as green as ever I saw ye sea when I have been a League or two out from ye Land, wch shews it must be very deep and Great tides. This Hoile is a narrow stony town, ye streetes very Close, and as I descended a Great steep into ye town, soe I ascended one up a stony Long hill farre worse and full of shelves and Rocks and 3 tymes as Long as Dean Clapperhill, wch I Name because when I was there they would have frighted me with its terribleness as ye most inaccessible place as Ever was and none Like it, and my opinion is yt it was but one or two steps, to other places forty steps and them wth more hazard than this of Dean Clapper. Well, to pass on, I went over some Little heath Ground but mostly Lanes, and those stony and Dirty, 3 mile and halfe to Parr; here I fferry'd over againe, not but when the tyde is out you may ford it.

Thence I went over the heath to St Austins wch is a Little market town where I Lay, but their houses are like Barnes up to ye top of ye house. Here was a pretty good dineing room and Chamber within it and very neate Country women. My Landlady brought me one of ye west Country tarts this was ye first I met wth though I had asked for them in many places in Sommerset and Devonshire; its an apple pye wth a Custard all on the top, its ye most acceptable entertainment yt Could be made me. They scald their Creame and milk in most parts of those Countrys and so its a sort of Clouted Creame as we Call it, wth a Little sugar and soe put on ye top of ye apple Pye. I was much pleased wth my supper tho' not with the Custome of the Country wch is a universall smoaking, both men women and children have all their pipes of tobacco in their mouths and soe sit round the fire smoaking wch was not delightfull to me when I went down to talke wth my Landlady for information of any matter and Customs amongst them. I must say they are as Comely sort of women as I have seen any where tho' in ordinary dress – good black Eyes and Crafty enough and very neate. Halfe a mile from hence they blow their tin wch I went to see. They take ye ore and pound it in a stamping mill wch resembles the paper mills, and when its fine as ye finest sand – some of wch I saw and took – this they fling into a ffurnace and wth it Coale to make the fire. So it burns together and makes a violent heate and fierce flame, the mettle by ye fire being separated from ye Coale and its own Drosse, being heavy falls down to a trench made to receive it at ye furnace hole below. This Liquid mettle I saw them shovel up wth an jron shovel and soe pour it into molds in wch it Cooles and soe they take it thence in sort of wedges or piggs I think they Call them, its a fine mettle in its first melting – Looks Like silver – I had a piece poured out and made Cold for to take wth me. Ye oare as its just dug Lookes Like ye thunderstones, a greenish hue full of pendust this seemes to Containe its full description, ye shineing part is white. I went a mile farther on ye hills and soe Came where they were digging in the tinn mines, there was at Least 20 mines all in sight wch employs a Great many people at work almost night and day, but Constantly all and Every day jncluding the Lords day wch they are forced to prevent their mines being overflowed wth water. More than 1000 men are taken up about them, few mines but had then almost 20 men and boys attending it either down in ye mines digging and Carrying ye oare to the Little Bucket wch Conveys it up, or Else others are Draineing the water and Looking to ye Engines yt are draineing it, and those above are attending ye drawing up the oare in a sort of windlass as is to a Well. Two men keeps turning bringing up one and Letting down another, they are much Like the Leather Buckets they use in London to put out fire, wch hang up in Churches and Great mens halls. They have a Great Labour and Great expence to draine the mines of the water wth mills that horses turn, and now they have ye mills or water Engines that are turned by the water wch is Convey'd on frames of timber and truncks to hold ye water, wch falls down on ye wheeles as an over shott mill, and these are ye sort that turns ye water into ye severall towns I have seen about London, Darby and Exeter and many places more. They do five tymes more good than the mills they use to turn wth horses, but then they are much more Chargeable. Those mines do require a great deale of timber to support them and to make all those engines and mills, wch makes fewell very scarce here; they burn mostly turffs wch is an unpleasant smell, it makes one smell as if smoaked Like Bacon. This ore as said is made fine powder in a Stamping Mill wch is Like ye paper mills, only these are pounded drye and noe water Let into them as is to ye Raggs, to work them into a paste. Ye mills are all turned wth a Little Streame or Channell of water you may step over, jndeed they have noe other mills but such in all the Country; I saw not a windmill all over Cornwall or Devonshire tho' they have wind and hills Enough, and it may be its too Bleake for them. In the tinn mines there is stone Dug out and a sort of spar something Like what I have seen in the Lead mines at Darbyshire but it seemed more sollid and hard, it shines and Lookes Like mother of pearle. They alsoe digg out stones as Cleer as Christal wch is Called Cornish Diamonds. I saw one as bigg as my two ffists, very Cleer and Like some pieces of Chrystal my father brought from ye Alps In Italy wch I have by me. I got one of those pieces of their Cornish Diamonds as Long as halfe my finger wch had three or four flatt sides wth Edges, the top was sharpe and so hard as it would Cut a Letter on glass. Thence I went to — 6 miles good way, and passed by 100 mines some on which they were at work, others that were lost by ye waters overwhelming them. I crossed ye water on a Long stone bridge and so through dirty stony Lanes 3 mile and then I Came into a broad Coach Rode which I have not seen since I Left Exeter, so I went 3 mile more to Mr Boscawens – Trygothy – a Relation of mine. His house stands on a high hill in the middle of a parke with severall Rows of trees with woods beyond it. Ye house is built all of white stone like the Rough Coarse Marble and Cover'd wth slate. They use much Lime in their Cement wch makes both walls and Cover Look very white. There is a Court walled round wth open Iron gates and barrs. The Entrance is up a few stone steps into a Large high hall and so to a passage that Leads foreright up a good stair Case. On ye Right side is a Large Common parlour for Constant Eating in, from whence goes a Little roome for smoaking yt has a back way into the kitchin, and on the Left hand is a Great parlour and drawing roome – wanscoated all very well but plaine. Ye Great Parlour is Cedar, out of yt is the Drawing-roome which is hung with pictures of the family, that goes into ye garden wch has Gravell walks round and across, but ye squares are full of goosebery and shrub-trees and Looks more Like a Kitchen garden as Lady Mary Boscawen told me, out of wch is another Garden and orchard which is something Like a Grove, Green walks wth rows of fruit trees. Its Capable of being a fine place wth some Charge, the roomes above are new modell'd, 3 roomes wanscoated and hung as ye new way is, and ye beds made up well, one red damaske, another Green, another wrought some of ye Ladyes own work and well made up, wch is her own Roome wth a dressing roome by it. There is a dressing roome and a roome for a servant just by ye best Chamber. There are two other good roomes unalter'd wth old hangings to ye bottom on wrought work of ye first Ladyes. Lady Margets work, yt was my Cos'n German, within that roome was a servants roome and back staires, there was just such another apartment on ye other side.

Between all from the staires a broad passage Leads to a Balcony over the Entrance wch Look'd very pleasantly over the parke but in the Cupulo on ye Leads I Could see a vast way, at Least 20 mile round; for this house stands very high to ye Land side Eastward, and the south was the Great Ocean wch runns into Falmouth thats ye best harbour for shipps in that road. 6 mile from this place westward was to Truro and the north to the hills full of Copper mines. Here I was very Civily Entertained: from thence I returned back Intending not to goe to ye Lands End wch was 30 miles farther for feare of ye raines that fell in the night wch made me doubt what travelling I should have; soe to St Culumb I went, a pretty Long 12 mile. Here I met with many Rowes of Elm trees wch I have not found in any Country Except Wiltshire; these were mostly soe, tho' there were alsoe ashes and oakes. Ye hedges were Hazelthorne and Holly but to see soe many good rowes of trees on ye road is surprising and Looks Like the Entrance to some Gentlemans house, and I cannot tell but some of them were soe tho' a mile off from ye house.

The next day finding it faire weather on ye Change of ye moone, I alter'd my Resolution and soe went for ye Lands End by Redruth 18 miles, mostly over heath and Downs wch was very bleake and full of mines.

Here I Came by the Copper mines wch have the same order in the digging and draining, tho' here it seemes Dryer and I believe not quite soe annoy'd wth water. The ore is something as the tinn only this Looks blackish, or rather a purple Colour, and ye glistering part is yellow as ye other was white. They do not melt it here but ship it off to Bristol by ye North Sea wch I Rode in sight of, and is not above 2 or 3 Mile from hence, which supplyes them with Coales for their fewell at Easyer rates than the other side Plymouth and the South Sea, because since ye warre they Could not Double ye poynt at ye Lands End, being so neer Ffrance ye pirats or Privateers met them. Indeed at St Ives they do melt a Little but nothing that is Considerable – that is 10 mile from Redruth wch is a Little market town. Here they Carry all their things on horses backs soe that of a market day wch was Fryday you see a great number of horses Little of size wch they Call Cornish Canelys. They are well made and strong and will trip along as Light on the stony road without injury to themselves, where as my horses went so heavy that they wore their shoes immediately thinn and off, but here I met with a very good smith that shooed ye horses as well as they do in London, and that is not Common in the Country, but here I found it soe, and at a place in Westmoreland by ye ffells a smith made good shoes and set them on very well. From Redruth I went to Pensands 15 mile and passed by ye ruines of Great ffortification or Castle on a high hill about 3 mile from Redruth and passed to Hailes and soe went by ye sea side a great way, it being spring tide it was a full sea. Just over against it there was a Church wch was almost sunck into ye sands being a very sandy place. So I went up pretty high hills and over some heath or Common, on wch a Great storme of haile and raine met me and drove fiercely on me but ye wind soone dry'd my Dust Coate. Here I Came by a very good Grove of trees wch I thought was by some. Gentlemans house but found it some ffarmers.

The people here are very ill Guides and know but Little from home, only to some market town they frequent, but will be very solicitous to know where you goe and how farre and from whence you Came and where is ye abode. Then I Came in sight of ye hill in Cornwall Called ye Mount, its on a Rock in the sea wch at ye flowing tyde is an jsland, but at Low water one Can goe over ye sands almost just to it, its but a Little market town wch is about 2 mile from Panzants, and you may walke or Ride to it all on ye sands when ye tyde's out. Its a ffine Rock and very high – severall Little houses for fisher men – in ye sides of it just by the water. At ye top is a pretty good house where the Govenour Lives sometymes, – Sr — Hook his name is – there is a tower on the top on wch is a fflag. There is a Chaire or throne on the top from whence they Can discover a Great way at sea and here they put up Lights to direct shipps.

Pensands is Rightly named being all sands about it – it Lies just as a shore to ye maine South ocean wch Comes from ye Lizard and being on ye side of a hill wth a high hill all round ye side to ye Landward it Lookes soe snugg and warme, and truely it needs shelter haveing the sea on ye other side and Little or no ffewell – turff and ffurse and fferne. They have Little or noe wood and noe Coale wch differences it from Darbyshire, otherwise this and to ye Land's End is stone and barren as Darbyshire. I was surprised to ffind my supper boyling on a fire allwayes supply'd wth a bush of ffurse and yt to be ye only ffewell to dress a joynt of meat and broth, and told them they Could not roast me anything, but they have a Little wood for such occasions but its scarce and dear wch is a strange thing yt ye shipps should not supply them. They told me it must all be brought round the Lands End and since ye warre they Could not have it. This town is two parishes, one Church in ye town and a Little Chappell and another Church belonging to ye other parish wch is a mile distance. There is alsoe a good meeteing place.

There is a good Key and a good Harbour for ye shipps to Ride, by meanes of ye point of Land wch runns into ye Sea in a neck or Compass wch shelters it from ye maine and answers the Lizard point wch you see very plaine – a point of Land Looks Like a Double hill one above ye other that runns a good way into ye sea. Ye Lands End is 10 mile ffarther, pretty steep and narrow Lanes, but its not shelter'd wth trees or hedg Rows this being rather desart and Like ye peake Country in Darbyshire, dry stone walls, and ye hills full of stones, but it is in most places better Land and yeilds good Corne, both wheate Barley and oates and some Rhye. About 2 mile from the Lands End I Came in sight of ye maine ocean on both sides, the south and north sea and soe Rode in its view till I saw them joyn'd at ye poynt, and saw the jsland of Sily wch is 7 Leagues off ye Lands End. They tell me that in a Cleer day those in the Island Can discern the people in the maine as they goe up ye hill to Church, they Can Describe their Clothes. This Church and Little parish wch is Called Church town is about a mile from from the poynt. The houses are but poor Cottages Like Barns to Look on, much Like those in Scotland, but to doe my own Country its right ye Inside of their Little Cottages are Clean and plaister'd and such as you might Comfortably Eate and drink in, and for Curiosity sake I dranck there and met wth very good bottled ale. The Lands End terminates in a poynt or Peak of Great Rocks wch runs a good way into ye sea, I Clamber'd over them as farre as safety permitted me, there are abundance of Rocks and Sholes of stones stands up in the sea a mile off some here and there, some quite to ye shore, wch they name by severall names of Knights and Ladies Roled up in mantles from some old tradition or ffiction – Ye poets advance description of ye amours of some Great persons; but these many Rocks and Stones wch Lookes Like ye Needles in ye Isle of Wight makes it hazardous for shipps to double ye poynt Especially in stormy weather. Here at ye Lands end they are but a Little way off of France, 2 dayes saile at farthest Convey them to Hauve de Grace in France, but ye peace being but newly entred into wth ye Ffrench I was not willing to venture at Least by myself into a fforreign Kingdom, and being then at ye End of ye Land, my horses Leggs Could not Carry me through ye deep, and so return'd againe to Pensands 10 mile more, and soe Came in view of both ye seas and saw ye Lizard point and Pensands and ye Mount in Cornwall wch Looked very fine in ye broad day, the sunn shineing on ye rocke in ye sea. Then I continued my returne from Pensands to Hailing and now ye tyde was down and so much Land appeared wch lay under water before, and I might have forded quite a crosse, many yt know ye country do, but I tooke ye safer way round by ye bridge. Here is abundance of very good Fish tho' they are so ill supply'd at Pensands because they carry it all up ye Country East and Southward. This is an arme of ye North Sea wch runs in a greate way into ye Land, its a Large Bay when ye sea comes in and upon ye next hill I ascended from it could discover it more plaine to be a deep water and ye supply of ye maine ocean. Just by here lay some ships and I perceived as I went, there being a Storme, it seemed very tempestious and is a hazardous place in the high tides; so I came to Redruth. I perceive they are very bleake in these Countryes especially to this North Ocean and ye winds so troublesome they are forced to spin straw and so make a caul or net work to lay over their thatch on their Ricks and out houses, wth waites of Stones round to defend ye thatch from being blown away by ye greate winds, not but they have a better way of thatching their Houses wth Reeds and so close yt when its well done will last twenty yeares, but what I mention of braces or bands of straw is on their Rickes wch only is to hold a yeare. These places as in some other parts, indeed all over Cornwall and Devonshire, they have their carryages on horses backes, this being ye time of harvest, tho' later in ye yeare than usuall being ye middle of septembr, but I had ye advantage of seeing their harvest bringing in, wch is on a horse's backe wth sort of crookes of wood like yokes on either side – two or three on a side stands up in wch they stow ye corne and so tie it wth cords, but they cannot so equally poise it but ye going of ye horse is like to cast it down sometimes on ye one side and sometimes on ye other, for they load them from ye neck to ye taile and pretty high and are forced to support it wth their hands, so to a horse they have two people, and the women leads and supports them as well as ye men and goe through thick and thinn – sometymes I have met with half a score horses thus Loaded – they are Indeed but Little horses their Canelles as they Call them, and soe may not be able to draw a Cart, otherwise I am sure 3 or 4 horses might draw 3 tymes as much as 4 horses does Carry and where it is open Ground and roads broad, wch in some places here it was, I wondred at their Labour in this kind, for the men and the women themselves toiled Like their horses, but the Common observation of Custom being as a second nature people are very hardly Convinc'd or brought off from, tho' never soe inconvenient.

From Redruth I went to Truro 8 mile, wch is a pretty Little town and seaport and formerly was Esteemed the best town in Cornwall, now is the second next Lanstone. Its just by ye Copper and tinn mines and Lies down in a bottom, pretty steep ascent as most of the towns in these Countrys, that you would be afraid of tumbling wth nose and head foremost. Ye town is built of stone – a good pretty Church built all stone and Carv'd on ye outside, it stands in ye middle of ye town, and just by there is a market house on stone pillars and hall on ye top; there is alsoe a pretty good key. This was formerly a great tradeing town and flourish'd in all things, but now as there is in all places their Rise and period soe this, wch is become a Ruinated disregarded place. Here is a very good meeteing but I was hindred by ye raine ye Lords day Else should have Come to hearing, and so was forced to stay where I Could hear but one Sermon at ye Church, but by it saw ye fashion of ye Country being obliged to go a mile to ye parish Church over some Grounds wch are divided by such stiles and bridges uncommon, and I never saw any such before; they are severall stones fixed aCross and so are Like a Grate or Large Steps over a Ditch that is full of mudd or water, and over this just in the middle is a Great stone fixed side wayes wch is the style to be Clambered over. These I find are the ffences and Guards of their Grounds one from another, and Indeed they are very troublesome and dangerous for strangers and Children. I heard a pretty good Sermon but that wch was my Greatest pleasure was the good Landlady I had, she was but an ordinary plaine woman but she was understanding in the best things as most, – ye Experience of reall religion and her quiet submision and self Resignation to ye will of God in all things, and especially in ye placeing her in a remoteness to ye best advantages of hearing, and being in such a publick Employment wch she desired and aimed at ye discharging soe as to adorne ye Gospel of her Lord and Saviour, and the Care of her Children. Indeed I was much pleased and Edify'd by her Conversation and ye pitch of Soul Resignation to ye will of God and thankfulness that God Enabled and owned her there in, was an attainment few reach yt have greater advantages of Learning and knowing ye mind of God. But this plainly Led me to see that as God himself teacheth soe as none teacheth Like him, soe he Can Discover himself to those immediately yt have not the opportunity of seeing him in his sanctuary, and therefore to him we must address for help in this or any Duty he Calls us to, both in the use of what meanes he appoynts as alsoe for success and blessing on it.

From Truro wch is 9 mile from Ffallmouth and 4 mile from Trygolny wch was ye place I was at before wth my Relation, that would have Engaged my stay with them a few dayes or weekes to have given me the diversion of the Country, and to have heard the Cornish nightingales as they Call them, the Cornish Chough – a sort of Jackdaw if I mistake not – a Little black bird wch makes them a visit about Michaelmas and gives them ye diversion of the notes wch is a Rough sort of musick not unlike ye Bird I take them for, so I believe they by way of jest put on the Cornish Gentlemen by Calling them nightingales; but the season of the year enclined to raine and ye dayes declineing I was affraid to delay my Return, and these parts not abounding wth much accomodation for horses, theirs being a hard sort of Cattle and Live much on Grass or ffurses of wch they have ye most, and it will make them very ffatt being Little hardy horses, and as they jest on themselves do not Love the taste of oates and hay, because they never permit them to know the taste of it. But my horses Could not Live so, Especially on journeys, of wch I had given them a pretty exercise, and their new oates and hay suited not their stomach. I Could get noe Beanes for them till I Came back to St Columbe againe wch from Truro by St Mitchel was 12 miles mostly Lanes and Long miles. As I observed before I saw noe windmills all these Countrys over, they have only the mills wch are overshott and a Little rivulet of water you may step over turns them, wch are the mills for Grinding their Corn and their ore or what Else. From St Culombe I went to Way bridge 6 Long miles. There was a river wch was flowed up by ye tyde a Greate way up into the Land, it Came from ye north sea, it was broad, ye bridge had 17 arches.

Thence to Comblefford over steep hills 9 mile more, some of this way was over Commons of Black moorish Ground full of Sloughs. The Lanes are deffended wth bancks wherein are stones, some Great rocks, others slaty stones, such as they use for tileing. Comblefford was a Little market town but it was very indifferent accomodations, but the raines yt night and next morning made me take up there till about 10 oClock in the morning; it then made a shew of Cleering up made me willing to seek a better Lodging. 2 mile from this place is a Large standing water Called Dosenmere poole in a Black moorish Ground and is fed by no rivers except the Little rivulets from some high hills yet seemes allwayes full wth out Diminution and flows wth ye wind and is stored with good ffish, and people Living near it take ye pleasure in a boate to goe about it. There is alsoe good wildfowle about it; it seemes so be such a water as the mer at Whitlesome in Huntingtonshire by Stilton its fresh water and what supply it has must be the rivulets ye must Come from ye south sea being that wayward towards Plymouth. As I travelled I Came in sight of a great mountaine esteemed the second highest hill in England supposeing ye account Black Combe in Cumberland ye first, but really I have seen soe many Great and high hills I Cannot attribute preeminence to Either of these tho' this did Look very Great and tall, but I thinke its better said the highest hill in each County.

I travelled 4 pretty Long miles much in Lanes and then Came into a Common where I Cross'd the Great roads wch on the Right hand Leads a way to Plymouth and the south sea, the Left hand to Bastable and the north sea, wch Conveys the stone or rather marble wch they take from hence at Bole, remarkable Quarrys for a Black stone, Exceeding hard and Glossy Like marble, very Dureable for pavements. This they send to all parts in tyme of peace and London takes off much of it.

Here I Rode over a Common or Down 4 mile Long in sight of ye North sea and saw Hartly poynt which is the Earle of Baths just by his fine house Called Stow, his fine stables of horses, and Gardens. There I discern'd the Poynt very plaine and just by I saw the jsle of Lundy which formerly belonged to my Grandfather William Lord viscount Say and Seale, wch does abound with ffish and Rabbets and all sorts of ffowles, one bird yt Lives partly in the water and partly out and so may be Called an amphibious Creature, its true that one foote is Like a turky the other a gooses foote; it Lays its Egg in a place the Sun shines on and sets it so exactly upright on the small End and there it remaines till taken up and all the art and skill of persons Cannot set it up soe againe to abide. Here I met with some showers wch by fitts or storms held me, – to Lanston 4 mile more, these 12 mile from Cambleford was not Little ones and what with the wet and Dirty Lanes in many places I made it a tedious journey. I Could see none of the town till just I was as you may say ready to tumble into it, there being a vast steep to descend to when the town seemed in a bottom yet I was forced to ascend a pretty good hill into the place. Lanston is the chief town in Cornwall where the assizes are kept, I should have remarked at ye Lands End that Pensands was the Last Corporation in England, soe this is one of ye Last Great towns tho' noe Citty, for Cornwall is in ye Diocese of Devonshire wch is Exeter.

There is a Great ascent up into the Castle wch Looks very Great and in good repaire the walls and towers round it, its true there is but a part of it remaines, the round tower or fort being still standing and makes a good appearance. The town is Encompass'd wth walls and gates, its' pretty Large tho' you Cannot discover the whole town, being up and down in so many hills. The streetes themselves are very steep unless it be at the market place where is a Long and handsome space set on stone pillars wth the town hall on the top, wch has a Large Lanthorne or Cupilo in the middle, where hangs a bell for a Clock with a Dyal to the streete. There is in this place 2 or 3 good houses built after the London form by some Lawyers, Else the whole town is old houses of timber work. At a Little distance from the town on a high hill I Looked back and had the full prospect of the whole town which was of a pretty Large extent. A mile beyond I crossed on a stone bridge over a river and Entred into Devonshire againe, and pass'd through mostly Lanes wch were stony and dirty by reason of ye raines yt ffell the night before, and this day, which was the wettest day I had in all my summers travells, hitherto having had noe more than a shower in a day and that not above 3 tymes in all except when I Came to Exeter. As I Came down from Taunton there was small raine most of the afternoon but this day was much worse, so that by that tyme I Came through Lanes and some Commons to Oakingham wch was 15 mile I was very wet. This was a Little market town and I met with a very good Inn and accomodation, very good Chamber and bed and Came in by 5 of the Clock, so had good tyme to take off my wet Cloathes and be well dryed and warme to eate my supper, and rested very well without sustaining ye Least damage by the wet. I should have Remark'd that these roads were much up and down hill thro' enclosed Lands and woods in ye same manner the other part of Cornwall and Devonshire was, gaineing by degrees the upper Grounds by one hill to another and soe descending them in Like manner. These raines fully Convinced me of ye need of so many Great stone Bridges whose arches were soe high that I have wonder'd at it because the waters seemed shallow streames, but they were so swelled by one night and dayes raine yt they Came up pretty near the arches and ran in most places wth such rapidity and Look'd so thick and troubled as if they would Clear all before them. This Causes Great floods, and the Lower Grounds are overwhelm'd for a season after such raines, so that had I not put on and gotten beyond Lanston that day there would have been noe moveing for me till the flouds wch hourly encreased were run off.

Next day I went to Cochen Well 10 mile, mostly good open way except a hill or two wch were steep and stony, tho' this was the Longer way and about, yet by reason of ye former raines it was the safest, for ye Lower way was run over by the waters wch are Land flouds from the swelling Brookes, wch are up in a few hours and are sunck in the same tyme againe – the wayes were somewhat Dirty. Thence to Exeter 10 mile more, but this was the basest way you Can goe and made much worse by these raines, but its narrow Lanes full of stones and Loose ground, Clay, and now exceeding Slippery by the raines.

A quarter of a mile on this side of the town I stood on a high banck from whence the prospect of ye Citty of Exeter was very pleasant, Could see it to great advantage, ye Cathedrall and other Churches Spires wth ye whole town, wch in generall is well built, wth ye good Bridge over ye Ex, wch is a fine river on whose Banckes are severall Rows of trees all below the town. The walks all about it augments the beauty of ye Citty. From whence I went to Topsham 3 miles which is a Little market place and a very good Key; hither they Convey on horses their Serges and soe Load their shipps wch Comes to this place, all for London. Thence I saw Starre Cross where the Great shipps Ride and there they build some shipps. This was up the river, 5 or 6 miles up ye river, but the tide being out Could not goe and it was ten mile by Land and their miles are soe Long here I would not goe it seing almost as well the shipps yt Lay there as if at the place.

Thence I returned to Exeter 3 mile where I had been very Kindly Entertained by Mr Goswill and his wife, wch was one my brothr Sr Edmond Harrison did Employ in Buying Serges. From Exeter I went to Honiton 15 mile, all fine Gravell way, ye best Road I have met with all in the west. Here it is they make the fine bone lace in imitation of the Antwerp and Flanders Lace and jndeed I think its as fine – it only will not wash so fine, wch must be the fault in ye thread. Honiton is a pretty large place, a good market house, near it a good Church wth a round tower and spire wch was very high and a Little peculiar in its forme, somewhat Like a Pigeon house Rooffe. Here is a very Large meeteing of Descenters. Thence I went to Axminster 7 mile more, but not soe good way being much in Lanes stony and Dirty and pretty much up and down hills, Like ye other parts of those Countrys.

Beyond Axminster where I passed over the river Ax on a pretty Large Bridge I Came to Somersetshire againe. This Axminster is a Little market town and the London Road by Chard, but I struck out of that road 2 mile off the town to Liegh wch was 4 mile from Axminster, to a Relations house Mr Hendlys, wch stands on a hill, but its such an Enclosed Country and narrow Lanes you Cannot see a Bow shott before you, and such up and down steep hills. Its an old house, and Large Court wth open gates that enter you into a passage, on the Right hand a good Parlour new wanscoated, next that a Kitchen and pantrys Leads into a Court where all the offices are and stable and Coach houses. On the Left side of ye passage at ye Entrance is a Large old hall wth a Great halfe pace at ye upper End wth 2 Chimneys in the hall. This Leades into a passage on the Left hand and so through to another parlour wth good old fashion Carved wanscoat. The roomes are low, out of ye passage Leads up a paire of staires to 3 or 4 roomes all Low and but one well furnished; then out of same passage below is a doore into the Gardens wch are one Lower than the other with stone stepps, its Capable of being very handsome if made with open Grates to set one out to see ye orchards and woods beyond. They were a turffing ye walks and makeing banks in order to it. Ye house alsoe is Capable of alteration to a good house if the windows were made Lower and ye roomes fitted wth wanscoate and good ffurniture. Just to the front there is design'd a visto to be Cut thro' the wood to the water side wch will be very fine being on a descent.

About a mile from hence is one Mr Preadneas house, a fine old house and well furnished but they permit none to see it, soe I saw it not only drove by it to see my Cozens Little Girle at nurse and soe returned home againe a mile, and then from Liegh I went through narrow stony Lanes up hills and down, wch steeps Causes the water on raines to trill down on the Low ground that for a few hours or a day there will be noe passing in ye bottom, wch happen'd while I was at Liegh; one nights Raine put the Cattle in the meddows swimming and hindred us from going to Church, the water would have Came over the windows of the Coach. These stony Lanes I passed till I Came to the Great road which Comes from Lime, here I Entred into Dorsetshire and soe went through a Little town Called Maiden Newton eight mile more, and soe thence to Dorchester town 6 mile more; all a fine hard Gravel way and much on the downs – this is good Ground and Much for sheep. Thence I went to Blandford 12 Long miles thro' Piddletown Milborn and WhitChurch. There I staid with my relation Cos'n Collier, Husys and Ffussells, thence to Salisbury 18 mile. When I had passed 6 mile I Came through a Gate wch brought me into Wiltshire and soe over ye downs to Salisbury and from thence to Newton-tony 7 miles.

I went from Newton-tony to Sarum and home againe 3 tymes wch made it 42 miles in all, then to Wallop 4 miles and home again 4 miles, and to Grattly twice and back againe 12 mile, and to Cholderton twice 4 miles, to Allington and home 2 mile more, then to London.

From Newtontony to Winchester 15 mile, there I went to see a Relation Mrs Horne thence Alsford 8 mile. The Little raines I had in the morning before I Left Newtontony made the wayes very slippery, and it being mostly on Chaulk way a Little before I Came to Alsford forceing my horse out of the hollow way his feete failed and he Could noe wayes recover himself, and soe I was shott off his neck upon the Bank, but noe harm I bless God and as soone as he Could role himself up stood stock still by me, which I Looked on as a Great mercy – indeed mercy and truth all wayes have attended me. The next day I went to Alton 10 miles thence Ffarnum 9 miles more. This proved a very wet day, after an hours Rideing in the morning it never Ceased more or Less to raine, wch made me put in at Ffarnum and stay all the day after I Came in at noone. But then it began to raine much faster and soe Continued. Thence next day I went over the fforest in sight of Ffairly Castle wch is the Bishop of Winchesters pallace, it Lookes nobly on a hill, thence to Bagshott 9 miles, thence to Winsor over the fforest 7 Long miles, this way most Clay deep way, the worse by reason of ye raines and full of Sloughs. About a mile off Windsor Castle appeares standing on a hill much after the manner of Durham wth ye walls and battlements round, only that is all stone and this is but partly soe and ye rest Brick plaister'd over in imitation of stones wch does not Look so well. It is a pretty great ascent to ye town wch is well built, something suitable to London by reason of its affinity to ye Court, and I saw the Cathedrall or St Georges Church wch is very fine built all stone and Carved on ye outside, severall Cloysters Leads to the Doctors houses – its a Lofty noble building. The quire is properly St Georges Chappel whose Rooff is very high and Carved very Curiously, all free stone, so is the rest of ye Church. There hangs up ye Banners and Ensignes of honour belonging to ye Severall Knights of the honourable order of ye blew garter, their Complement is 26, there was one void at this tyme by the Death of ye Earle of Peterborough. There is a Greate Cerimony in their Inauguration, their seates are of Wanscoate Carved which are all quite round the quire, wth Each Garters and Coate armours and banners on the top, and when they are jnstalled. their Garments are blew velvet, in shape Like the Coapes, Lined wth white Sattin or silk, that and their blew Garter in which hangs a George on horseback besett wth jewels and a Diamond Garter put on their Right Leg, which is performed by 2 of ye former Knights of the order, which is given them by the King that is the Principal of yt order. Then they have an oath Given them to maintain the Rights and Cerimonyes of said order and soe are seated in their seates. There are Great fees paid by each new Knight to ye officers to the poore Knights of Windsor, whose seates are just under ye Seates of the Knights of ye Garter, 18 poore Knights of Windsor wch have houses provided for them about the Cloyster and 48£ pr annum each besides their perquisits at such tymes. There are alsoe 18 singing men and petty Cannons, those that are preachers has houses and 30lb pr annum each, but the others have but 22lb each a yeare and houses to Live in. These all have their ffees at the jnstalment of Each Knight of the Garter and of this order are severall Princes and Great men both here and in forreign Parts.

There is a very Large fine organ at ye Entrance of the Quire, the alter is Crimson velvet striped wth Gold tissue, Large Candlesticks and Basons Gilt. At the jnstallment there is a Great deale of plaite set out wch belongs to the Chappel. Over the alter is a painting of Christ and his twelve apostles at ye passover supper very naturally drawn, and over it a Large window full of fine paintings – the history of the testaments. Ye Quire is paved all with black and white marble under which is a Large vault for ye Royal family. There Lyes King Henry ye 8th and King Charles the first &c. There is in the Church a tombe and vault of ye Duke of Norfolks familly wth steele Carvings all about it very Curious, and to add to its variety it may be all taken piece by piece and put up in a box, its a very Large thing and great variety of work – this is on the Right side of the alter.

There is in a Little Chappel by, a very fine monument with two Large Statues in alabastr Painted and gilt all at Length in their garments, and round the tomb stone are the Statues of their Children, 7 daughters, four of them were twinns and soe represented being put together, and 3 sonnes, all alabaster, and there is a role of matt under the head of the Lord and Lady that was so naturall, Looked like real Matt. This was Lord Earle Lincolns tomb. There is another monument of the Earle of Rutlands, the first of the family wch was Earle 100 year since, it was in the yeare ano: Dom: 1513: there is round that 6 Sonns and six Daughters with Carvings of other Images holding their Coates of armes. There is another monument wch is of ye old Duke off Beaufort who was base son to King Edward the 4th, and therefore there is a barr of reproach aCross the English arms wch he bears. There is another statue of white marble in a Leaneing posture almost Lyeing quite along and they say its very Like his Effigie – this was the Bishop of Chichester. There is another Bishops Effigie in ye wall just to ye waste of alabaster. There is a Chappel in wch are prayers at 8 of ye Clock at night. There is a white marble ffont. The rooff of the quire is very Curious, Carv'd stone and soe thinn to ye Leads one might grasp it between thumb and finger, and yet so well fixt as to be very strong. From thence I proceeded on to ye Castle wch is the finest pallace ye King has Especially now White hall is burnt; but that was old buildings and unless it were the banqueting house and the apartment which our good Queen Mary beautifyed for herself that was never soe well as Winsor. You Enter in through a gate; on the right hand is a tower which is built wth Redouts and walks round it as was Durham Castle. Its 120 stepps up where is the Guard roome hung with armes, thence a Dineing roome, the Duke of Norfolks appartment, a Drawing roome and two bed Chambers, one wth a half bedstead as the new mode, dimity wth fine shades of worstead works well made up – there are good Pictures. The next roome has such a bed but that is fine Indian quilting and Embroidery of silk. The tower on the Leads is as many stepps more, I walked round it and Could see a Great prospect of the whole town and Winsor fforest and the Country round to Kensington, I Could see Lord of Hollands house and Rowes of trees, and to Harrow of the hill, and to Shooters hill beyond London, and the town of Winsor Looked very well. There were severall noblemens houses, Duke St Albans and fine Gardens, Just by it is the Lord Guidolphins house and Gardens; there I Could see the fine walk or rather Road planted with trees of a huge length into ye fforest, wch King Charles made for his going out in Diversion of shooteing, and here I could see ye river Thames wch twists and turns itself round ye meddowes and Grounds. Upon this tower wch is most tymes moist, all in the walls grows ye best maiden haire both white and black, wch is an herb much esteemed for Coughs and to put into Drinks for consumption.

Thence I proceeded on to a Large Court Like the Quaderangle at Christ Church College in Oxford, or Trinity in Cambridge, in the middle of which is a statue of King Charles ye Second on horseback all of brass, and is railed in wth Iron spikes; round this Court are the Buildings wch are ye severall appartments of the Lords of ye bed Chamber, and the Ladies; also one side is the Lodgings belonging to the princess Ann of Denmarke wch are all of stone and well built and beautifyed. In the middle you Enter a Large pair of jron gates finely Carv'd into a paved Large space supported wth several rows of Stone Pillars, and ascending up Large Staires, which Enters you into the Queens Guard Chamber hung full of armoury, wch is so Exactly set, the Pikes set up like Pillars and such distances, ye muskets Laid a long one above the other ye boxes for ye powder, and the Edge of ye Cornish is Pistols set as thick as they can be set, and above it are drums and helmets and back and breast armour. The Chimney piece is of ye same; swords in the middle, there poynts turned outward, with a round of Little Pistolls set Close in quarter Circle; its all exactly uniforme and very handsome. Next into a noble Hall wch has very fine paintings, this is the Standard for Curiosity in all places you see painting, its done by the same hand did the paintings att Winsor. The top is full of all sort of varietys, in the middle is King Charles's Picture, ye sides are all descriptions of Battles, and between Each Picture in the Pillars is ye George and Blew garter and Starre, at ye upper End is the Large Picture of St George Encountering ye dragon and at the Lower End is ye picture of ye King that first Instituted this order of the Blew garter, and in putting it on himself on his son, who was just returned victor from some Considerable Battle. I should have noted in my Remarks of the Cerimonies of that order that when any Dies and a Garter Drops they make a solemn offering up of all their Ensignes of honour to ye Church and then take them down and pay some ffees as well as at their Entrance into it. From this roome I Entred into ye Chappel under the gallery or Closet the King and Queen sets in at prayers, this was supported by four Brass Gyants or Else painted Like Brass. This seate of ye Kings Lookes into ye Chappel, its Crimson velvet, all the jnside and Cannopy wth ye Cloth wch hung over it all alike Richly Embroyder'd with Gold fring. This is the house Chappel and is Exceeding beautifull, ye paintings of the rooffe and the sides which is ye history of Christs miracles his Life and the good he did in healing all distemper, wch are described at Large here and Lookes very Lively. There is alsoe the most Exactest workmanship in ye wood Carving, which is as the painting the pattern and masterpiece of all such work, both in ffigures, fruitages, beasts, birds, fflowers, all sorts, soe thinn ye wood, and all white natural wood without varnish. This adorns the Pillars and void spaces between the paintings, here is as Great qualiety so much for Quantety. There was a pretty alter at ye upper End and two gallerys for ye musick.

Thence I went up staires into a Large dineing roome, Damaske Chaires and window Curtaines, wanscoated, and severall fine pictures. The Rooffe of this was well painted also, but they are soe Lofty its enough to Breake ones neck to Looke on them. Thence into a Gallery full of Pictures wth a Large Looking Glass at ye End. Thence into ye Drawing roome where is the Large Branch of silver, and ye sconces round ye roome of silver, silver table, and stands, and Glass frames, and Chaire frames. Next is ye queenes Chamber of state, all Indian Embroidery on white Sattin being presented to her by ye Compy. On it is Great Plumes of white ffeathers, there is very good tapistry hangings full of gold and silver, but they are Large old ffigures. Here's a silver table, and stands, and Glass fframe. There was a raile set a Cross at ye beds ffeete wch reached Each side of ye roome, made of sweate wood frames and open Wires in ye middle, and was to be Doubled together in Leaves as a screen: this was instead of ye raile use to be quite round ye King and queens beds to keep off Companyes Coming near them.

Thence into an anti-roome through a Little Gallery or passage, thence into ye Kings dressing roome almost all Glass; ye Chimney piece is full of Great stone heads in nitches or hollows made for them, of some Emperours. Ye windows of all ye roomes are Large sashes as big as a good Looking-glass and are all diamond Cut round the Edges, the height of ye windows makes them Looke narrow. Thence into the kings Constant bed Chamber, being one of ye halfe bedsteads of Crimson and Green damaske, jnside and outside the same hangings, and Chaires and window Curtaines the same; it was Lofty and full with good ffringe, and there was such another screen or raile at ye ffeete of the bed that tooke ye Length of the roome as in the queens Chamber; here was tables, stands, Glass frames, Gilt gold, fine Carving on the Chimney pieces, both here and in ye queens' appartment. Ye next was ye Chamber of State wch is noble. Indeed, very Lofty and painted on ye roofe as they all are. The bed was green velvet Strip'd down very thick with Gold orrice Lace of my hands breadth, and round the bottom 3 such orrices and Gold ffring all round it and gold tassels; so was the Cornish. The jnside was ye same, at the head piece was Like Curtaines ffringed round wth gold and tyed back wth Gold strings and tassells as it were tyed back and soe hung down in the middle, where was the Crown and sypher Embroyder'd; the hangings ye same and such another screen aCrosse the roome to secure the bed from ye Common. Next this is the drawing roome of state, the Cannopy and throne and ye part behind is all green velvet Richly Embroyder'd with silver and Gold, of high Emboss'd work, and some Curiously wrought Like needlework that you Can scarce see ye Ground or stuff its wrought on, and the Crown of Crimson velvet Embroyder'd just over the Chaire or throne of state; the ffootstoole the same, wch was all set on a half pace or part raised above ye rest as the manner is, with a fine Carpet over it. The Cannopy was so rich and Curled up and in some places soe ffull it Looked very Glorious, and was newly made to give audience to the Ffrench Embassadour to shew ye Grandeur and magnificence of the British Monarch – some of these ffoolerys are requisite sometymes to Create admiration and regard to keep up the state of a kingdom and nation.

Thence I went into the Common audience roome, where was a throne on such a raised space wth a Carpet. This throne and Canopy and ye back with Stooles and Chaires was Crimson and Gold Coullour'd ffigured velvet. Out of this I Came into a Large roome for people to wait in, painted with black and white and gold – Description of some ffights and men in armour. Thence into the Kings Guard Chamber wch is deckt as the Queens, the walls being adorned wth ye severall armes put in Exact order, only in ye pillars or spaces here they hang the Bandaleers which holds their powder. In the mantle piece there was noe difference, but in ye middle was the starre and soe set about with ye pistols and swords. Thence I descended Large staires of stone, and soe through a Court back to ye walk of pillars, and soe through the Large jron gate into the Courts one without another all built round.

Winsor town Lookes well, the streetes Large, the Market Cross on stone pillars and a Large hall on the top; from thence the streete runs along to ye Bridge over the Thames and there you Enter Buckinghamshire and a quarter of a mile off, tho' jndeed there is building all along. There is Eaton Colledge a good stone building Carved on ye outside, its round a square. There is at the ffront a Large schoole roome – 400 schollars and 8 fellows wch have 400 a piece yearely. Ye master has 1000£, he payes all the ushers, in number seven; there is alsoe an under master for the Little schollars, this was ffounded by King Edward the Confessour and Endowed so richly by him, and on the same ffoundation is the revenues of ye Cathedrall and ye poore knights wch goe in a peculiar black gown like fryers. All their salleryes and ye repaire of the Cathedrall is taken Care of by ye same ffoundation, wth ye Colledge, not but there is a Little Chappel to ye Colledge wth in itself for Every dayes prayers. The Chappel and schoole room takes up two sides of the square, the two others is the Lodging for ye ffellows and for ye schollars; then ye middle there is an arch wch Leads to ye Cloyster and soe into their kitchen and Cellars which are very Convenient and high but pretty old. Just by is the great Hall in wch they eate, the schollars and fellows and masters should eate with them. This is the same ffoundation as Kings Colledge in Cambridge so yt those schollers that are fitt to be removed to ye University at ye Election are sped to Kings Colledge in Cambridge and so are advanced as they Can get friends into ffellowshipps to Either. Ffrom Windsor I went to ye fferry 3 mile and Rode in sight of ye Castle on this side wch is all ye K: and Q: appartments and Lookes very noble, ye walls round wth ye battlements, and Gilt balls and other adornments. Here I fferry over ye Thames and so went a nearer way which is a private road Made for ye kings Coaches and so to Colebrooke 3 mile more. Thence to Houndslow-heath and so to London 12 mile more, then I went to Bednallgreen 4 miles and home againe 4 mile more, and here ends my Long journey this summer in wch I had but 3 dayes of wet except some refreshing showers sometymes, and I thinke yt was not above 4 in all the way and it was in all above 1551 miles and many of them Long miles, in all which way and tyme I desire wth thankfullness to own ye good providence of God protecting me from all hazard or dangerous accident.

It Cannot be thought amiss here to add some remarke on ye metropolis of England. London whose scituation on so noble a river as the Thames wch Emptyes it at ye Boy of ye Nore, being there joyned wth ye Medway another very fine river alsoe, and falls there into ye sea wch is about 30 miles from London, and is an Ebbing flowing river as farre as Sheen beyond London. This is very Comodious for shipps wch did Come up just to ye bridge, but from Carelessness ye river is Choaked up, that obliges ye shipps to Come to an anchor at Blackwall. All along this river are severall docks for building shipps of ye biggest burden; six miles from the town ye Last yeare was built ye Royal Souveraign wch is our greatest ship. London joyned wth Westminster, which are two great Cittyes but now wth building so joyned it makes up but one vast building with all its Subburbs, and has in ye walls ninety seven Parishes, without ye walls 16 parishes, 15 subburbs, Surrey, Middlesex, 7 parishes in Westminster.

London is ye Citty properly for trade, Westminster for ye Court, ye first is divided into 24 wards to each which there is an alderman, and themselves Consist of Common Council men and all freemen of the Citty, and have power to Choose these aldermen and make their own orders and to maintain their own priviledges. All freemen or Livery men of this Citty hath a Right to Choose their sherriffs of wch Every yeare there is two, one for Middlesex ye other ye Corporation, but both are joyned and officiate together in all matters of juries justice or Ceremonies, and to maintaine all Rights. These freemen alsoe have their voyce in Choice of their Lord Major wch is done Every yeare with this Sollemnity, the Sheriffs being Chosen and sworne at Mid summer, ye Michaelmas after ye Lord Major is Chosen and sworne; ye evening before which is Simon and Judes day is a feast Called Calveshead feast. Next day ye old Lord Major Comes to meete ye new one and wth him on his Left hand is Conducted on horse back in all their gowns of scarlet Cloth Lined wth ffurr; all ye aldermen in Like Robes only differenc'd as their station, those of them wch have been Lord Majors weare a Gold Chaine Ever after, but those yt have not passed ye Chaire weare none. Ye Lord Major is allwayes one of ye aldermen and he has a great gold Chaine round his neck, the Sheriffs also weare a gold Chaine round their neck yt yeare. Thus on horseback they proceed two and two wth all their officers. Ye Lord Major has his Sword bearer wch walkes before him wth the Sword in an Embroyder'd Sheath he weares a Great velvet Cap of Crimson, the bottom and ye top of ffurr or such Like standing up Like a turbant or Great bowle in forme of a Great open Pye, this is Called ye Cap of Maintenance. This is ye Lord Majors Chiefe officer, he holds his place Dureing his Life and has 1500 a yeare allowed him for his table wch in all things is as good as Lord Major's and he Entertaines all people at it, yet he himself must officiate at the Lord Majors table to see all things in order and Comes in at sett tymes accordingly to performe them and bring ye Lord Majors Compliments to ye Campanyes. He thus walkes before the Lord Mayor wth ye water Bayliff beareing a Gold Mace &c. At Fleete ditch they Enter ye Barges wch are all very Curiously adorned and thus he is Conducted ye river being full of Barges belonging to ye severall Companyes of London, adorned with streamers and their armes and fine musick, and have sack to drinke and Little Cakes as bigg as a Crown piece. They Come to Westminster staires where they Land and are Conducted, the Lord Majors traines being borne up as well ye old as new Lord Major, they Enter Westminster Hall and are Conducted to ye severall Courts of justice where there is severall Ceremonyes perform'd. The new Lord Major is presented to ye King or those deputed to act under him and then is sworne, all which being over they are Conducted back to their Barges and soe to ye staires they took barge, where they are received by some of ye nobility deputed by the king who make some Little speech of Compliment and Give ye Lord Major and aldermen a treate of wine and sweet meates passant. They mount on horseback and returne only ye new Lord Major takes ye right hand and haveing by ye sheriffs invited ye King and Court to dinner, wch sometymes they accept but mostly refuse, because it puts the Citty to a vast Charge; they being then Conducted through ye Citty wth Greate acclamations their own habits and trappings of their horses being very fine, and they haveing all the Severall Companyes of ye Citty wch walke in their order and gowns wth pagents to most or many of their Companyes, wch are a sort of Stages Covered and Carryed by men and on ye top many men and boys acting ye respective trades or Employts of Each Company, some in shipps for ye Merchts, and whatever Company the new Lord major is off his pageant is ye finest and yt Company has ye precedency that yeare of all ye Companyes Except ye mercers Company, wch allwayes is the first and Esteemed ye Greatest, and when there is a Lord Major of yt Company their pageant is a maiden queen on a throne Crowned and with Royal Robes and scepter and most richly dressed, wth Severall Ladyes dressed, her attendants, all on ye same pageant and wth a Cannopy over her head and drawn in an open Chariot wth 9 horses very finely accouter'd and pages that Ride them all, wth plumes of feathers. After being drawn through ye Citty she is jnvited by ye Lord major to a dinner provided on purpose for her, and soe many Rich Batchelors are appointed to Entertaine her that is a ranck among ye freemen. She has her traine bore up and is presented to Lady Majoris that salutes her as doth the aldermens Ladyes, all wch are Conducted in their Coaches to Guildhall. The new Lady Majoress Richly habitted has her traine borne up, and Introduced by one of the officers. The Sheriffs Ladyes Likewise weares gold Chaines that yeare, the Lady majoress does wear it ever after as doe all ye aldermens Ladyes whose husbands have been Lord majors, and as I said before ye Lord Majors must be aldermen and must have served as sheriffs before, and allwayes ye king Confers Knighthood on the person that is Chosen to be Sheriff unless he were a knight before.

In Guild Hall there are severall long tables plenty fully ffurnished wth all sorts of varietyes suiteable to the season, wth fine Desserts off sweetemeates, and jellys wch in Pyramidyes stand all ye tyme; the hott meate is brought in in first and second Courses. The Lord Major and Lady Majoress sitt at the upper End but in Case the Court is there then the Lord Major has one table, ye Lady another, and ye old Lady Majoress is set at ye Left hand of ye new Lady, and the aldermens Ladyes at her Right hand according to their senioritye, after which they Retire into a Gallery where is danceing the whole Evening.

All this yeare Lord or Lady Majoress goe no where but wth their officers to attend them, and ye old Lord Major and Lady Majoress has their traines bore up to Guild Hall and after dinner return without it. The whole affaires of ye Citty are managed by ye Lord Major and Court of aldermen and Common Councill men, he is obliged to take care of justice and Right, he does during his yeare jnvite Each Company wth all their Masters Wardens and officers twice – the Last tyme all their wives alsoe – the Sherriffs doe ye Like. Each person brings their Gift two, three Guinneas, some more and according to their Gift at ye Last Entertainment they have a silver spoon double Gilt, Either weighing soe many ounces and soe many as they Give Guinneas many tymes in the yeare: those yt would shew particular respect will go dine wth them and bring presents without haveing spoones.

All offices falling vacant in the Majoralty acruee to Lord Major to dispose off. There are 24 Companyes wch have each severall officers, as masters wardens &c., and doe meete to fix and maintaine their priviledges. They doe walke at ye Lord Majors day and make sumptuous feasts at Each hall appertaineing to their Compy wch is at ye Charge of ye masters and wardens wch are officers Chosen new Every yeare. They have great stocks and Lands belonging to their Companyes Common stock, and wch does maintaine schooles and Hospitalls and such Like wch from tyme to tyme are Encreased by severall Benefactors and Legacyes, some of wch are greate as in ye Mercers Company which have Lands to a great value for such Ends. There are severall feasts which Lord Major and Sherriffs are absolutely obliged to make at their first Entrance into their offices, two dayes following each other, and ye first day of ye terme to all ye judges, and 3 dayes at Easter going to hear a sermon at St Brides Each day, and then to jnspect ye severall Charityes and hospitalls yt all be kept in due order and provided for. Ye Lord Major and Sherriffs attends the King at all tymes to represent ye Publick affaires of ye Citty and receive his orders, they alsoe officiate at ye proclaiming any new King or Queen or to Declare peace or warr, wch is done in Greate solemnity by ye King at Arms and severall of ye nobillity in Coaches or on horseback, and ye officers of ye kings household.

King Williams return after ye peace was Concluded wth Ffrance and ye Confederates, the Kings Entry was in this manner, ye Lord Major in Crimson velvet Gown wth a Long traine on horseback attended by all his officers ye sword bearer and water Baily very well dress'd. Ye Common hunt was Clad in Green velvet, thus with all ye aldermen in their scarlet gowns they proceeding to receive ye King just at ye End of Southwark on ye borders of Kent, the Lord Major Carrying a scepter wth a Crown of pearle on ye top. Ye King was attended thus, ffirst of all his soldiers and officers marched in Ranke, ye aldermen and Lord Major and officers, then all ye nobillity in their Coaches, the Bishops and judges, then ye first Coach of ye King wth his household, then ye guards of his body, and then the Coach where in ye King was, wch was a very rich and Costly thing all ye fring Rich Gold, ye Glass very Large, the Standards and all outwork Like beaton Gold, drawn by 8 very fine white horses with Massy Gold harness and trappings, the Ffrench kings present to our king when the peace was concluded, ye first article of wch was owning King William king of England. After the kings Coach a troope of guards de Corps, then the third Coach of ye Kings wth his houshold, and other Coaches with Severall officers of the houshold; then as the king passed Southwarke the Baily presented him his mace, he returned it with ye usuall Ceremony and Grattification; then at ye bridge ye Lord Major demands his place and ye sword, wch is to March as Captn of ye Kings guards just Imediately before ye kings own Coach, wch accordingly was given him and he returns the said scepter to ye proper officers who bear yt and all ye Maces before him, and he bare headed beares ye sword on horseback just before the kings Coach. At ye same tyme ye water baily rides in the middle of ye guards as their officer and is on horseback, two men Like pages Leading it, soe is Lord Majors in this order: they proceeding through the Citty wch from ye Royal Exchange on Each side had placed the traine bands of the Citty with their officers, next them ye 24 companyes of ye Citty in their order and marks of their Honour and priviledges, wch reached to ye Conduite in Cheapside, all wch paid their respective Homage and duty to ye King who receiv'd it very kind and obligeingly, as he did ye Generall joy and acclamations wch proceeded from thousands which were spectators. At Pauls Schoole ye Schollars made him a speech and then he was Conducted to his own pallace at Whitehall. But before I leave the Citty of London I must describe its Building and treasure. Ye Government as I said was Lord Major, aldermen, sherriffs, Recorder, and Chamberlaine, and other officers as Common serjeant, and other sergeants, sword Bearers, water Bayly, Common Cryer, and ye town Clerke; all these with many other officers has Considerable salleryes and Endure their Life, Except ye Chamberlaine thats annually Chosen tho' mostly is in the same person againe. Those others are in the Lord Majors dispose and brings a greate advantage to him if any dye in his Majoralty. There is alsoe many Considerable perquisitts belonging to him to support ye honnour. The Citty plaite is kept for Each, notwithstanding in ye year it Costs them more many tymes than they Receive, and in the whole I have had it from one yt had been at ye charge said it was above 8000£ in ye year.

There is as I said great Publick Stock in the Citty by which they have raised sumptuous Buildings, the Royal Exchange for one, a Large space of Ground Enclosed round wth Cloysters and open arches on wch are built many walkes of Shopps of all trades. Ye middle space below was design'd and is used for the merchants to meete to Concert their buisness and trade and bills, wch is all open and on ye top of these Piaza's are ye Effigies in stone of most of our kings and Queens since ye Conquest wch were anoynted Crowned heads, from whence this Exchange takes its name Royal. In ye midst of it stands in stone work on a Pedestal ye effigies of King Charles ye second railed in wth Iron spikes. There is alsoe at ye Bridge a Great Monument of stone worke as is ye Exchange; this is of a Great height 300 stepps up and on ye top gives ye view of ye whole town. This was sett up in memory of Gods putting a Check to ye Rageing flame wch by ye plotts and Contrivance of ye papists was Lighted. There is a Large Inscription on it all round mentioning it, and alsoe of ye popish plott and ye gun powdr treason and all by ye papists.

The Bridge is a stately building all stone wth 18 arches most of them bigg Enough to admit a Large Barge to pass, its so broade that two Coaches drives a breast, and there is on Each side houses and shopps just Like any Large streete in ye Citty, of wch there are many and well built, Even and Lofty, most has 5 if not 6 degrees. Most of ye Halls belonging to Each Company are Large and Magnificent buildings, as alsoe ye Churches very fine and Lofty of stone work. Ye Greate Cathedrall is St Pauls wch was a vast building but burnt by fire, has since by ye Citty been built up, or rather a tax on Coales wch brings all to pay for it in London. It now is almost ffinish'd and very magnificent, the Quire wth Curious Carved work in wood, ye arch Bishops seate and ye Bishop of Londons and Lord Majors is very finely Carv'd and adorned, ye alter alsoe with velvet and gold; on ye Right side is placed a Large Crimson velvet Elbow chaire wch is for the Dean. This is all finished (wth a sweet organ) but ye body of ye Church wch is to be Closed on ye top wth a Large Cupilo is not quite done. There was formerly in ye Citty severall houses of ye Noblemens wth Large gardens and out houses and Great attendances, but of Late are pulled down and built into streetes and squares and Called by ye names of ye noblemen, and this is the practise by almost all even just to ye Court Excepting one or two.

Northumberland and Bedford house, and Lord Mountagues house indeed has been new built and is very fine, one roome in ye middle of ye building is of a surpriseing height Curiously painted and very Large, yet soe Contrived yt speake very Low to ye wall or wanscoate in one Corner and it should be heard wth advantage in ye very opposite Corner aCross – this I heard Myself. And this Leads me to ye Citty of Westminster in wch are many of these noblemens houses built into very fine squares. Ye kings pallace was a most magnificent building all of freestone, wth appartments suiteable to ye Court of a King, in wch was a Large roome Called the Banqueting-roome wch was fitted for and used in all Publick solemnityes and audiences of ambassadours &c. This is ye only thing Left of ye vast building which by accident or Carelessness, if not designe, has Laid it in ashes together wth Exceeding Rich furniture of antiquity, as alsoe ye greate and good Queen Mary's Closet and Curious treasures. This has all along ye prospect of ye Thames on one side and a Large parke on ye other, walled in, which is full of very fine walkes and rowes of trees, ponds and Curious birds Deer, and some fine Cows. In this parke stands another pallace St James, wch is very well and was built for some of ye Royal Familly as ye Duke of Yorke or Prince of Wales. There is at Whitehall in ye privy Garden a Large pond wth a spout of water of a vast height. This of St James is Little but daily building adding may make it greate.

There is alsoe one Nobleman's house, is this Parke House wch is a very Curious Building. Just by this parke you Enter another Much Larger, Hide-parke, wch is for Rideing on horseback but mostly for ye Coaches, there being a ring railed in round wch a Gravel way yt would admitt of twelve if not more rowes of Coaches, wch ye Gentry to take ye aire and see each other Comes and drives round and round; one row going Contrary to each other affords a pleaseing diversion. The rest of ye parke is green and full of deer, there are Large ponds wth fish and fowle. Ye whole Length of this parke there is a high Causey of a good breadth, 3 Coaches may pass and on Each side are Rowes of posts on wch are Glasses – Cases for Lamps wch are Lighted in ye Evening and appeares very fine as well as safe for ye passenger. This is only a private roade ye king had wch reaches to Kensington, where for aire our Great King Wm bought a house and filled it for a Retirement wth pretty gardens. Besides these ye king has a pallace in ye Strand wth fine gardens all to ye Thames river, this appertaines to ye Queen Dowager while she Lives. In this place was yt cruel Barbarous Murder of Sr Edmund Berry Godfrey by ye papists. Westminster is remarkable for haveing in it ye ancient Large abbey wch is a most magnificent Building of stone finely Graved, and within is adorned wth severall monuments of our Kings and Queens and great personages.

In Harry ye sevenths Chapple Layes our Great and good as well as Ever Glorious King William, and Queen Mary his Royal Consort and joinctly on ye throne of these kingdoms, whome noe tyme Can ever obliterate ye memory off, their being Englands deliverers in Gods hands from popery and slavery wch King James by ye King of Frances power was involving us in. This abby alsoe is ye place where ye sollemnityes of the Kings interrments and Corronations are performed of which shall give a perticular.

At ye Death of a Prince which I have been a mournfull spectator or hearer of two of ye most Renowned yt ever was, King William and queen Marys, the Queen Dying before the king he ommitted noe Ceremony of Respect to her memory and remains wch Lay in State in Whitehall in a bed of Purple velvet all open, the Cannopy ye same wth Rich gold fring, ye middle being ye armes of England Curiously painted and Gilt, ye head piece Embroyder'd Richly wth a Crown and Cyphers of her name, a Cusheon of purple velvet at ye head on wch was ye Imperiall Crown and Scepter and Globe, and at ye feete another such a Cusheon wth ye sword and Gauntlets on the Corps wch was rowled in Lead, and over it a Coffin Cover'd wth purple velvet wth the Crown, and Gilt in Moldings very Curious. A Pall on all of a very Rich tissue of gold and silver, Ruffled round about wth purple velvet wch hung down on ye ground, wch was a halfe pace railed as ye manner of the Princes beds are. This in a roome hung wth purple velvet full of Large wax tapers, and at ye 4 Corners of the bed stood 4 of ye Ladyes of ye bed Chamber – Countesses – wth vailes; these were at severall tymes relieved by others of ye same. Ye anty Chamber hung with purple Cloth and there attended four of ye Maids of honnour all in vailes, and ye Gentlemen of the bed Chamber, pages in another roome all in black, ye staires all below the same. Ye Queen dyeing while ye parliamt sate, ye King gave mourning to them, 500 and Clerks, wch attended thus: their Speaker haveing his traine bore up, then ye Lord Major ye same, and attended by ye aldermen and officers all in black, and ye Judges; then ye officers of the houshold, then ye Guards, then ye Gentleman master of ye horse Led the queens Led horse Cover'd up wth purple velvet, next Came the open Chariot made as ye bed was, the Cannopy ye same all purple velvet, a high arch'd teister Ruffled, wth ye Rich fring and pall, wch was supported by Six of ye first Dukes of ye Realme that were not in office. This Chariot was drawn by the Queens own 6 horses Covered up with purple velvet and at ye head and feete was Laid ye Emblems of her dignity, the Crown and Scepter on a Cushion at ye head, and Globe and Gauntlets at ye feete, after which the first Dutchess in England as Chief mourner walked supported by these Lords, the Lord president of ye Councill and ye Lord privy Seale, she haveing a vaile over her face, and her traine of 6 yards Length being bore up by the next Dutchess assisted by four young Ladyes. After wch two and two ye Ladies followed and Lords, all Long traines according to their ranke, ye Bishops Likewise all on foote on black Cloth strained on boards, from Whitehall to Westminster abby where was a sermon, in wch tyme ye body of ye queen was reposed in a masulium in form of a bed wth black velvet and silver fringe round, and hanging in arches, and at ye four Corners was tapers and in ye middle a bason supported by Cupids or Cherubims shoulders, in wch was one Entire Great Lamp burning ye whole tyme. Then after ye service of burial wch is done with solemn and mournfull musick and singing, ye sound of a Drum unbraced, the breakeing of all ye white staves of those that were ye officers of ye queen, and flinging in ye keys of the rest of ye offices devoted by yt badge into ye tomb. They seale it up and soe returne in same order they went. There is allwayes a high steward made for all solemnityes of ye Kings and Queens and he is only soe for that day, and he goes just before the Led horse. The pages also Lead all ye horses that draws ye Chariot, and the yeaumen of ye guard walks on Each side all ye way. This is ye manner of publick funeralls but if it be Kings then the Ladyes attend not. Ye next Ceremonys is the Crowning the Kings and Queens of England wch is done in this manner as I have seen it. The Prince by Letters Summons all the nobility to be ready to attend them such a day – its usually on St Georges day – by the Earle marshall at Westminster Hall, another Greate Building which containes the Parliament houses and the courts of justice, and requests all – wch shall Describe hereafter. But as I said they being Come to this Westminster Hall ye Dean of Westminster abbey wth prebends & comes with the Crown, scepter, swords and orb and all the Regalias, it being in their Custody wch are all put on ye table. Ye prince does appoynt these all to be Carryed by severall Lords; then there being blew Cloth spread from ye Hall to ye Abby wch is all railed in and Lined with foote and horse Guards, the Procession beginns thus. First four drums two and two as is the whole procession, these beate ye March; then the 6 Chancery Clerkes, then the Chaplaines that have Dignityes, then the aldermen of London and ye masters in Chancery, ye Solicitor Generall, ye Attorney General, then the Gentlemen of the privy Chamber, next the judges, then the Children of the Kings Chappel, then the Choir of Westminster, then the gentlemen of the Chapple, next ye Prebends of Westminster, then the Master of ye jewel house, then goes the Privy Councellors yt are not Peers of the realme, then two Pursuivants goe, next them goes ye Barronesses in Crimson velvet Robes Lined wth Earmine, and Cut waved in a Long traine Lined with white sarsnet, the sleeves were open to the shoulder, tyed up there with Silver Cords and tassells hanging down to ye wast, the sleeves being fringed wth silver, under wch fine point or Lace sleeves and Ruffles, wth Gloves Laced or wth Ribon gold and white, their peticoates were white; some tissue Laced wth gold or silver, and their stomatchers some were all Diamonds; over all they had mantles of ye same Crimson velvet Lined wth Earmine and fastened to the shoulder, on wch there was a broad Earmine Like a Cape reaching to ye waste powder'd wth rowes according to their Degree, ye barroness 2 rows, the viscountess 2 rows and halfe, the Countesses 3 Rowes, the Marchoness 3 rows and a halfe, the Dutchesses 4 Rows, the Queen 6; these all having Long traines suiteable to their Robes and were in Length as their Degree. Ye Barronesses had their traines 2 yards and a quarter drawing on the ground, the Viscountess 2 yards and halfe, ye Marchionesses 2 yards 3 quarters, ye Dutchess 3 yards drawing on the Ground. Their heads were dress'd wth much haire and Long Locks full of Diamonds – some perfect Peakes of bows of Diamonds as was the Countess of Pembrook, – their heads so dress'd as a space Left for their Coronets to be set, all ye rest is filled wth haire, Jewells and gold, and white small Ribon, or Gold thinn Lace, in form of a peake, and gold gause on their rowles, they have also Diamond necklaces and jewels on their habitts. Each Carry their Corronets in their hands wch does also Distinguish their Dignityes. The Barrons is a velvet Cap wth a Coronet of Gold, wth six great pearles or what resembles them a white Gilding in that form. Ye Viscounts Coronet is a Gold set wth 16 pearles of Like sort set very Close together. Ye Earles Coronet is of Gold wth spikes, on ye tops of which are Laid pearles wch stands at a Distance, and have Leaves at ye frame. Ye Marquess's Coronet is Gold alsoe wth spikes of Leaves of ye same at distances, between wch are those pearles much Lower just proceeding from ye frame. The Dukes are a Double row of Leaves ye one standing up at distances, ye others between, Low by ye frame.

The Dukes, Marquess's, Earles, Viscounts, and Barrons, are Differenced as the Ladyes are by their Rows of Earmine on their Mantles – they all being Clad wth Rich vests under their Robes, and trimm'd gloves of Lace or fringe, fine Linnen, and Carry their Coronets in their hands. Only those that are knights of ye garter weare a Chaine of Gold's S S on their shoulders upon their Earmine Cape, and have their George hanging to it, their Starr on ye breast of their Robes and a Diamond garter on their Leg wth blew Ribon. In this manner habited proceeds ye Barronesses and Barrons, then the Bishops that sit in ye Parliamt as peeres their habit is Lawn sleeves and Black, their Capps are flatt Like a 4 square trencher put on Cornerwise; after which went a pursuivant, then in same order ye Viscountesses and next ye Viscounts; then two Heraulds, then in same order the Countesses and next the Earles, then a Herauld, then in ye same order ye marchionesses next ye marquisses, then two heraulds, then in the same order the Dutchesses, next them the Dukes, then two Kings at armes, after which ye Lord Privy Seale, next him Lord President of ye Councill. Then ye Arch-Bishops wch are Esteemed in higher Rank than ye Dukes, then a Duke wch is of ye Royal family wth their traine bore up, Prince George of Denmarke being Royal Consort to Queen Ann walked so haveing his traine bore by the vice-Chamberlaine, the Prince is Duke of Cumberland wch is ye first Duke; next goe two personages in Robes of state, but of an antique forme, velvet and Earmine wth Hatts of Gold tissues, personateing ye two Dukes of Acquitaine and Normandy wch belongs to ye English Crown. Next them went the Lord wch bore St Edmunds staff, wth a Lord that bore the Gold Spurrs, another Lord with ye Scepter Royal, 3 other Lords following wth ye sword of justice, ye Curtana sword of mercy, and another poynted sword, next which Sr Garter King at armes between my Lord Major and the usher of ye black Rod. These Heraulds dress in Coates full of ye Kings armes all about with Gildings, and hang short wth Long sleeves and sleeves hanging behind alsoe. Next ye Lord High Chamberlaine single, then next an Earle beares ye sword of State between ye Earle Marshall and ye Lord high Constable, made for yt Dayes Solemnity. Next goes an Earle Beareing ye Scepter of ye Dove, next yt a Duke Carrying ye Globe orb, next went a Duke wth ye Crown wch must be Lord High Steward for that dayes Solemnity, next went a Bishop wth ye Bible between two other Bishops yt Carryed ye pattent and ye Challice wch Last appertaines to ye Dean of Westminster. Next this the Cannopys and in Case there is a King then his Consort goes before him in this manner under a Cannopy of Cloth of Gold borne up by 8 Barrons of ye Cinque ports, and is supported by two Bishops, and her Coronet or Crown is alsoe Carryed by a Lord before, and alsoe a silver Rod by another Lord, wch when she returns she holds in one hand and the Little scepter. Her traine is bore up by ye first Duchess of ye Realme assisted by 4 maiden Daughters of Earles and her Robes ought to be only Crimson velvet, but King James's Queen would have purple, but never Changes them as doth a Queen that is Regent in her self ye Principal, as Queen Ann and her sister Queen Mary joinct in ye throne wth King William. All wch in some things makes a Difference as shall show, for ye Queen Consort as King James's queen was was not anoynted nor sworne unless as a subject to ye King and walked thus before him, after which ye King Came under another Cannopy of gold tissue supported by 8 more of ye Barrons of the Cinque-ports; he leaned on two Bishops, his traine borne up by the Lord wch is Master of his robes assisted by four Lords sonns. These Cannopyes have silver staves for Each person to hold them up by. In ye Case of King William and Queen Mary that were set joynctly on the throne anoynted both and sworne by ye Coronation oath, they Likewise walked both under one of these Canopyes made very Large supported by ye 16 Barrons, and on ye outside of Each went a Bishop on whome they Leaned, Leading Each other; and their traines were bore, the Kings by ye Lord wch is master of ye Robes, the Queen by ye first Dutchess and young Ladies. And soe their throne was Entire two seates and their Cannopyes one at ye table, but now as in Case of our present Majesty Queen Ann I saw her thus; her Cannopy was Large bore by ye sixteen, and she because of Lameness of ye Gout had an Elbow Chaire of Crimson velvet wth a Low back, by wch meanes her mantle and Robe was Cast over it and bore by the Lord Master of ye Robes and ye first Dutchess, wth 4 maiden Ladies, Earles Daughters on Each side Richly Dress'd in Cloth of Gold or Silver, Laced, wth Long traines, Richly Dressed in fine Linnen, and jewells in their hair, and Embroider'd on their Gowns. The Queens traine was 6 yards Long, the Mantle suitable of Crimson velvet with Earmine as ye other of ye nobility, only the rowes of powdering Exceeded, being six rowes of powdering. Her Robe under was of Gold tissue, very Rich Embroydery of jewellry about it, her peticoate the same of Gold tissue wth gold and silver lace, between Rowes of Diamonds Embroyder'd, her Linnen fine. The Queen being principall of the order of ye Garter had a row of Gold S S about her shoulders, ye Georges wch are allwayes set with Diamonds and tyed with a blew Ribon. Her head was well dress'd wth Diamonds mixed in ye haire wch at ye Least motion Brill'd and flamed. She wore a Crimson velvet Cap with Earmine under ye Circlet, wch was set with Diamonds, and on the middle a sprig of Diamonds drops transparent hung in form of a plume of feathers, for this Cap is ye Prince of Wales's Cap wch till after ye Coronation that makes them Legall king and queen – they weare. Thus to ye quire doore she Came, then Leaveing ye Cannopy – (ye Chaire she Left at ye Abby doore – ) she is conducted to ye Alter which was finely deck'd wth Gold tissue Carpet and fine Linnen, on the top all ye plaite of ye abby sett, ye velvet Cushions to place ye Crown and all ye regallias on. She made her offering at ye Alter, a pound weight or wedge of gold, here the Dean of Westminster and ye prebends which assists the Arch-Bishop in the Cerimonyes are arrayed in very Rich Coapes and Mitres, black velvet Embroyder'd wth gold Starrs, or Else tissue of gold and silver. Then the Littany and prayers are sung and repeated by two Bishops wth a small organ, then the Queen being seated on a green velvet Chaire faceing the pulpit attends ye words of ye sermon wch was by ye arch-Bishop of York, wch being ended ye Queen arose and returned thanks for ye Arch-bishops Sermon, is shewed to ye people by saying a form, Will you take this to be your Souveraigne to be over you? thus I saw the Queen turn her face to ye four sides of ye Church, then the Coronation oath is repeated to her, wch she distinctly answered each article, which oath is very Large in three articles, relateing to all priviledges of ye Church and State to which she promised to be the security and to maintaine all to us. Then she kiss'd ye Bible, then a Bible was presented to her to maintaine ye true Protestant religion. Then she being on a Little throne by the alter, Cover'd all wth Cloth of Gold, she has ye spurrs of gold brought her and they toutch her heele, then the sword of state is presented her which she offers up on the alter, wch a Lord appoynted for it redeemes ye sword for 100 shillings, and draws it out and beares it naked all ye day. After the other swords are brought and presented her wch she delivers to ye severall officers, then the ring is put on her finger to witness she is married to the Kingdom, then the orb I saw brought and presented to her and ye Scepters. Then she was anoynted in this manner; there was a Cloth of silver twilight Embroyder'd, held a Little shaddowing over her head. I saw ye Bishop bring ye oyle on a spoone soe annoynted ye palmes of her hands, her breast and her forehead, Last of all ye top of her head, haveing taken off ye prince of Wales's Cap and ye haire being Cutt off Close at ye top ye oyle was poured on and with a fine Cloth all Dryed againe. Then Last of all ye arch Bishops held the Crown over her head wch Crown was made on purpose for this Cerimony vastly Rich in Diamonds, ye borders and ye Globe part very thick sett wth vast diamonds, ye Cross on ye top with all diamonds wch flamed at ye Least motion, this is worth a vast summe, but being made for this Cerimony and pulled to pieces againe, its only soe much for the hire of such Jewells that made it. This I saw was fix'd on ye Queens head wth Huzza's and sound of Drumms trumpets and gunns, and at the same tyme all ye peeres and peeresses put on their Coronets on their heads. There are divers forms of speech that belong to each Cerimony. Ye Queen after this goes to ye alter and there I saw her receive the Sacrament, I saw the deane bring her ye bread and wine. Then she is Conducted with her Crown on, her Globe and Scepter in her hand and seated on ye Royal throne of ye Kingdom wch is of gold finely wrought, high back and armes set on a theatre of severall steps, assent rises on four sides to it. She being thus seated is followed wth a second Huzza and sound of drums and trumpets and Gunns, then all ye Lords and Bishops pay their homage to her; the Eldest of Each ranke swears fidelity to her in his own name and in ye name of all of his ranck. They all singly come and touch her Crown and some kiss her Right Cheeke – they make all do soe, – she kisses the Bishops. All this while anthems are sung and the Medals are Cast about by the treasurer of ye houshold, after wch the Queen arose and went and made her second offering, sate down on the throne on wch she was annoynted and Crown'd. After, an anthem is sung proper for the tyme, after wch the Queen retired into King Edwards Chappel to private prayer, wch being ended and her Crimson velvet mantle being taken off and one of purple velvet made just ye same put on, in ye same manner they returned Each one in his station, only the Lords yt Carryed the Regalias now tooke their places as peers with ye rest, ye Queen walked to ye doore of ye abby wth obligeing Lookes and bows to all yt Saluted her and were spectatours, wch were prodigious numbers in Scaffolds built in the Abbey and all the streetes on each side reaching to Westminster hall, where the Queen againe quitted her Chaire wch was Carryed by four men, the whole procession being both going and comeing attended by ye gentlemen pensioners Clad in Scarlet Cloth wth gold Lace, Holding halberds wth gold tops Like pickaxes. These make a Lane for the queen to pass and follow two and two, next them ye groomes of the bed Chamber, then the Captaine of ye guards went between ye Captaine of ye pensioners band and the Captain of ye yeaumen, and were attended by their officers and yeamen.

The queen being Come up to her table wch was a great rise of stepps she was seated on her throne wch was under a fine Cannopy. When King James was Crown'd he sate soe: at his Left hand sate his Queen under another Cannopy, but King William and Queen Mary being both principalls sate under one Large Cannopy on one Large throne, but our present Queen should have sate alone as she did in the upper End under ye Cannopy, but she sent and did invite Prince George her Consort to dine with her. So he Came and at her request tooke his seate at her Left hand without the Cannopy. The first Course was served just before the Queen Came in, She being ushered in by the Earle Marshall, Lord High Steward, and Lord high Chamberlaine on horseback, their horses being finely dress'd and managed, and the Cookes Came up with their point aprons and towells about their shoulders of poynt; after wch Comes up the Lord high steward againe on horseback, with the other two Lords, and acquaints the king or queen there is their Champion without ready to Encounter or Combate with any that should pretend to dispute, after wch he is Conducted in on horseback by the Earle Marshall and ye Lord high steward, and they Come up to the stepps of the throne, and there the Champion all dress'd in armour Cap-a-pe and declares his readyness to Combate wth any that should oppose the Right of their Majestyes, and there upon throws down his guantlet wch is giving Challenge, after wch the King or Queen drinks to him in a Gold Cup wth a Cover, ye same wch is Carryed to ye Champion and he drinks, and then he retires back and Carrys it away being his Due as is the best horse in the kings stable, ye best suite of armour in ye armory. This belongs to Sr John Dimmocks familly yt hath a yearly salery from the Crown. My Lord Major here officiates as ye kings Butler, and hath for a Reward such another Cup of gold Covered and thus the Ceremony Ends and they all retire. Westminster Hall is as full of spectatours sitting on scaffolds on Each side, under wch are severall Long tables spread and full of all varietyes prepared for the Lords and Ladies, others for the judges, aldermen &c.

When there is a Rideing Coronation they proceed on from ye abbey when a king is Crowned, all on horseback thro' ye Citty in ye same order as at the Entry at ye peace, quite to ye Tower all richly dress'd and their horses wth fine trappings, Led on both sides by Each Lords pages, and when its a King only, then only ye Lords attend as in ye Coronation of King Charles the second, but at Queen Elizabeths the Ladies alsoe attended to ye Tower which is at the utmost extremity of ye Citty of London, where the Governour presents the King with ye Keyes which he returns againe and after some other Cerimonyes and makeing some Knights of ye Bath Either six or Eight I Cannot tell which. These are an order that prefferr such a knight above all other knights, but is not so high as a Barronet and it alsoe expires at their Death descending not to ye son; they wear a scarlet Ribon round their shoulder Like a belt: then they all return back to the pallace; Usually the rideing Coronation holds two dayes.

The tower is built just by ye Thames, thereon many gunns are placed all round, its built of free stone, four towers. In one is ye amunition and powder, Called ye white tower, wch is kept very secure wth 6 keyes wch are kept by six persons. In another part the Coynage is where they refine, melt, form, stamp and Engrave all ye money wch is managed by severall over wch there is ye Comptroler of ye mint. In another part is kept severall Lyons wch are named by ye names of ye kings, and it has been observ'd that when a king has dyed ye Lion of ye name has alsoe dyed.

There are also other strange Creatures kept there, Leopards, Eagles &c &c wch have been brought from forreign parts. In another place is kept the Crowns and all ye Regalias, as orb, scepters, swords. The Crown that is made on purpose to Crown a prince is pulled to pieces againe and they only reserve an old large Crown of King Harry ye seventh in form of a Ducall Coronet, and ye Crown wch is used for the passing of bills, of wch here after. This hath Large pearles on ye Cross and an Emerauld on ye top of ye head wch Closes the bands wch goes every way of ye sides to ye round frame full of Diamonds and Saphyr's and Rubies wch ye frame at ye bottom is also enchased with. This Large Emerauld is as bigg as an Egg all transparent and well Cut: the Globe is alsoe sett wth diamonds representing ye Lines on the Celestial Globe. The middle or body of ye Tower is full of armour of all sorts and placed in Each roome wth great Curiosity Like a ffurniture on ye walls and kept very bright and fine. And now I shall return to ye Hall att Westminster where are all ye Courts of justice kept. There are severall parts out of ye hall for ye Court of ye Kings Bench for tryal of all Causes by jurys, Grand juryes and petty jurys, to manage wch there is a Lord Chief Justice and three other Judges his assistants, where matters are heard by Councellors, attornys and solicitors to plead ye Cause in the Court. All these formerly were but few in number when buisness was not delayed but brought to a quick jssue and persons had matters decided quicker, but now they are increased extreamely and Consequently buisness Lengthened out for their profit. There is alsoe another Court of ye Common pleas to wch is another Chiefe Justice, the first is Call'd the Lord Chiefe Justice of the Kings Bench Court, ye other the Lord Chiefe Justice of ye Common pleas – he hath alsoe three Judges assistants. This Court is in something the same nature managed as ye former, only that matters of Life and death are not here tryed or determined, that belongs to ye Kings Bench. There is alsoe the Exchequer Chamber which is another Court and managed by a Lord Chiefe Baron and 3 other Barrons assistants, wch are all judges, and all first sergeants and in this manner are fitted, having been Entred at such an age into any of ye jnns of Court of wch there are many in ye town, Lincolns-inn, Grays-inn, Ffurnifulls-inn, Clemens jnn, Cliffords-inn and others. The Temples Likewise are such where they are students in the Law and goe to hear Causes and are trained up in that Learning wch is grounded on our Laws, the Magna Charta Law of the whole kingdom by wch all matters are or may be decided. After soe many yeares studdy and being thus Entred they are Called to ye barr – yt is to plead as Councellors and Barristers in these Courts, and out of such that have been thus Barristers many yeares they Commence serjeants, and are made in this manner the first day of a terme. They walk two and two in their Gowns from ye Temple to Westminster Hall where Each that is designed for serjeants stand with their Back to ye Barr of the Court at a Little distance, ye puny judge on the Bench sayes to the Lord Chief Justice, my Lord I think I spye a Brother; the Lord Chief Justice replies truly Brother I thinke its soe indeed, send and bring him up to be examined whether capable or well quallify'd; wch is done and after severall questions he is sworn and has a Coiffe put on his head, which is a black satten Cap wth a white Lace or Edge round ye bottom and thus he is received into their number and soe returned. They have a feast and pay their fees which is considerable all to maintain the Court out of such as are sergeants. The king makes judges and gives them salleryes; all the judges doe weare scarlet robes Lined with furr. These twelve judges sitt in the House of Lords on wooll packs, not as peers but as Councellors to informe the house of what is their former Laws, and to decide matters that Come before them if relating to the Law, and soe are only their officers and Cannot put on their Caps without permission of ye Lords. There is alsoe another Court for justice wch is Called the Court of Equity or Chancery. The other Courts properly Judges of the matters of Right by Law this as to the Equitty of it, wch is managed by a Lord Chancellor or a Lord Keeper, wch is not in soe high a station nor at so vast expence, but answers the Ends of the other as to the Buissness – is Called Lord Keeper because he keepes the great seale of England wch makes all authentick that passes it. This sometymes is managed in Commision by three, but many tymes by one single person, he allwayes sitts in the house of Lords alsoe and is ye speaker of ye house of Lords. Under him there is the Master of the Roles wch is his deputy and in the others absence acts in the Court as Chiefe. This Court keeps all the Records and statutes, there are two registers belongs to it with six masters which are alsoe the under justices, and six Clerks wch have all their Respective offices and Enter all things. Under them is the 60 Clerks and other under writers. This formerly was the best Court to relieve the subject but now is as Corrupt as any and as dilatory. The Causes in the Chancery are heard and Refferr'd to some of the masters and they report the matter againe, and soe from the notion of this being a Court of Equitty and so gives Liberty for persons to make all the allegation and reasons in their Cause, which much delayes ye dispatch, which formerly was of a very good advantage to prevent a huddling up a Cause without allowing tyme for ye partys to produce their evidences or Right, but now by that meanes is soe ill managed that it admitts of heareing, Re-heareing over and over on the Least motion of ye Contrary party, that will pretend to offer new reason matter for delaying judgment, that by this it accrues great advantage to ye Lawyers that have all their fees each motion and may be so Continued many yeares to sometyme ye ruin of the Plaintiffs and deffendants. A small gratuiety obteine an order to delay till the next terme and so to another.

There are four termes in a yeare, one at Easter, another at Midsumer, and at Michael-mas, and Candle-mass, at which tymes these Courts of justice are open for tryal of ye Causes belonging to their Courts, and holds a fortnight or more, one three weekes, another a month, one 5 weekes; but there are sealeing dayes wch hold much Longer and this between Easter and Midsumer terme joyns the tymes. Ye Last terme is the shortest but the seales hold Longer. After this is the Long vacation being the heate of the weather and tyme of harvest in which tyme alsoe are the assizes in all the Countys in England, for at ye End of the Midsummer terme ye Judges takes ye Circuites assigned Each, usual the Lord Chiefe Justice of England wch is of ye Kings Bench Chuses the home Circuit wch is the County adjacent all about London, wch is a Less fatigue and more Easily perform'd. Two judges must goe in Each Circuite and in all places the one sitts on the Bench of Life and Death, ye other on buisness de-nise-prises, and soe they exchange in all the places they Come, ye judge yt was on the Life and death at one County, in the next takes ye barr of the nais prisse and so on. There is one Called the Northern Circuit wch is a Long one and takes in Wales; there is the Western Circuite alsoe: this takes up 6 of ye 12 judges and Barrons.

But all this while there must be two at Least Left in London to heare and attend ye sessions of ye Old Bayly which is kept once a month both of Life and death and Common pleas.

In all these sessions at ye Old Bayly ye Lord Major is the judge and sitts as such, but Leaves the management of the Law to the Chiefe justice or Judges which ought to be two. There is the Recorder of ye Citty also another justice who after ye judge has summon'd the Evidence does alsoe summ it up, and this is in all the tryals at the Kings Bench, alsoe here the sword Bearer is a officer, and Common Cryer, and alsoe the two Sherriffs attends, they impanell the Jury and their office is so necessary yt at the death of a Sherriff as happened Last yeare the Buissness of the terme happening then stood still till another was Chosen and sworne.

The Recorder of the Citty is allwayes knighted and soe is the Chamberlaine of the Citty. Now in the assizes in all the Countyes of England the sherriff of the County Comes to the Edge of the County and Receives ye judges from the hand of the serriff of ye next County and Conducts him to ye County town attended wth the Gentry, and there is a Large house in the town hired for that tyme for the judge, and all the sherriffs officers attends him and he in person; alsoe he sends the judge a present ye first night of meate and wine and gives him one dinner. Its usual that the Judges are Entertained most of the tyme by the Bishop Major and best Gentlemen, its seldom they stay more than a weeke in a place unless they have a great deale of Buisness or that one of the judges should be sick so yt ye other must supply both barrs one after another. There are Lawyers that allwayes do follow the judges, some serjeant which people make use of in their Causes and joyne wth them some of their own Country Lawyers. There are two of these assizes in a year, the other is in the winter, besides which in Each County they have quarterly sessions to wch all Constables of that precinct repaires, and the titheing men wth their presentments and Complaints to punish and relieve in petty matters wch the Justice of the peace are judges off, and if they have a matter before them beyond their decision they bind them over to the asizes and there to prosecute them. The manner of Criminalls punishment after Condemnation, wch if it be for fellony or treason their Condemnation of the first is to be hanged, and they are drawn in a Cart from their prisons where they had been Confined all the tyme after they were taken, I say they are drawn in a Cart with their Coffin tyed to them and halters about their necks, there is alsoe a Divine with them that is allwayes appointed to be with them in the prison to prepare them for their death by makeing them sencible of their Crimes and all their sins, and to Confess and repent of them. These do accompany them to the place of Execution wch is generally through the Citty to a place appoynted for it Called Tijburn. there after they have prayed and spoken to the people the minister does Exhort them to repent and to forgive all the world, the Executioner then desires him to pardon him and so the halter is put on and he is Cast off, being hung on a Gibbet till dead, then Cut down and buried unless it be for murder; then usually his body is hung up in Chaines at a Cross high road in view of all, to deterre others. For high treason they are drawn in a sledge to their Execution without any Coffin, for their Condemnation when hang'd to be taken down before quite dead and to be opened. They take out their heart and say this is the heart of a traytor, and so his body is Cutt in quarters. and hung up on the top of the Great gates of the Citty which are the places of their prison, some gate houses for debters, others for fellons and traytors. In Case its a woman which is a traytor then she is Condemned to be burnt. All at their Execution have Liberty to speake, and in Case they are sencible of and repent of their Crimes they do declare it and bewaile it and warne others from doing the Like, but if they are hard'nd they persist in denying it to the Last. Now as I said ye Law Condemns all thus to be Executed, but if it be great persons they obtaine Leave of ye king they may be beheaded, which is done on a scaffold Erected on purpose in manner of a stage, and the persons brought in Coaches with Ministers do as the former; then when they have ended their prayers and speech they Lay down their head on a block and stretch out their bodies. The Executioner strikes off their heads with an ax or sword made on purpose and if it be for treason take the head and hold it up saying this is the head of a traytor; and such Great persons, Especially those that Can pay well for it, have their heads sewed on againe and so buried. The Prison in London for great persons is the Tower where are appartments for yt purpose. There is in all the County towns Jailes maintained at the publick Charge, besides which there are houses for Correction of Lesser faults, as Bridewell, to Correct Lazy and Idle persons and to set them to work, and alsoe stocks and pillorys to punish them for their Lesser faults. The Pilory jndeed is to punish perjur'd persons, which is a greate Crime. There is alsoe whipping, some at a Carts taile, and for some Crimes they are burnt in the hand or Cheeke as a brand of their Evil, and if found againe to transgress, yt marke serves as a greater witness to their Condemnation. Some alsoe are Banish'd out of ye kings dominions dureing Life and should such return they must be executed without any other tryal; under which we may speake of out Laweryes; a person for treason or fellony absconding into another kingdom, after a process at Law by which he is Summon'd to Come and take his tryal, and he refuses then he is outlaw'd and all his Estate forfeited to the king, and if Ever he be taken in ye Kings dominions he is Immediately Executed wth out any farther tryal, and its usual if such a one be known to be in a kingdom of our allies to make a Demand of him by the ambassadour, and such a state takes Care Either to deliver him up or Else to Expel him their Dominions by proclamation, that none harbour such a one but deliver up to the government.

Here is noe wracks or tortures nor noe slaves made, only such as are banish'd sometymes into our forreign plantations there to worke, we have also prisons for debtors and some of which are privilidge places, as ye Kings Bench the Marshalsea and Fleete which persons Entring themselves prisoners there Cannot further be prosecuted, but Continue there prisoners dureing Life, and out of the term tymes hire a keeper of the prison to go allwayes with him as a jaylor; but the Chief Master must have good security to produce him Every term Else he will be Lyable to pay his debts, so its only for such as are debtors, and Indeed its a sad thing they should be so suffer'd and that there should be places of refuge for such. There is one good act to relieve persons that are Confined it may be out of Malice and spleen to keep them allwayes so, but by this act any such Can sue out his habeas Corpus and soe be brought the first day of the terme Either to a tryal or give bail and soe be Let out.

Besides this there are in most Lordships, Courts kept which are Courts Banns and was at first the only jurisdiction by Each gentleman held, all misdemeanours punished, and by them Informed up to the higher courts of Kings Bench or Chancery, and alsoe had all their own privelidges maintained amongst their tennants and neighbours, and Consisted of a Court Life also which ran in ye same nature with their session Courts. These our Laws are Esteemed the best in ye world, we haveing two distinct parts, one Comon Law which is singular to our nation and are managed in these sessions, assizes, Kings Bench, and Common pleas, and Exchequor, the other is the Civil Law which is the only sort of Law in any other Kingdom, of which the Chancery, the Arches wch is under the archbishop and by his appoyntmt to the severall Judges of that Court that are all Civillians, matters of Equitty, all probats of wills, wch in the Arches are made and recorded. This is in a place in the Citty the Doctors Commons where is this Court of Arches and prorogative Court which Consists of Doctors, Chancelours, Proctors, Suragats wch do ye offices of Councellours attorney and Solicitours at Common Law. There are registers also from this at London. All the Bishops courts are kept in each Citty, managed by Chancelours which are Lay men, and the suragats, also the Bishops deputyes, the proctors, and parolers, which summons all to it, and there are four in a year in Each County. From hence are given out Licenses for marriages, here are ye Cannon Laws of the Church explain'd and defended, all Church officers punish'd and examin'd, here are proceeding on Information all persons that infringe the Church Rites, and formerly all that were vitious and Corrupt in their practices, even of ye Clergy also, and receiv'd suspension or some punishmt due to the Crime, as Excommunication, but evil men and governours corrupt and Change wholesome Laws to Evil, so of Late these Laws have been put in Execution against tender Consciences that could not Comply to some forms prescrib'd in the Litturgy of the Church of England, and they have been Excommunicated, after which they are turned over to the Lay Chancellour and so prosecuted at Common Law because the spiritual Courts and men will not pretend to use the sword of punishment, but while they have turned its Edge thus against ye tender Consciences scrupleing the forms of worship in the Church of England, they have Left punishing the enormous Crimes of their parishoners nay of their Clergy also, to the scandal of Protestants. Indeed blessed be God that since King William and Queen Mary of happy memory Weilded the scepter, and Liberty for such descenters have been Establish'd by an act of Parliamt, of which houses shall now speake of. Our Kingdom is governed by Laws made and Establish'd pursuant to the first Constitutions and Magna-Charta, from which is derived all the Charters full of priviledges to each Corporation in the Kingdom, suiteable to their Customs and well being of each; these Laws are made and are not truely authentick if not Enacted and pass'd by our three states which is King, Lords and Commons, which Can make Laws for all Cases provided they are for the good of the whole and do not tend to subvert our originall Contract grounded on our Magna Charta or ffundamental Laws of the Land, which Constitution is by all the world esteemed the best if kept on each ones Basis, a tripple foundation, and when ye King Exerts not his prorogative beyond its Limitts to the oppressing his peoples priviledges, nor the people exorbitant and tumultuous in the standing or running up their power and priviledges to Cloud and bind up the hands of the prince. But if it goes in an Equal and just footeing, the people whose is the purse and strength will maintaine the King and his Councellours, and they will do the best offices to the King from the people, and so the King might allwayes reigne in his peoples hearts by Love as well as over them, and they yeild duty and obedience to him, and securely repose in him that should so studdy to preserve them in all their privilidges and trade, which would procure us honour and admiration to the whole world, and Continue us too greate for Enemyes to invade or molest us and so great as to have all seeke to be our allies, and those that were so would find a secure trust and faithfull friends in us, but alas! its too sadly to be bemoaned ye best and sweetest wine turns soonest sour, some by folly faction and wickedness have endeavour'd our own ruin, and were it not for Gods providentiall Care and miraculous works we should at this day been a people Left to utter dispaire haveing only the agraveteing thoughts of our once happy Constitution to Lament its Losse the more. To go on the Parliament which in Westminster Hall has appartments, the one for ye house of Lords and Called the Upper House, where all the Lords which are not papists and wch are of age do sitt in their order on benches Covered with scarlet cloth, the Bishops Likewise sitt as peers of the realme and have voices in all Causes, but in bloud the sanguinary Laws and decision there on its said they may sitt, but they from their order in the Church alwayes go out, but they first make their claime that they might continue, but all other of ye Lords if absent can give their proxy to another Lord and desire him to give his voice in matters debateable in his absence, and any such Lord Chuses another that he knows to be of his own sentiments, or should give him account at any case he should differ that may have the absent Lords real Consent, which has happened that a Lord has given his own voice one way and the proxy voice another as the absent Lord shall direct, but this is seldome and this is permitted because sickness or Extraordinary buissness of their own, the Kings, or the peoples, may require his absence. Now the Lords wch are peeres of the realme are born Councellors to the King and are Looked on as such, its true tho' at all tymes they may and should give the King their advice yet ye King has power and do make Choice of a privy Councill, which consist of Lords temporall and spirituall, wch are Bishops, and also out of some of ye Commons of England which are the Gentry. In this house of Lords the judges as I said before sitts but have noe vote. The Lord Chancellor or Keeper of the Seale sitts and is speaker to that house, but if he be noe peer which sometymes happens, and is at this tyme in Right Lord keeper of the Seale, then I say he has no voice in any matter and serves them only as their servant or officer to put questions to Count their voice on their dividing on a matter, to make a speech to them from ye King, and to present anything to ye King, and he sitts on a wool-pack to just under the throne where the king sitts when there which is seldome but to pass bills. On each side of the throne is two stooles, yt on the Right hand is for the Prince of Wales if any is, that on the Left to the first Duke prince of the blood royal or kings brother that is heir more remote. Behind the throne is a place for the noblemens sonns minors to be, to give them opportunity to heare and instruct them in the Laws of England. In the middle of the roome is tables wth bookes and records, and there sitts the secretarys of state which are two, these with some under them take the minutes of what is debated and resolved. The Lords do form Law agreable to the fundamentall Laws in which the judges advise them. They thus form a bill which being in all poynts examined, all objections answered, and being well amended and passed three tymes, being read and agreed, is Carryed down to the Lower house which Consists of the Commons of England Chosen by a precept from the Crown to all the Sherriffs of the Countys to Chuse amongst themselves two of Each Corporation or Burrough, and two for each County which are Called knights of ye shire, to represent them in this assembly. All that are free-holders of a County has a voice to Choose.

The Corporations and Burroughs Chuse by their freemen also, but because of the peculiar Customs and priviledges in each place it makes some variation. Those that have most of voices which are Legal to Chuse, the Bailiff or major of the place or sherriffs return up to the Crown office, from whence the precept Came, the Name of such persons so Chosen to sitt in the parliament. This was an Excellent Constitution and order when kept to its order that none were Chosen but the Gentlemen of the shire or town Living there, or Else the Chiefe of their Corporation that Lived there, by wch meanes they were fully instructed what was for the weale and good of Each place they serv'd for, and so Could promote designes for their advantage and trade and represent their Grievances to be redress'd, they also know the strength and riches of the nation and soe Could with a more Equal hand Lay ye taxes on all answerable to their ability; but instead of this the nation is so Corrupted that what with hopes of prefferrment at Court or being skreen'd by their priviledges from paying their debts, which is thus: dureing the sessions or forty dayes before or after, such as are parliament men Cannot be arrested or troubled for money they owe, ye reason at first was well grounded that these persons were known to be, and in Case a troublesome person had money due and had been delay'd by some Extraordinary Cause that this troublesome person might find such a one at the parliament house might Lay him in prison and so hinder ye buissness of the nation. But this is abused to a great prejudice of the subject, men run out of their Estates strive to get into the Parliament to be skreen'd from their Creditors; and how Can those that are worth Little or nothing be good disposers of the kingdom treasure or priviledges, or stand up for them, but by this there is such bribeing by debauching by drinke and giving them mony, yt Instead of the parliament men which use to be Chosen to be the Countrys representatives and servants, to whome they allowed soe much a day for their expences in London from their homes while attending the parliament, that now those that would be parliament men spend prodigious summs of money to be Chosen. Some to serve for knights of ye shire have spent 1000 and 1500lb and for Corporation and Burroughs in proportion, so yt they Come in with design to be bribed by the Court or any body yt has any buisness before them, yt so they may be reemburz'd and may gaine more – some place at Least they Expect and these Care Little for ye good of ye nation, being for the most part perfect strangers to the places for whome they serve, and consequently to all their Circumstances and so can appeare for none of them to their advantage, indeed its their own gaine they mainly aime and pursue, for they have in their power to form good Laws suiteable to the fundamentall and Explanatory of such with additionalls to them, tending to the enlargeing as well as secureing their priviledges. Such Laws being brought in manner of a bill is read three tymes three severall dayes, so as all the members might or should have tyme to heare debate, consider and amend it, and Every member of this house of Commons that are so chosen and have met and take the oathes required of allegiance, they Come up to the house of Lords where ye King meetes them and desires them to Chuse a speaker for themselves out of their own number, which they do and Come and present him to the King for his approbation, wch done the King makes them a speech and tells them what is requisite to be done relateing to the Crown, to fforreign things if any warre or any breach of peace any injury from thence, what is necessary to be done thereon, if any want of money which they only Can supply, the reasons of its wants, his promise well and faithfully to dispose it, he exhorts them to rectifye disorders in practice and soe dismisses them. This speaker of theirs is the Kings officer Dureing his being speaker and has a sallery and must keep a Great table. The king gives him one thousand pound presently to fitt him in his Equipage, he always goes in Coach or a foote haveing a mace carry'd before him, he has the advantage of all bills brought into the house a Certainty for Each, he has the advantage of all the votes printed, to sell them, he sitts in a Chaire above all the rest of the House to give him advantage to see or heare any member that speakes. He is to put all Questions, to Count the voices of noes and yeas on ye division of the house. There are many Committees in this house as well as in the Lords House, appoynted by the whole to Inspect severall buissness, and to form bills on such buissness to be brought in to the house. If it be a matter of great Consequence there may be a Committee of the whole house which is only thus, ye speaker Leaves his Chaire and they resolve themselves into such a Committee and debate matters, and for that tyme Choose a Chairman for the Committee. Then the speaker reasumes the Chaire and this Chaireman of ye Committee reports the debate of yt Committee to the Speaker and whole House. When there is a full house, which may be never was, there is 500 as I said before. When they have pass'd a bill thrice through the house with approbation they send it up to the Lords, and if they pass it three tymes also without amendment then it is jnGross'd, haveing been pass'd the two states, and so Lyes ready to pass the Last which is the Kings Consent. But if either the bills sent down by the Lords are amended by ye Comons, and when brought up to the Lords againe and they Like not those amendments then they Cast out the bill; so Likewise any bill sent up by the Commons for the Lords assent in Case they make amendments which ye Comons Like not then they Cast out their bill; but if Each other agree to the amendments or pass the bills without amendment through both houses then they are Engross'd and prepared for the Royal assent, the third state of our government wch is in this manner. The King sends to ye house of Lords to attend him in their own house, with their Robes wch are Scarlet Cloth with Earmine and Rows of Earmine wth gold galloone on Each row, the rows are Encreassed to Each dignity and here ye bishops weare robes wch are scarlet also, but they have about their neck a Large Cape wch hangs to their waste all round of a ffurr that Lookes Like Lambskinns, it hangs Like the Capes of the Cloakes ye shepheards weare in the open plaine downes. The King enters; or the Queen as now it is – but I saw King William pass bills in his Royal Robes of Purple Lined Earmine wth rows of Earmine and the crown on his head which was the Crown I spake of that had great pearles on the cross and saphires Rubies and Emeraulds – the Scepter in their hand – the Usher of the Black Rod is sent to the House of Comons to attend the King in the House of Lords which they do, with their Speaker that brings up such bills wch are so prepared and holds them in his hand, one by one presenting them to the King, who touches them with the scepter and sayes, "je le veux bieu" and so to all of them one by one, wch done if there be any thing necessary to be told them, the king either speakes to them or Else orders the Lord Chancellour or Lord Keeper to acquaint them of any thing in the Kings name if its the Kings pleasure to prorogue ym for a few dayes weekes or months. Then that putts an End to that session till the tyme prefix'd and at that tyme they must meete againe without summons, and if they are not to meete so soone, ye king Issues out a proclaimation yt its his pleasure ye parliament should be prorogued so much Longer. These prorogations allwayes puts an end to all debates and all bills which are not ffinished and brought the king to pass, so that at their meeteing againe they must begin the things they would have or were about the Last tyme anew. This prorogation is in the kings power and is often done for ten dayes only to put a stop to heares and debates in the houses, and also to put an end to something that is not Lik'd by ye government. True Indeed they may begin ye same things at their next meeteing, but if it be for the great and absolute service of the nation they may, but its contrived in another method so as not openly to Confront our governours, tho' too often we have seen it in our dayes against our Glorious truly great King William whose wisdom and Compassion for our good pass'd it by and forgave it. Now in some Cases the King may and does call the Parliament by a proclaimation to sitt before the tyme of the prorogation be Expired which takes it off. The parliament does often adjourn themselves, as every night so sometymes for a weeke, but still the parliament is Look'd on as in sitting and so buisness is not jnterrupted but goes on from day to day as they appoint it. The king may also adjourn them and the two Houses may be adjourned together, but sometymes they may adjourn seperately, for one may adjourn themselves and ye other Continue to act within themselves. Its also in the Kings power to dissolve ye parliament wch puts a finall End to all their buisness which was not ffinished and brought to the King to pass, it also disperses the members of ye House of Commons to be noe more representatives of ye nation till another parliament be summon'd and ye nation make new Choices, which sometymes and in some places falls on the old members. It is in the Kings prerogative thus to Call and disolve parliaments, to declare warre or peace and making alliances, but ye Kings ought not nor do rightly undertake any such thing but by the advice of his standing Privy Councill, which I have spoken before, and so his proclaimations allwayes runs by and with the advice of his Privy Councill he does so and so, to which he joyns ye great Councill of the nation wch is his two Houses of Parliament, Lords spiritual and temporall and Commons of England, when great matters are in agitation as yt of peace or warre, wch is in ye Constitution of the government, and strengthened by this that the sinnews of warre is in the people, for without them no money is to be had; they give the taxes and subsidies for such expences, nay ye very revenue is given by them to the King or the Queen only dureing the then prince's Life and must be asked of them that succeed at the death of their predecessors, at the death of such that is in the throne. Formerly the Parliament of Course was dissolved, all offices even to a justice of peace was vacant, but our wise King William contriveing only our good not only Laid a scheme which if be followed will carry on all the Confederacys and designes against the Common Enemy of mankind, but also as farre as he could to secure our peace wch was by obtaining an Act of Parliamt that ye parliament in being when ye King died or Else the parliament but just then dissolv'd by the King, after he dies should assemble together to take care of the government and to act under ye next prince for six months, and till that tyme all offices should remain as they were unless the next heir should before yt full tyme were Expired should make any Change of places. This thing made the Loss of his death Less felt immediately and our Queen Ann found a quiet Easye ascention into the throne. there was also at the same tyme an Act to settle the succession in the protestant Line, and just before our heroe resign'd his Life crown and throne he pass'd an Act to secure us more firmly against any popish successour or pretended heirs to the Crown, by an abjuration oath to be taken by all subjects, of any prince thats a papist, wch Confirms the Acts of Parliamt in years past which made a papist prince unable to be king or queen of England, because a papest. So this Engages the subjects to abjure all such or any of their abbettors or pretenders. This was a great pleasure to our dying king to Leave us with all the Security possible to Enjoy what he Came to save us in, and give us and what he had fought to obtaine for us, Liberty in religion and priviledges. I pray God we do not by our provokeing sinns move his anger not only to take from us our Benefactor and deliverer but also our said valuable Blessings and priviledges, the Gospel Light and being a free nation.

I should have said when the king Comes in his robes to the Parliament and all the Lords have theirs, so if there be any Prince of Wales he is also in his and weares his Prince of Wales Cap with a branch of diamonds in forme of a plume of feathers. He sitts in the house of Lords often – he may allwayes – to hear debates and to vote and he does present them to the king any of their addresses they desire, which he is attended with some of the Lords which are the privy Councellors; they bring back the kings answere. The Like is observ'd by the House of Commons, if they have any address or any petition to the king they desire some of their members which are of the Privy Councill to move ye King when the House shall attend him or her, which they knowing do it and their Speaker is their mouth. So when they would have a Conferrence with ye House of Lords they send to them to meete them in ye painted Chamber or Lobby of their house; so does the Lords send to ye Commons when they would have a Conferrence with them. These things are so well adjusted and so for the Common good that if Rightly maintain'd in their proper places would be a happy Constitution. All Acts of Parliament so pass'd are printed, but ye records of them are kept in the journalls of ye Parliament by the Clerke of ye Parliament. To him are added in the House of Commons also scribes or secretaryes which record and take minutes also. Now it is on these Laws that all Causes are tryed, for there are Laws made of all sorts both what relates to religious matters as well as humaine; true indeed as to points of religion for Rectifying matters as to the orders and Church government, that is debated and agreed by a Convocation, which is allwayes summoned at ye same tyme a parliament is Chosen, which Consists of two houses, also the Bishops and deanes, and off the Inferior Clergy, and is managed by way of debates and disputation which have a moderatour and prolocutors. Here they endeavour to reforme any abuse in the Church, any deffect in their Cannon Laws, and to Explaine those Laws and if they should find such, as in our religion not agreable to ye word of God, they form it into a bill or petition which is presented the King in way of an address, he being owned as head and supreame under Christ over these Churches and realmes. So this is to request his Care of it which ye King does by Laying it before ye Houses of Parliament who Enacts Laws to secure our religion, and reforme evil both in Doctrine and practise by their Acts Duely pass'd. As I said before the arch-Bishop's Chiefe of this convocation house.

Next I will proceed to give some short account of tryalls on our Laws which is thus. Every free man of England being oppress'd Comes in due form of Law to demand his right, which being heard by the judges and a jury of his own fellow subjects – his Country men – they give their verdict in the matter as they thinke most just according to the statutes and Laws, and so the right between man and man which does vary from ye different Customs of Each County or precinct. This jury are twelve men all sworne on the Bible solemnly to do Justice, not out of feare, fraud or malice, favour or affection to jnjure any man, and ye first man is their foreman and speakes for the rest, Either acquit or Condemns the person, wch is in Life or Death, so determining other Causes the same manner, and these twelve men must all be agreed in their verdict, which is after they have heard all Can be witness'd or alleadged on all sides, wch verdict the Judges also must pronounce on ye Causes as they have brought it in. Now those suites of Law as well as Causes of Life and death are brought in by bill to ye Grand-jury, which are twenty four and these all of the best Gentry and many of them justices of peace, they examine the matter and if they find it (that is by any Act of Parliament) is pleadable or to be enquired into, they draw it up into an jndictmt and so its sent into the Court to be tryed by the Petty Jury, after whose Verdict and the Judges pronouncing it, the matter must be at an End and taken out of that Court. Sometymes indeed if the Subject is oppress'd he may appeale to another Court yts higher, as from the sessions to the assizes, thence to the Kings Bench, thence to ye Chancery, or the Parliament House which when a matter has there been Debated and decided there Can be noe more done in it because they are the makers of the Laws so best able to Interpret. Sometymes in these other Courts a Jury brings in a matter speciall, that is, Leaves it on the Judges to determine being a matter of Law, then ye Judges must Consult and do it all of them together.

All persons are tryed by those of their own ranke a Commoner of England is tryed by a Jury of Commoners in all Cases and of Life and death, a peer of England is tryed by his Peers, and in case it is not the tyme of ye Parliament sitting, then by a bill of oyer and terminer issued out, there is 12 Peers are jmpannell'd as a jury. But I must mention one thing as to the petty Juryes of Commoners, a person which is tryed for his Life may Challenge some of those wch are brought to be sworne for his Jury, that is except against them to such a number without giving reason, but if he exceeds that number he must give reason for such exception, either to be a man he had injured or one wch had former malice or one related to ye persons who Either is dead or injured; for our Laws Condemn to Death murther, fellony, treasons. By this order you see its Justice and Care. Then in matters of Life and Death the witness for the King are sworne, but ye witness for the prisoners are not sworne but only Examined to declare the truth. But to returne to the tryals of a peer which by such a jury is tryed, in Case the house of Lords ye parliament is sitting, then they prepare Westminster hall for the tryal, the House of Commons manage the Evidence and prosecute them, and the House of Lords are the Judges and Jury in this manner if it be for Life or death, wch is grounded on a statute either against murther, treason or fellony, and so ye arraignment is read and ye Councill for both sides. Ye house of Commons produces their Evidence and witness and the King Constitutes a Lord High Steward for that day or in case the tryal be long he must be Continued till the tryall finishes. He beares a white staff as badge of his great office which Indeed is ye greatest officer in England and for the tyme can act for the King, so above him. He is usually the person that is Lord Chancellor if he be a peer which allwayes is. There he sitts as Judge to whome the other peeres of the whole House of Lords are Joyn'd and after a full Examination on both sides, and the Criminall haveing had full Leave to Cleer himself, then the Lord High Steward askes ye Lords one by one beginning with the puny Lord, so to the highest "in honour my Lord such a one do you thinke my Lord that the prisoner at the Barre is guilty or not Guilty?" – to which Each Lord stands up and answeres for himself Either, so as he Judges, "guilty upon my honour," or Else "not guilty upon my honour" and so it goes from one to all, in this manner the Lord High Steward marks down to Each Lords name his answere, and at the Last reckons them up so many Guiltyes, so many not Guiltyes, then he adds his own thoughts to the side he thinks best, but usualy he is so Crafty as to add to the side of the Majority, which being done he pronounces the verdict as ye majority said, Either Guilty or not. Now this verdict the Lords give thus on their honour is Equivalent to the oath the Commoners take that serve in Juryes, for ye peeres take no oath in these matters, otherwise than so. Now in Case ye matter against a peer be only a Law matter of nuise-prise, then the matter being debated and the answere by ye Lord made in his deffence read, and Councell pleading, then ye Lord High Steward askes Each Lord in same order as before, but in this forme "in ye matter which
has been debated before yr Lord — Concerning the Lord at the Barre wth his deffence whether his deffence be sufficient to Cleer him or not what sayes yr Lordships Content or not content on yr honour?" they all answer as they are affected or understand ye matter "content," or else "not content" which are fixed to each name and so reckon'd up, and ye majority Carry's it Either to quitt or not to quitt him, to which the Lord High Steward adds his as he pleases also, after which they shew the High Steward a respect as a king. He is serv'd on the knee and drinkes some wine and when that is done he breakes his white staff and so pulls off his hatt. When he was the High Steward he had all the maces Carry'd before him all ye officers attending. But in case there be no Chancellour, only a Lord Keeper as at present is, which is no peer of ye realme then he has no vote with ye Lords only Count up ye votes and declares them wch has the Majority, without the addition of his, haveing none, and he is only substituted the deputy steward for the day and so sitts, but on a wool sack as he does in the House of Lords and is only their speaker and officer and must aske Leave for himself and the Judges to put on their Caps before they might do it, now the High Steward sitts in the throne of justice under a Cannopy but I see this Lord Keeper only sate on a wool sack at the foote of the throne which stood Empty behind him. He had noe Compliment paid him more than at another tyme, being only as the Speaker to ye House of Lords and so their officer.

There are severall great officers of ye Court as Lord Treasurer which takes account of all the kings revenues – this sometymes is in Commision between 3 or more. There is also the High Admirall of England that has the Command of all the shipps and stores. This sometymes is in Comision also of 3 or more under whome are ye Vice Admirall and Rear Admirall, also undr the Treasurer are severall officers. There is also two principal Secretaryes of State which write all things, the Kings Lettrs &c, and relateing to the government, maintain all Inteligences in ye kingdom and abroad.

There is also a Master of the Generall Post Office that has all the under masters and officers of ye posts both for forreign Letters and inland Lettrs.

There are also governours as Lord Lieutenant of Jreland – that sometymes is held in Commission. There is also Lords Justices there, all which have their Salleryes ariseing out of the same kingdom. There is also to all our forreign plantations governrs sent from England and their salleryes arise from the plantation. The Kings revenues arise from ye Customs of goods exported and jmported, from the Excise on all Liquors that are made in England and sold, besides which there is a Considerable revenue from Lands belonging to ye Crown, tho' that is much Lessen'd by the severall donations of our kings for many yeares to their favourites. Out of those revenues all ye Civil List is maintain'd, which is ye Judges salleries, the great officers, the household of ye king. There is another great revenue in ye Post Office, besides at all Extraordinary occasions of the marriage of any of our princess's their portion, or any warre, then the Parliament raises taxes on the nation on Land or trade, additional Customs, and also on the Excise, Encreasing that under the Civil List is the Expences of the Court, the guards, and also the ambassadors which are sent by the king into forreign kingdoms to treate matters for Each others good: their Expences while there are allowed and so of all Envoyes or Consulls wch are lesser Embassadours. There is also the maintaining the navy, building shipps, the wood of which Indeed is out of the King's fforest.

There remaines now only in what manner the kings or queenes of England give publick audience to fforreigne ambassadours Either when they Come in their first Entrance or at the tyme of their takeing Leave; but first I may give account of our Bishops and Gentry. There is 26 Bishopricks with the two Archbishops Canterbury and york and there are as many Cittyes and Cathedralls which in my travells have described. All these Bishopricks are held of the Crown and are Given by the king, to whome is due the first fruites which is one yeares income of the Bishopricks. They are held for Life, true jndeed they admit of being removed from one Bishoprick to another for advancemt, nay they may forfeit their Bishoprick by not being qualify'd, if they will not sweare to be faithfull to ye government and so they may be suspended, as in ye Case of severall in the last revolution would not sweare to King William and Queen Mary and so now refuse also to sweare to her present Majesty Queen Ann. These Bishops are only Barrons in themselves, their wives have noe honnour thereby nor their Children; but for all peeres of England theirs is hereditary from father to son and their Ladies partake of it, nay ye honour descends on a daughter in default of male jssue. The peere must first be made Barrons by which they hold all their priviledges – Barrons of England – which is from ye king by patent; all his Children are Called ye honbl adding the Christian name to their sirname, and this remaines to daughters when marry'd. By this patent or another of ye same they may be Created viscount, Earles, Marquesses, dukes, and if they are dukes their patent Expresses all the four other titles. Alsoe viscounts Children are the same wth Barrons; and Earle's, marquess, and duke's are Called, the daughters Lady, by their Christian names, before and after marriage, unless they marry a Barron then they Lose yt name and are Called a Barroness and so Loses their place. The Eldest son of an Earle is Called Lord by his fathers title of Barron, the Eldest son of a Marquiss is Called Earle, by the title of his fathers Earledome, and all marquiss's younger sons are Called Lord by their Christian name added to their sirname. So the same of dukes Children, the Eldest son is Called Marquiss. Now if any dowager to a Lord marry a Private Gentleman she in Law is sullied and has Lost her peeress, so if a Dutchess or Marquess or Countess or viscountess marry a Barron or Either of the degrees which was below her, she Looses it and is only Called as the Lady of the present peer She has marry'd now. Though these titles be given the noblemens sons and Daughters its not that they are really soe, for in our Law they are only Called and Esteemed in the first ranke of Gentlemen, and so take place before all Gentlemen wt soever. The Lower titles made by patents by ye king is Barronets, and is differenc'd only from a Knight by takeing place of all knights and that it is hereditary and goes from father to son; a Knight only is for his own Life and the king makes them thus: any Gentleman that is to be made a knight kneeles down and ye king draws his sword asking him his Christian name, Layes the sword on his head and shoulder, and bids him rise up sir such a one as for Example Sr James Bateman our Last Sherriff &c. These severall titles and patents pays great fees to the severall officers according to the ranke, a Duke cost £1000 –, so in proportion. Ye same manner the Knights of the Garter are made as other knights nevertheless it may be to those wch were dukes before. Their jnstallment is at Windsor Castle, in this manner: the herraulds which I have mentioned several tymes before as a part and management of all the Cerimony, and also the persons that studdy all matters of honours and are the Recorders of all the titles in England, and all their Coates of armour, and knows and keepes Each in their ranke at all Cerimonyes, and gives out their armes for Eschuteons at Every bodyes funeralls; they have an office just by Dr Commons by St Pauls Cathedrall. There is one Principal king at armes and 3 if not more other king at armes and other under herraulds and Sergeants, which all weare Coates with the kings armes all aboute it; these as I say officiates at the jnstalling for they record it and add the blew garter about such a Lords atchievement. Ye Cerimony I have in part described together with ye account of Windsor.

 

Maulbery is in view at some distance from ye adjacent hills and Lookes very fine, with a good river that turns many mills. Its buildings are good and Compact, one very Large streete where stands the market place and town hall, and at Each end the two Churches, its of a great Length jncludeing the two parishes, and the town stands itself on a high hill. Beyond one of the Churches is the Duke of Sommersets house, has been a greate Rambling building but now most pulled down and newly building, they were painting it, good appartments for what is done but none furnish'd, and its but one Wing and is built with drawing dineing roomes and bed Chambers with Closets and dressing-roomes and two StairCases and some roomes above, which is to have another such a wing on the other side and Joyn'd with a Greate hall.

The only Curious thing is out of ye bowling green. You go many stepps down into a Grass-walke with quick sett hedges cut Low, this Leads to the foote of the mount, and that you ascend from ye Left hand by an Easye ascent bounded by such quick sett hedges Cut Low, and soe you rise by degrees in 4 rounds bounded by the Low Cutt hedge, and on the top is with same hedge Cut in works, and from thence you have a prospect of ye town and Country round and two parishes two mile off in view, and the Low Grounds are watered with ditches, and this mount is Encompass'd about with such a Cannal which Emptys itself into a ffish pond, then it Empts itself into the river. There is a house built over the ffish pond to keep the ffish in. At the ffoote of the mount as I began out of a Green walke on the Left hand to ascend it, so on the Right hand Leads to another such a walke quite round by ye Cannall to the other side of ye bowling-green. In the midst of ye top of the mount was a house built and pond but thats fallen down. Halfe way down is a seate opposite to ye dwelling house which is Brick'd. Maulbery is one of the towns in Wiltshire ye quarter sessions is kept in, its 8 mile to Hungerford over Savernack Forrest where is many deer. Ffrom Hungerford to Newbury in Barkshire 7 mile all very deep way, 15 mile thence to Reading in Barkshire flatt way, but ye vale is heavy sand for 3 or 4 mile. Reading is the shire town, its pretty Large and accomodated for travellers being a great Road to Gloucester and ye West Country, but it is very dear.

From London to Rusbery 18 mile by Stanes – pretty house and gardens in sight of Windsor in Buckinghamshire – thence Uxbridge 7 mile, pretty good way, thence Amersham 9 mile all in the Alesbury road, thence Barkinstead 6 Long miles, steep hills into Hartfordshire, a good market town, good jnns, thence Dunstable 7 or 9 Long miles steep hills, thence Arsly in Bedfordshire 10 mile, which I Entred at Astick 2 mile from Arlsy, 2 good old houses of the Edwards and Browns, but this was base way, narrow, and Lanes Rooty and Long. Thence Bedford town 9 miles good way, a village in a mile or two distance, Hanlow, Clifton Sheford Checkston and Bedford. Ye great road Comes in good way, thence Turvoy 5 mile belonging to the Earle of Peterborough where he was.

They make much bonelace in these towns. In the Church are fine tombs and monuments of that familly, the first with two Ladyes on Each side, he higher, one in a widdows dress all marble finely Gilt and painted on a bed, and Rowles of Matt very naturall at their head and feete. There was another and the Lady dyed in Childbed the Child by her Costly Carved and Gilt and 4 beadmen at the feete (he allowed for four old mens maintenance), by it another and his Lady all rich marble Gilt and painted.

Here I Enter Buckinghamshire againe over the Bridge, so to Northampton 10 mile over a pretty good road, and Entred the shire within 4 mile of the town.

I describe nothing more of Northampton, but the Church was finish'd, the Entrance with a breast wall and paved and stepps within round 3 sides of the Church, which was begun wn I was there before. So I proceeded on to Litchfield very good way as Exactly straight as a Line, the Whatling Streete way, but it was deep heavy ground as in all these Rich Countrys. I passed between two noble seates, Homby on the Right hand on the side of a hill in woods, stone buildings with towers almost Like a Castle, old built, the rows of trees Exact on Each side and avenues, which is Earle of Ffevershams. The other on the left hand Lay Low within a thicket of wood on all sides but the front, where it appear'd Like a Princes Court of Brick and Stone, very fine, Lord Sunderlands, with a Large Parke walled in of a good Extent. Thus I went to a Bridge not very Large of stone but it is the Boundary of three Countys.

I pass'd from Northampton into Leicestershire with Warwickshire on my Left hand, and so went to a Rich Land, here it Lookes of a Redder Earth.

I Came to Cross wayes where was a Latterworth hand poynting 4 wayes to Coventry, Leicester, London, and Litchfield, and some thing farther to High Crosse which is Esteemed ye middle of England, where the two great Roads meete that divides the Kingdom in the Saxons tyme in 4 parts, the Whatling Streete on which still I Continued, and the Ffosse way; thus to a Little place Called Smockington, fitted for jnns, on a Road, very Comodious. Here I Lay in Warwickshire 10 mile, thence 6 mile to Anderton and Talmouth 7, where I Enter Staffordshire, soe Litchfield 6 mile, thence Woolsly Eight, from thence to Budsworth, Lord Pagets in a ffine Parke, Large Coale mines about it. The house is old but the front very regular, 3 Juttings out, Large Compass windows, a good Little parlour, out of the hall another Large one with drawing roome and bed Chamber and good back staires and Entrys, Large Light fit for attendance. then you go up and Enter a dineing roome, drawing roome and Chamber, a Long gallery that is the Length of the house and broad, and which adds to its greatness. The End opens doores on a terrass out in the garden of same breadth and Length up to an orchard or wilderness which Lookes very nobly. Here at Each End is two good Chambers of state, Lofty, with anty Chambers and for servants and back staires. There are many very good roomes of a second rate wch if well ffurnish'd would Look well. The Leads are a greate many stepps up on the top, a Large Cupilow of windows, and ye walls round ye Leads are so high a person of a middle stature Cannot Look over them scarce when on tiptoe, which is a Greate Lessening of its beauty wch would give a Large prospect round of the Country of 10 or 12 miles off. There is an addition of new wall on the battlements wch is visible so its Likely it was from some accident from ye Leads Enduced ye walls being built higher. This Lord has a greate Command and Royalty in the County, the Kank forrest of 20 mile is his, most of ye gentlemen in the County pay him Chiefe Rent and some hold Right in some of their Land by waiteing on him on some solemn feast dayes in the yeare, and bring up his dinner and waite on him as he Eates, if then in the Country. But these things are better wav'd then sought and is not done few tymes in an age to keep up the Custom.

Ffrom Woolsly after an 8 weekes stay I went to Wolverhampton 11 long mile, then to Churchhill neare Sturbridge 9 or 10 mile farther, by the many Glasshouses where they Blow Broad Glass, but they were not at work on that sort when I was there. At Church-hill was at a farmer Like a Gentleman's, a new pretty house of brick, but wanted ffurniture and Cleaneing and good order, but a hearty Mr and Mrs. The hill is pretty high and gives a great view of the Country which most belongs to Mr Foley – Tom of 10,000£ – Large Commonage, there he has a Little Lodge, new brick; his own house is 6 or 10 mile thence all within his own grounds, and has great jron works and mines, this is within two mile of Kederminster, as farre on the other side to Sturbridge. Thence I went to Worcester town a sandy way, and here are in some places quicksands. This is a 10 Long mile to Worcester but pretty flatt way for the most part, thence to Newhouse 12 or 14, the basest way for hills, stony narrow hollow wayes very difficult to pass.

I went from Newhouse to Stoake four miles, Mr Foley's the speaker's son has a very fine pile of building, the wing to Herreford being now up in the Shell, which is all for state, great parlour, drawing roome, and bed Chambers, with their appendixes and backstaires, and a great staircase with Chambers over for state. This is Entred into out of the Greate hall, the middle of the house raiseing many stepps out of the Court, the Entrance to which on Each side has buildings uniform for Coach house stables, dairy out houses. The wing to the garden side is finish'd, being their appartment, a pretty staircase that two Easily go up, light from the Skye, jron railes and barristers, this from an arch jsle below which goes to the kitchen, and hath a doore into this front Court and into the gate backward, tho' not visible on the garden side by ye disguise of painting. From this you ascend these staires to the dineing roome which is Even to the great hall and must Enter from it when ffinish'd. Out of this on the Right hand was Mr Paul Folie's the father's studdy, long and Large, with back staires and a servants roome. On the Left hand is a drawing roome, beyond his Ladys bed Chamber, Closet and Servants roome, and next it are these staires of jron Railes that goes up to the next stage, which is over this same wing and is the appartment of the young Mr Folie and his Lady which now is the heir and in possession.

There is their Chamber, her fine Closet, a servants roome and a Large studdy for him; there is also two Large Chambers for strangers which takes the whole wing over the dineing roome and studdy. There is also a Little roome at the end for strangers opposite to Mr folie's roome which Lookes to the front. This dineing roome is what they Eate in allwayes – is well wanscoated. There is a fountaine bason just faceing ye balcony doore that Leads to a terrass paved with black and white marble and jron palisadoes; it has a long space and broad for walking and two Enclosed on Each side by same jron work a step up or two these doores from ye Ladies Closet and the Studdy, out on them in the middle goes the staires two wayes, all jron work, and meete halfe way and Joyne in ye next descent on Gravel, which is in a halfe moon and so design'd to be Left in a Low place with a Cascade beneath, and the Gravell walke and grass walks to go by it and beyond it in many rows of trees. The walled Gardens and walks one below another. This terrass gives a vast prospect of the Country, it being scituated on the ascent of a hill. Many rows of trees in Meadows below it adds to its beauty being all within his own Ground, he has a Great Estate and a Great parke up above it with Great woods. The adornment of the Rooffe is flower potts and ffigures Globes and Scallop shells, it will be noble Compleate buildings and deserves 10000£ a yeare to Live Like it.

The offices are all below and Even with the first Entrance of the ffront, what is ffinished is neate good wanscoate and tapistry, there is two or three damaske beds and one velvet one what they had before, so noe new ffurniture but ye best wing noe doubt will be finely finish'd and furnish'd. The prospect is Large and jndeed to view, at Least in the summer and in Drye tyme, Herrifordshire is Like a fruitfull Garden. Near Richards Castle is the Bone well a fountain alway full of ffish and ffroggs bones tho' often Cleared of them yet still renewed.

Ffrom Newhouse I Came over Maubern Hills which are Like the Alps and have had much wet, the roads deep and difficult, to upton in Worcester 10 mile, where I pass the severn on a stone bridge – here it is not broad. Thence Pursha 5 mile, thence Esham 4 and Weston 4, in Glocestershire to my Cos'n Ffiennes, thence to Morton Hindmost up a vast stony high hazardous hill of neare two mile Long ascending all the way from Weston – this is in sight of Cambden – so to Morton, 6 miles down as steep a stony hill 2 mile before I Came to my aunts. Thence to Broughton in Oxfordshire passing by 4 shires stone – Warwick, Worcester, Glocester and Oxfordshire, and so by Kingston; thence to oxford 18, Abbington where is a fine town Hall for the Judges, two barrs and all seates aboute set on stone pillars, the staires to the top is about 100, ye Leads fine and gives a Large prospect all about. There is halfe way the staires, a place to go in and in Gallerys round Company may stand to heare Causes all above the Judges heads – this is Buckinghamshire. Then to Newbery by Market Hillsly its 16 mile, which town has been famous for whipps and presents a King or Queen when they pass through it with one of great price and also wth a purse of Gold. From thence to Way hill through Lanes and woods 14 mile, this is in Hampshire, thence to Newtontony in Wiltshire 6 mile.

Some account of Epsome in Surrey about ten miles from London. Its on Clay and Gravel, the waters are from Alum. The well is Large without Bason or Pavement, on the bottom it is Covered over with timber and is so darke you Can scarce Look down into it for which Cause I do dislike it. Its not a quick spring and very often is dranke drye, and to make up the defficiency the people do often carry water from Common wells to fill this in a morning; this they have been found out in which makes the water weake and of Little opperation unless you Can have it first from the well before they Can have put in any other. The usual way of drinking them is by turning them with a Little milk. There is a walk of trees by it, but not very pleasant, there is a house built in which the well is and that is paved with brick to walke in in the wet weather. and where people have Carrawayes sweetemeates and tea &c, but it Look'd so dark and unpleasant more Like a Dungeon, yt I would not Chuse to drinke it there, and most people drink it at home. There are severall good Buildings in Epsome for Lodgings and good Gardens behind them for walking. There is a good house of the Ld Bartlets in a parke at the End of the town Looks very well. The Greatest pleasure of Emson is Either Banstead Downs where is good aire and good rideing for Coaches and horses, with a pleasant view of ye Country, or Else Box Hill which is 6 or 7 miles off and is the Continuation of the Ridge of hills I mentiond by Maidstone; its a Greate height and shows you a vast precipice down on the farther side, and such a vast vale full of woods Enclosures and Little towns. There is a very good river that runs by a Little town Called Darken just at the foote of this hill, very famous for good troutts and great store of ffish. On this hill the top is Cover'd with box whence its name proceeds, and there is other wood but its all Cutt in Long private walks very shady and pleasant, and this is a great diversion to the Company and would be more ffrequented if nearer Epsom town.

About 4 miles off is Sr Robert Howards house which I went to see, its a Square building, the yards and offices very Convenient about it, and severall Gardens walled in. All the windows are sashes and Large squares of glass; I observ'd they are double sashes to make ye house the warmer, for it Stands pretty bleake. Its a brick building. You Enter a hall which opens to the Garden, thence to two parlours, drawing-roomes and good staires, there are abundance of Pictures, above is a Dineing roome and drawing roome with very good tapistry-hangings of Long standing. There is severall bed Chambers well ffurnish'd, good damaske beds and hangings and window Curtaines of the same, and so neatly kept ffolded up in Clean sheets pinn'd about the beds and hangings. There are severall other good beds and ffurniture, one roome all ye bed and hangings are of a fine damaske made of worsted, it Lookes pretty and with a Gloss Like Camlett, of a Light Ash Coullour. There are good pictures of the family, Sr Robert's Son and Lady, which was a Daughter of the Newport house, with her Children in a very Large Picture. There is fine adornements of Glass on the Chimney and fine marble Chimney pieces, some Closets with Inlaid floores, its all very neate and fine with the several Courts at the Entrance – this I thinke was all remarkable at Epsome which is 14 mile to London.

Another Journey to Broughton in Oxfordshire, my brother's, and now my nephew's house, the Lord Say and Seale. I went by Hartfordshire and Bedford from London to Wane 20 mile, thence to Hitching 14 miles, most in Lanes and deep Land, and in the winter bad Roads, but very good Land – good Corn – the wheate Look'd well but Grass and Summer Corn wanted rain, being a drye Spring. Thence to Bedford town 12 mile more, these miles are Longer than those about London and much in Lanes and woods.

Bedford town is an old Building, its wash'd by the river Ouse which Comes from Buckingham and is here Broader than in most places till it reaches Yorke; its stored with very good ffish and those which have Gardens on its brinke keepes sort of trunck or what they Call them. Its a Receptacle of wood of a pretty size full of holes to Let the water in and out, here they keep the ffish they Catch as pike, perch, tench &c, so they have it readye for their use, this is of mighty advantage Especially for the Publick houses – you see the ffish taken out ffresh for supper or dinner. The river runns twineing about and runns into severall notches of Ground wch is sett full of willows, and many Little boates Chained to the sides belonging to ye people of the town for their diversion. It runns by a Ground which is made into a fine bowling-green, its upon a hill and a pretty ascent from the river that is besett with willows all round beneath; ye bowling green is well kept with Seates and summer houses in it for the use of the town and Country Gentlemen of which many resort to it Especially the market dayes. At the Entrance of the town you pass over ye river on a bridge which has a gate on it and some houses – this river beares barges. These truncks or Baskets which keepes the ffish are ffastned by Chaines to the sides of the Banks in each mans Garden. There is nothing worth notice in the town, severall streetes small and old, the middle streete which runns from ye Bridge is pretty broad, wherein stands ye market place and house which is on severall stone pillars and raill'd in. There is above it roomes which were design'd for the session and publick Buissness of the town by the Lord Russell that built it, but his untimely death, being beheaded, put a stop to its ffinishing. They now put it to noe use but spinning haveing begun to set up the woollen worke, but its Just in its Infancy. Over this is the top which is flatt rooff'd Leaded and railed in, from thence you see the whole town and Country round.

There is a pretty many Gentry about ye Country neare neighbours, and many Live in the town tho' in such old houses. From thence I went to Asply 8 mile where the Earth turns wood into stone and had a piece of it; it seemes its only one sort of wood the Aldertree which turns so, and Lay or drive a paile or Stake into the ground there in seven yeares its petrify'd into stone, from thence to Onborn wch is 3 mile more.

Here is the Duke of Bedfords house which I had seen before with the fine Gardens and parke, so proceeded on to Dunstable 9 miles ffarther where I staid and dined with my kinswoman my aunt Woolsley's Daughter marry'd to a Dr of physick Dr Marsh, and from thence I went to Laighton Buserd and thence to Whinslow about 12 mile – this is in Buckinghamshire – thence to Broughton in Oxfordshire 17 mile, and staid a weeke and then returned through oxfford Citty 18 mile, and so to London 48 mile more.

A FURTHER DESCRIPTION OF EPSOME
HAMPTION COURT AND WINDSOR

Epsom is 15 miles from London, there are great curiosityes in cut hedges and trees almost before all doores. They have trees in rows which they cut up smooth and about 3 or 4 yards up, they Lay frames of wood in manner of a pent house, so plat the branches on it and cuts it smooth, they leave the stem of the tree to run up and then cut it clear to the top wch they cut in round heads. There are severall good houses in or about Epsham – Sr Robt Howard's wch I have described, Mr Wessell's now Mr Scawen's. There is Lord Baltimores in Woodcut Green Encompass'd wth a wall at the Entrance – a breast wall with pallisadoes. Large courts one within the other and a back way to ye stables where is a pretty horse pond. The house is old but Low, tho' Large, – run over much ground. Inffront 6 windows and in the top just in the middle 12 Chimneys in a row, being 3 and 3 below Joyning back to back and 3 and 3 above; the others Looke into a Court wch is built round. As I drove by the side saw broad Chimneys on the End, and at due distance on the side on both Ends ye sides of a Court, wch is terminated in a building on wch is a Lead wth railes and Barristers.

That house which is now Lord Guilfords at another side of Epsham, Lookes nobly in a fine parke pailed round. Severall rows of trees in the front of all sorts – Lofty, and some cut Piramidy, some suger-Loafe or rather Like a mushrom-top. The front has 6 Large windows and the doore wch is glass, as many on the next story. You Enter by a Large Court wch is on ye Left side – Stable court; to the right into ye Gardens, fore right you Enter a broad tarass railed in and Paved with stone, you enter a noble Lofty hall, plaine but neate, painted white. On ye right is a Little parlour, the lesser hall hung wth armes, a butler's office, with bedchambers and Closets, thence goes ye Kitchen, schullery, bakeing room and Laundry into a Court of all ye offices and the stable yard. Out of ye Little parlour goes into a pretty Chappel which has a balcony closet looking into it for the Lord and Lady.

The Left hand of ye hall Led into a great parlour wch runnes to the End of the house, and makes the ffront, and short again into another great parlour or dineing roome which makes ye End ffront of the house; this also opens into ye staircase, it Leads on to a drawing roome, Closet, bed Chamber, two dressing roomes, wch with ye great staircase makes up ye ffront backward and the other End ffront, wch Lookes into ye stable yard and a garden railed in wth a Large pond or Cannall. The back ffront goes out into a garden or Court wth Gravel walks round, and a Crosse wch cuts it into 4 grassplotts where are Brass statues, and Leads out through fine jron Carved gates as at the ffront out into ye highway. The right End ffront of ye house is into ye Garden. Out of both of ye great parlours and drawing roome two Entrances at an Equal distance upon gravell walks. This garden is gravell'd round. Ye two middle walks run up to a double mount which cast the garden into 3 Long grass walks wch also are very broad, wth 3 flower potts. There are two degrees of stepps to Each of these Gravell walks, the first lands on a Gravell that turns in a 3 side square wch shapes ye upper mount. The Long gravell walke to ye right hand runns aCrosse the mount to a thicket that Enters ye Grove and is Lost. The other to the Left runns up the whole Length of ye grove up to white gates and open views into ye parke. The two Ends of the Little square gravel walke round the first mount terminates on the right in same thicket or Grove, and has only for show a Carved frame as a gate, wth wood carv'd Like Cage work painted white, with an arch Entrance in the middle for form sake, to make it Look uniforme to the Like on ye Left, wch Leads to a walk as Long as the Gravell up to the wall, and is directly arbour. Like high trees, Cut up to the top and with heads which close in an arch – in the middle is Long white seates. There are two or three Lesser walks wch run across it to ye right into the Grove and Lost in the maze; to the Left to another Long walk wch Leads to a Grotto and runs parralel wth ye gravel walke to the top. You Enter a space paved and open arch'd round in seates like a Court, and thence you Enter the Grotto, an arch Entirely dark but at the Entrance it is so Large as 6 arched seates, and between carv'd stone very fine of all sorts of flowers, ffigures, ffruites; ye Pillars or Peers pretty broad. this ran up to a sumerhouse at the End, wch is grown over with greens cut smooth – windows all round. Below this is a broad green walke wch begins at the first Garden and so continues round wth ye wall quite to that broad Gravel walke, and is continued by ye wall quite Encompassing ye maze, in wch are some slaunt cut wayes, and it terminates in the other side of the first Garden just by a garden railed in in which is a Large pond, square in nature of a cannall, the bank green Cut fine, and borders for flowers and greens, and a Breast wall to the first Garden, on wch are flower potts. On the upper mount – all the grass and bank Even cut – Stands 4 flower potts painted blew – Some red on ye 3 divisions – ye gravell Cut out as on the Margin.

Ffrom the Hall you go to ye staircase, there is also a doore out of the second parlour. This is noble and Lofty all plain wanscoate, only ye halfe paces inlaid. The first is a window the whole height, 13 Large pannells in Length, 5 in breadth, which Lookes into one of the Courts where the pond is and stable yard. The next half pace Leads you on ye Left hand to the private appartment that is not so Lofty, over ye Least hall to an anty roome, thence a dineing roome, soe drawing roome 5 bed Chambers and Closetts. The Last Closett goes into a balcony wch runs aCross ye middle of said Lofty window, and Looks into the staircase. Out of ye Eating or dineing roome goes a Closett for ye Ladyes into ye Chappell wth very good back staires up to ye top roomes. Ye great staires continues up to the Gallery and turns in a long halfe pace, wch Enters it at two doores in Equal distances. Its a Lofty, Large as well as Long roome, noe painting or frettwork. At Each End are severall handsome bedChambers and Closetts but none ffurnish'd, but ye private appartments has pladd Chamlet damaske neatly made up, not new, Glass sconces, and over the Chimney, looking glasses in frames. The parke is fine but not stock'd, wch when it is and house ffurnish'd will be a noble seate.

There is another house of Mr Ruths who married Lady Dennagall is new and neate. The Entrance is a space the breadth of ye Court and ffront, rail'd in and opening in ye middle wth sort of wicket, two such at Each End wth heavye Latches to pull up, and the gate swings both wayes. There is a brick wall wth peers and breast high, and jron pallisadoes of a good breadth Each side the gate, wch is Carv'd jron work wth a Deer on the top of a Cypher, and an oaken tree Cut a top; the two first peers are wth Great flower potts, those on ye Peeres Each side ye jron works Lesser flower potts. Beyond are the gates into the coach yard, wch with the Stables is a neate Pile of Buildings by it self. Just on ye other side is such a building the kitchen and offices and little Laundry Court, and here is the back Entrance through a Long brick Entry open on one side, but a wall to ye Court side and house, and Enters into a passage that Leads to a little hall brick't, wth roomes for ye buttler and a batheing roome. By it is a Large hall paved wth stone and thence is one way into the garden. Under the staires and balcony that descends from ye dineing roome in ye first passage are staires wch brings to a space that turns up to the Great staires and roomes.

The ffront Entrance is into a handsome Court, one Large paved walke in the middle between Grass, the borders round of flowers, ye wall wth trees. You ascend some stepps to a broad terrass paved and with a breast wall sett wth flower potts. This is the breadth of the house and at Each End two Large white seates wth arches over ye head. You Enter a step or two to this space wch Lead s to ye staires on ye Left to a little parlour wanscoted, white in veines and gold mouldings, a neat Booffett ffurnish'd with Glasses and china for the table, a Cistern below into which the water turn'd from a Cock, and a hole at bottom to Let it out at pleasure. Wth in this roome was a Large Closet or musick roome, on the other side was a dine-ing room wth a balcony door wch has staires to ye garden in a round with half paces and jron railes. Thence is a drawing roome, beyond that a Closet that comes out into a little passage to the staircase, wch is Large and makes the fourth part of the house; they are wanscoate varnish'd and the Lower step or two Larger, and ye other End is in a turn. The half paces are strip'd, the wood put wth ye Graine, the next slip against the Graine, wch makes it Looke pretty as if Inlaid.

You Enter one roome hung with Crosstitch in silks, the bed the same Lined wth yellow and white strip'd sattin, window Curtaines white silk damaske wth furbellows of Callicoe printed flowers, the Chaires Crosstitch and two stooles of yellow Mohaire wth Crostitch, true Lower knotts in straps along and a Cross, an Elbow Chaire tentstitch; Glasses over all ye Chimneys and Marble pieces. The windows in all the roomes had Cusheons. The next roome was Lady Dennagalls Chamber and Closet hung wth very rich tapistry, the bed Crimson damaske Lined wth white Jndia sattin, wth Gold and Crimson flowers printed; the Chaires, one red damaske, the other Crostitch and tentstitch very Rich, soe round the roome. The Closet, Green damaske Chaires, and many fine pictures under Glasses, of tentstitch sattin stitch Gumm and strawwork, also jndia flowers birds &c. The roome over the Little parlour was Mrs Ruths, a pladd bed Lined wth Jndian Callicoe, and an Jndia Carpet on the bed – wth in was her Closet. Over this are good Garretts and staires to the Leads wch shews you all about the town.

The first garden is square, the walls full of trees and nail'd neate, an apricote, peach, plumb, necktarine, wch spread but not very high; between Each is a cherry stript up to the top and spreads, Composeing an arch over the others. There are borders of flowers round and a handsome Gravel round. The Grass plott is Large; in the middle a little Gravel in an oval or round, where is a Large fountain of stone full of stone Images to spout the water. This Garden is the breadth of the dwelleing house – the dineing roome and drawing roome Looke into it.

Out of this (which is ffenced by a breast wall wth jron pallasadoes painted blew wth Gilt topp) you ascend severall stepps through an jronwork'd gate to a ground divided into Long grass walks, severall of wch ascends ye hill and between the Ground improv'd wth Dwarfe trees of ffruite and flowers and greenes in all shapes, intermixt wth beds of strawberyes for ornament and use. Thus to another bank wth stepps to a Green Cross walke, and then more trees and devices. Thence to two mounts cut smoothe – between is a Cannall. These mounts are severall stepps up under which are jce houses; they are a square fflatt on the top ffenced with banks round and seates, beyond which is a summer house in a tree, which shews a great way off the Country. There are Low Cut hedges on Each bank, and painted sticks wth Gilt tops in ye greens and flower potts, and thus is one terrass above another. Over their stables are Chambers for ye men, over the Kitchen and Dairy and buttery and scullery are roomes for Laundry, and for the maids.

Sr Thomas Cooke's house has such an Enclosed walk before the gate, wth swinging gates at Each End and a Larger in the middle.

Without it is a Row of oakes wth thick heads wch makes it very shady. You Enter a Close gate into a Court, wth a broad paved walk between two Large Grass-plotts, besett wth Green Cyprus yew and holly in Piramids, and two Large Statues in the middle, the wall Clothed wth box holly filleroy cut even. The ffront is two juttings out at the Ends flatt in the middle Like a half Roman H. You Rise a step or two into a good Hall pav'd wth black and white marble, the sides painted black and white resembling nitches or arches for seates. On the Right hand is a good Dineing roome wanscoated oake without varnish, the pannell Large, and within a drawing roome wch Lookes into the garden, wanscoated. Over, Right, another square one. Between these runs an Entry, where in are Closets, and ye Butlers office, to ye Kitchen and offices, into ye Stable, Coach yard and into a Laundry Court. In the Middle ffronting ye Entrance is a Door into ye garden. Just by is a Servants hall and way to ye Cellars under. The Great Staires noble and Lofty, all wanscoate, hung wth very good pictures. Above in the rooffe is frettwork and an oval Curiously painted with angells and ffigures.

Here are two very Good appartments, bed Chambers dressing-roome, Closets and presses; besides there are two other good Chambers wth Closets, and one Large roome – ye frame of ye Chimney piece carv'd with all variety of fruites, herbes & painted proper and all hollow work. Very good Pictures in all ye roomes over Chimneys and doores, all fix'd into ye wanscoate, – noe ffurniture. There is a very good pr of back staires goes hence up to ye Garret's, one very Large, 6 other, besides Little room. There you ascend into a Cupilow, windows round shews a vast prospect of the place; from thence you may descend another such a good pr of back staires to ye kitchen. The Garden is in forme as Mr Ruth's first flatt, but Larger, wth a Larger fountaine, walled in wth ffree stone, a pedistal wth Little Cupids and Dolphins and shells on wch are Images, and on ye top a Crown made all to spout out water. The walls full of fruite, in ye middle you ascend severall stepps to a bank on wch are jron painted pallasadoes wth Gilt top; gates to the same. Here is a Large square wth green walks and gravell and ovall in the middle, with devices of Little paths of gravell to Cut the grass into shapes, squares and 3 squares. In the middle stands a Gladiator on a pedistal, and on ye walls are Cupids at each riseing of the walls for the bank. On the Left side is a summer house wth paints of the seasons of ye yeare. Thence into another Garden for kitchen stuff and hott beds, with convenient houses. From this great fflatt you ascend severall stepps at three places – equal distance, and then Long green walks between borders of strawberies, dwarf trees, and some wth green squares sett with Cyprus, Mirtle, yew, Holly cut fine and flowers, thus three severall bancks, the spaces so adorn'd. Then you pass on to a long green walke, the Right side or End is a fine summer house, the bank all along guarded with dwarffe trees; the other to ye field side rowes of tall walnuts, with quick sett hedges cutt. This Carryes on not only the breadth of the house but the Length of the whole ground, wch is for ye other garden for use; and just at the End of the pleasure garden begins a Large and Long pond or Cannall – ye Length of the walke, wch is its bank cut fine. There is another great pond on the Right side of the house, and two more in the grounds belonging to it on the Left.

Mrs Steeven has a very pretty neate house and gardens, before the doore is a part railed in as before, only this is Close at Each end wth high wall and seates. In the middle is a gate wch Leads to the gate of the Court, grass walled round, a broad pavement to the house, and round Stepps – 4 or 5. You Enter into a passage wch Leads to a little parlour, thence a step or two down to an Entry, wch Leads away to a Little Court or passage, which runs to the streete and back to ye garden.

On one side is a building, a summer parlour for a still roome, wth brick kitchen and offices and Coach house and stables, wth Chambers over for the men. There is in the first parlour a Large Closet, on the Left is a Large parlour and drawing-roome, all very neate and well wanscoated. Under the staircase is a little roome for a butler, thence the staires to the Cellars; this is between the back staires wch are very good and light, and wanscoated up to the garrets, and the great staires wch are very handsome painted white, the Rooffe an oval of Cupids. Here are two handsome Chambers with dressing-roomes and light and dark Closets and presses. Next floore is to such appartments againe. Over all are three good Garrets and two roomes for stores, and it is sashed up to the top wth Low windows to sit in. Every Corner is improved for Cupboards and necessarys, and the doores to them made suiteable to ye wanscoate. The garden goes out opposite to ye Entrance the walls full of all fruite neately kept. Here are six Grass walks three and three, guarded wth dwarfe fruite trees, a Large gravell walk round by the wall, and gravell between Each Grass walk. The front is a breast wall wth a yew hedge cut neate, and jron pallisadoes painten and Gilt tops, with gates Leading to another Garden of grass Cut in shapes and knotts, wth flowers and all sorts of greens cut in shapes, wth paths of Gravel to fform them. On the Left side a Coddling hedge secured a walke of orange and Lemmon trees in perfection. This is Closed with a green house all the breadth of the garden, through wch you Enter another of fflowers; thence into orchard and kitchen garden wch is Cast in Exact forms to Look neate. In the green Garden was Large alloes plants and all sorts of Perpetualls as well as annualls.

There are abundance of houses built of brick, with fine gardens and Courts, wth open gates and railes to view, wch are used as Lodgings for the Company; and now the wells are built about, and a Large Light roome to walk in brick'd, and a pump put on the well. A Coffee house and two roomes for gameing, and shops for sweetmeates and fruite. Monday morning is their day, the Company meete and then they have some Little diversion, as raceing of boys or Rabbets or Piggs. In the Evening the company meete in the Greenes, first in the upper Green many steps up, where are Gentlemen Bowling, Ladyes walking. There are Little Shopps and a gameing or danceing roome, the same man at the wells keepes it, sells Coffee there also. The Lower green is not farr off – just in the heart of the town: its a much neater green and warmer. The whole side of this is a very Large roome wth Large sashe windows to the green, wth Cusheons in the windows and seates all along. There are two hazard boards; at the End is a Milliner and China Shop, this is belonging to the Great tavern or Eateing house, and all the Length of this roome to the street ward is a Piaza wall, and a row of trees Cutt and platted together as the ffashion of the place, wth tops running up a top with heads. The Crosse in the Streete has a Good Clock.

On the hill where is the race posts they have made a ring as in Hide Parke, and they Come in Coaches and drive round, but it is only Lords day nights and some nights. There has been 40 Coaches and six which are the Gentlemen in the County round, and 20 and 2 horses. The Company in ye town Epshum shall be Clutter'd wth Company from Satturday to Tuesday and then they many times goe, being so neare London, so come againe on more Saturdays.

Ffrom Epsham I went to Banstead where the parson of the Parish has diverted himself in his garden these fifty yeares, is now old and doates, but has Curious hedges, one Garden wth Grass plotts and Earth walks Cut and wedd. His grass plotts has stones of divers fformes and sizes which he names Gods and Goddesses; and hedges and arbours of thorn soe neately Cut, and in all ffigures in great rounds. One is a Large arbour: You Enter a straite passage as unto a Cell, but within a roome, round yt by a narrow Entry you Come to a Large Square with trees and seates, all quick sett hedges cut fine. One is a tree wch the ivy has Covered and there are staires up directly upright, and on ye top is an Eight square Bench – round, the Green grows up Close about it cut even, this he Calls "Tenneriff" being in that fform. Next it is another tree, there is a fflatt and on it is a table or stoole on wch is a Great white stone in form of some statue that apole wth 9 stones round less the muses – this is Parnassus. There are severall heads painted wch are named Mogul Grand Seignior, Cham of Tartary, Zarr of Muscovy, placed in severall places. Another Garden is Grass plotts wth yews and holly Lawrells, round this on the bank is sett stones very thick, some very much bigger for officers, this is the whole Confederate army and their Generalls. Here is a trumpeter, Hercules and Bacchus and a hedge of Lawrell 7 foote broad. Here are also two trees Cover'd with Ivy and thorne Cut smooth and made in ffashion of two great pillars for Hercules pillars. There is in ye middle some platted together and makes a Cover to a seate below, and there is a Rose Cut out – you may talk as under the Rose. In his house he has many Curiosetyes of stones, one like a brick of bread, another Like a shoulder of mutton, a piece of wood from an old tree as Like a mounteer capp wth a button on the top, another like a furbellow'd peticoat, another stone like an apple paired and a piece Cut out and grown Deadish – its said this is Petrify'd into stone as the moss in Knarsborough and the wood at Apsley in Bedfordshire; here were many Shells, Birds, jndian shoes, bootes, purses &c.

Ffrom Epsham to Leatherhead 3 mile, we pass by Sr Robert Howards which I have described. Here is a little town where they make much Leather, and other little trades, many Butchers which supply Epsham. Here it is that the water which sinks away at Swallow hole at Mole under Box Hill which is 7 mile off, and here it Bubbles up in twenty places from a hill, and Compases a great river half a mile off, over which a long bridge of 14 great arches of stone by their Height shews sometimes the water to be very deep. A little farther its so deep as cannot be fforded, here the Channell is not so broad, only four Large Arches. We goe over thence a mile and halfe to Mr Moores ffine house on a hill, its built wth brick and stone Coyned, and the windows Stone, nine sashes to the Garden; the jutting out in the middle is three windows. The top is in a peak painted frisco, and a Cornish round on Each side; a low building Each End Like Wings wth same Cornish Leaded and flower potts on it, wch are the offices on one Side, and Lead to a summer House and backward to the private Entrance, a Court yt you ascend by steps of stone and jron barristers with turnings and halfe paces to the part of ye house in Constant use. The ffront in the Entrance is as the Garden, only here are but Eight windows, only two in the middle jutting the top, and that here you see not those two Low wings. You Enter by the Church yard, noe great Court or roome for it, a very Little court wch on the right hand Leads into ye garden on a banck green walke, to a seate or summer house finely painted and stands on four pillars. Within this Leads into a gravel walk wch goes round ye first Garden. The summer house you might pass through to the same green banck walk, which Leads to a broad Grass walk on the right hand up the hill near a quarter of a mile, Each side planted wth trees, and ye ground some for kitchen gardens orchards hott beds. The top of the hill has two white seates and a summer house, this has white open gates, Large as the walk. Here is a very fine pond runs across the breadth of the gardens and orchards. The Garden at the house is all flatt, much in Grass walks and bancks sett wth green, most yews. There is a great gravel walk to the fountain from the middle of the house, wch is filled by a Long Cannall as broad as the walk; at the farther End is a trion gilt, with a horn wch can blow the water 20 yards. Here are seates on the bancks, and ye ground is set much in Grass walks wth dwarfe greens, which Cutts the grass plotts into four, which are Cutt into fflower deluces and Severall Devices wth paths of Gravell, borders of mould, in which are greens of all sorts, Piramids and then round jnterchangeable. Beyond this is another space as Large, wth a round space wth a Large stone ffigure, and severall Less ffigures of brass in the little squares and strapps of grass, wch was fform'd by Cross and round gravell walks. There is two broad Gravell walks runns aslaunt like two wings from the first garden, as it were parrallel wth the Cannall, and these terminate in a wood wch has a Glide through trees Cut aslant, agreable to the walks to give the view quite to Hampton town.

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Thence to Hampton Court by Kingston 6 mile, all by the park, the palace Enters just by the Thames. On the gate is Lyon, Unicorn and fflower potts, the Starre and garter and Draggon ye thistle and rose Carv'd. Here is a space where the Stables on one side and houses for suttlers for to provide for the servants. The front is in a Demy Circle – At the gates four towers of Brick. Beyond the half moone are two straite buildings in wch are gates, at the Ends two such brick towers, soe you Enter through those four towers. The guard Court on the Left goes to ye old Buildings. On the Right you enter a long paved Entry; on one side are Lodgings, at the End are Cloysters round a Court which has a Large ffountaine in Grass, and at Each Corner a painted post for balls or Statues. The grass is planted round with Lawrell and yew, ffilleroy and Cyprus, cut a round head, and a Piramid. The Cloysters Lead to the royal Staircase which is very Lofty and spacious wth arches for seates, the steps jron railes Carv'd and gilt, the wall black and gold painted wth armory like a wanscoate. Over that is Curious paintings, the twelve Caesars, over that the banquet of the Gods, all at Length, with Ceres over ye side board wth plenty. The rooffe is angells and Cherubims, the ffront on the halfe pace is Julian and the spectre that appear'd to him, in a tent of green, the Curtain drawn soe bold as if real wth gold ffringe. Here you Enter ye guard Chamber adorn'd with pikes, Halberts, Biounetts Daggers and Pistolls and gunns, wth Bandeleers or pouches for amunition, all set in workes and ffigures about the Wanscoate, over ye Chimney Pistolls and Daggers sett like the starre in the garter Thence you go into an anty room hung wth tapestry, thence into ye Common audience roome where was a throne and Cannopy, crimson Damaske with Gold ffringe; the form the same round the roome. Here was King Charles ye firsts Picture on horseback over the mantlepiece. All the rooffes of the roomes are Curiosly painted wth different storyes. Out of this you Enter the Grand state roome which has King Williams Picture at Length on the Mantlepiece, ffine Pictures over all doores and Carvings in wood. The throne and Cannopy here was Scarlet velvet with Rich Gold orrice and window Curtains. Thence into the dineing roome where hangs in ye middle a Chrystall Branch for Candles. Its hung with tapistry, I think its here the Queen of Bohemias Picture is over the Chimney piece – Sophia's mother. The window Curtaines flower'd Crimson Damaske wth gold ffringe; thence the drawing roome wch has a Silver branch in the middle, and sconces and Queen Marys Picture – here is Crimson velvet. Out of this is the presence Chamber wth a Low screen across the roome to keep company off the bed wch is scarlet velvet wth gold orrice and hung wth fine tapistry. Out of ye bedchamber goes the dressing roome hung wth yellow damaske and Chaires the same. Here was the queen mother Dutchess of Yorks Picture over the Chimney, here is a doore into the private Lodgings where there is 2 bed Chambers, one Jndian Embroydery the other a mixt damaske; and Closets and antyroomes to the galleryes and backstaires.

Out of the dressing roome is the Queens Closet, the hangings, Chaires, Stooles and Screen the same, all of satten stitch done in worsteads, beasts, birds, jmages and ffruites all wrought very ffinely by Queen Mary and her maids of honour.

From thence into a Large Long gallery Wanscoated, and pictures of all the Roman warrs on one side, the other side was Large Lofty windows, two marble tables in two peers wth two great open jarrs on Each side, Each table two such; at the End the same for to put potts of orange and mirtle trees in. The window Curtaines and couches or fformes all green and white rich damaske.

Out of this into a Long gallery, plain wanscoate without any adornment, which is for people to waite in, Either of the servants of the houshold or who waites in buissness of the ordinary sort, and here are doores that Lead to the back staires and to private Lodgings. This Leads at the End into the part was design'd for the Kings side, into a noble Gallery wth Curious Pictures of ye scriptures painted by the Carthusion.

The King of Ffrance offer'd 3000 pound apiece for them, or indeed any money. Here are green and white Damaske window Curtaines and Couches as the other was. This Leads to roomes not ffinished in the same number as on the queen's side – one is begun to be painted on the top. The sides of the walls are painted just Like pieces of tapestry here is Prince Georges picture at Length, wth his Dukall Corronet, and an Anchor as High Admirall, and thus to the other roomes, to ye guardroome and Royal Staircase as on the Queens side, but none here ffinish'd. The Leads gives a vast sight all about of the parke and gardens, the ffront of the house to the garden has four Large stone ffigures Hercules, jupiter, Mars, Neptune.

There is a long Cannall runs from the ffront a great way, and a Large ffounttaine next the house in the first garden, wth a broad Gravell and a Cross. till I came almost to Windsor – I drove by some of the fforest and the parke and came in another way into town by ye Castle across K: Charles's Walk. jn the Castle yard is a Little box the queen has bought of Lord Godolphin. The garden joyns to the Duke of St Albans for a little retreate out of ye Palace. You Enter a Brick Court, on the Left is a Little Guard roome, on ye Right a Row of roomes wth Chambers over them for the Kitchen and Pastry and Butteryes, and a Little garden pailed in. Then you go on, and on the Left hand Enter the house into an Entry: on the Left is a little parlour for ye Ladies of honour to dine in, beyond that Back Staires Pantry and a Cistern or Place to Wash things in; by that is the guard roome, under it the Cellars.

On the Right hand is a Large Antyroome for persons to wait, where are Marble tables in ye Peeres between the windows; white damaske window curtaines and cane chaires. Next it is the Dineing roome some stepps down, where was red silk Curtaines Chaires and stooles, and Benches round the roome all red silk, wth same coulld orrice Lace; here was a white marble table behind the doore as a sideboard, and a Clap table under ye Large Looking Glass between the windows. Next this was a drawing roome; both these roomes were hung wth small Jmage tapistry very Lively and ffresh, here was Crimson Damaske window Curtaines, Chaires and stooles. The next was what was Prince George's dressing roome, hung, and window Curtaines Chaires and stooles, all wth yellow damaske, wth marble Chimney pieces as all ye Roomes have of Differing Coullrs black white, grey, rance &c &c. Large Looking-glasses; all the roomes in all ye house is plaine unvarnished oake Wanscoate which Lookes very neate. Wthin the dressing roome is a Closet on one hand, the other side is a Closet yt Leads to a little place wth a seate of Easement of Marble wth sluces of water to wash all down. There is a back doore in ye dressing roome, to a little anty roome with presses, a little Wanscoate table for tea, cards or writeing, so to a back staires; – the Queen's appartment is over it. From ye Greate Staire at the Entrance of the house Lands you in a passage that Enters – the anty roome is Crimson damaske curtains. Great chaire and Stooles and Benches; the same next it. The presence roome here is ffigured Crimson Velvet window Curtaines, Chaires and stooles; here is the Q. A Wife to K. James the First at Length in her Rideing habit, by her horse and three or four Couple of hounds – these were hung wth ffine tapistry as the two below.

Next this was the Queen's bedChamber, hung, the bed, window-curtaines the same, all Rich Crimson Damaske. Here was the screen round the bed as the manner is to all the Souveraignes beds. Over the Chimney was Prince George's Picture and by the side of the bed was the Duke of Glocester's in an oval. Thence into a Dressing-roome hung with Divers Coulld flowered sattin, chaires and stooles the same, ffine fflower'd muslin window curtaines, A fine Little high screen burnt jappan of 4 Leaves, another Chimney screen wth 4 Leaves of the stone work in ffigures – jndian. Out of this was ye Queens Closet just over Prince Georges but yt was Locked. The other side was a little waiting roome to Just such marble seates of Easemt wth the sluces of water as that below was in the Queens bedChamber. Overright ye Entrance of the dressing-roome was another Little Closet with the tea Equipage, and under that was such a Little tea roome within ye drawingroome. Here in the dressing roome was a backway to a little waiting passage, with presses and such little wanscoate tables; this Leads to the back staires where there is one bedchamber. The Queen's appartment ffronts the garden; out of the drawing roome you come on a terrass of Gravell, then descend stepps down a green banck to a large green space that has 4 bench seates painted white; behind them is a Green bank, and a Large space of green on Either end fill'd with trees, Lawrell ffrilleroy, Cyprus, yews, heads a Pirramids, and Mirtles. This is ffenced with jron palasadoes painted, to another garden cut in squares and ffigures, with all sorts of fflowers and greens, which has at ye End a Cut hedge and Leads on to a sort of orchard with dwarfe trees. These gardens and orchards is in Gravel Walks and Long green walks, in variety as such a thing in miniature can admitt.

I drove through another part of Windsor to see a Race run by two ffootemen – an English and Scotch – the fformer a taller Bigger man than the other. The ground Measur'd and Cut even in a round ring was almost four mile; they were to run it round so often as to make up 22 mile, which was the distance between Chareing Cross and Windsor Cross – that was five times quite round and so farre as made up the odd miles and Measure. They ran a round in 25 minutes. I saw them run the first three rounds and halfe another, in an hour and seventeen minutes, and they ffinished it in two hours and a halfe. The English gain'd the second round the start, and kept it at the same distance ye five rounds, and then the Scotchman came up to him and got before him to the post. The Englishman fell down within a few yards of the post. Many hundred pounds were won and lost about it, they ran both very neately, but my judgment Gave it ye Scotchman because he seem'd to save himself to ye Last Push.

I drove home by a fine house of Lord Rawnelaughs, 14 windows in the ffront, a square building – much gardening and Curious they say, but that Ladyes Pride is, none must see them, and soe Drove a ffine Gravell road cut with rows of trees. In a mile you come to a broad open way to Windsor on the Left hand, on the Right to a little house of ye Duchess of Marlboroughs, which is very exact gardens and ffountaines, Cut hedges and Groves, pail'd in; ffrom this house is the ffine Gravell walke continued very broad between high rows of trees – on one hand a ffine Grove of straite trees.

This is three mile to Windsor all a Clear visto to the Castle, to that which is K. Charle's Walke for Shooting, which you Enter by a Broad Pallasadoe-ffences the whole breadth of the road. So at ye other End which is a mile and goes out into the road wch comes ffrom Hampton Court which you Cross into the yards and Courts that lead up into the Castle.

"FINIS."

Editor: Mary Mark Ockerbloom

The list of "Some Places Mentioned" and the Index have been omitted from this online edition. Otherwise, the spelling and organization of the text follow the original.

Editor: Mary Mark Ockerbloom