A Celebration of Women Writers

Pre-1950 Utopias and Science Fiction by Women
An Annotated Reading List of Online Editions

1600 1700 1800 Local Editions 1870 1880 1890
1900 1910 1920 About 1930 1940 1950

Utopias and Science Fiction by Women

Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle (-1673)
Image from Wikipedia

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797-1851)
From a painting by Samuel John Stump, circa 1820.

Marie Corelli, 1855-1924

Lady Florence Dixie (1857-1905)
Image from National Portrait Gallery

Pauline Elizabeth Hopkins, 1859-1930
Image from the Pauline Hopkins Society Website

Rokheya Shekhawat Hossein
(1880 - 1932)
  • Hossein, Rokheya Shekhawat (ca. 1878-1932)
    • Sultana's Dream. Published in English in The Indian Ladies' Magazine, Madras, 1905.
  • Nesbit, E. (Edith), 1858-1924
  • Prescott, Margaret Montague
    • "The Great Sleep Tanks" in The All-Story Magazine, January 1905.
  • Rogers, Bessie Story
  • Young, F. E. Mills (Florence Ethel Mills), 1875-
    • The War of the Sexes. London: John Long, 1905.
  • Austin, Florence Edith
    • "A Missile from Mars" in The Monthly Story Magazine, (vt. The Monthly Story Blue Book), August 1906.
  • Bramson, Karen, 1875-1936
    • Dr. Morel. Originally published in Danish, Denmark: Kobenhavn, 1906; Translated into English by David Stanley Alder as The Case of Dr. Morel, London: A. M. Philpot, 1926; Published in English as Dr. Morel, New York: Greenberg Publishers, 1927; Published in English as Sins of a Paris Doctor, 1950.
  • Gale, Zona, 1874-1938
  • Hilton, Dorothy Adelaide
    • "The Professor's Mistake" in [British] Pearson's Magazine, April 1906.
  • Dougall, L. (Lily), 1858-1923
    • The Christ that is to be by the author of "Pro Christo et ecclesia". New York, The Macmillan company, 1907. vt. Christus Futurus. London: Macmillan, 1907.
  • Murray, Kate
    • The Blue Star, A romance of to-day. London: Grant Richards. 1907.
  • Woods, Margaret L. (Margaret Louisa), 1856-
  • Coleridge, Mary E. (Mary Elizabeth), 1861-1907
    • "The White Women" in Poems by Mary E. Coleridge. London: Elkin Mathews, Vigo Street, 1908.
  • Martin, Nettie Parrish
  • Rath, E. J. [joint pseud. of Brainerd, Edith Rathbone, d. 1922 and Brainerd, Chauncey Corey, 1874-1922]
  • Scrymsour Nichol, Catherine Agnes
    • The Mystery of the North Pole. London: Francis Griffiths, 1908.
  • Clyde, Irene [pseud. & transgender persona of Thomas Baty (1869-1954)]
    • Beatrice the Sixteenth, Being the Personal Narrative of Mary Hatherly, M.B., Explorer and Geographer. London: Bell, 1909.
  • Hamilton, Cicely Mary, 1872-1952
  • Wiggin, Kate Douglas Smith, 1856-1923
  • Austin, Mary Hunter, 1868-1934
    • Outland by Gordon Stairs. London: Murray, 1910; Outland by Mary Austin. New York: Boni and Liveright, 1920.
  • Dewey, Katharine Fay
    • Star People. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1910.
  • Hamilton, Cicely Mary, 1872-1952 and St. John, Christopher (Christopher Marie) [Christabel Marshall]
  • Pollexfen, Muriel Alice
    • The Grey Ghost. London: George Newnes, 1910 (collection of linked stories); also in Adventure, April-September 1911.
    • "Monsieur Fly-by-Night", 1915.
  • Biagi [Lottie F. Ambrose]
  • Butt, Beatrice May
    • The Laws of Leflo. London: John Ouseley, 1911.
  • Gillmore, Inez Haynes, 1873-1970
  • Minnett, Cora
    • The Day after To-morrow. London: F.V. White & Co., Ltd., 1911.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935)
Image from Wikipedia
  • Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, 1860-1935
    • Moving the Mountain. serialized in Forerunner, Vol. II, 1911, pp. 21-; published New York: Charlton Co., 1911.
    • Herland. serialized in Forerunner, Vol VI., 1915. pp. 12-
    • With Her in Ourland . serialized in Forerunner, Vol. VII, 1916. pp. 6-.
    • "A Cabinet Meeting" in Impress, 5 Jan. 1895, pp. 4-5.
    • "The Beauty of the Block" [nonfiction] in the Independent 1904, Vol. 57 (14 July): pp. 67-72.
    • "A Woman's Utopia" in The Times Magazine, 1, Jan-Mar, 1907, pp. 215-220, 369-376, 498-504.
    • "Aunt Mary's Pie Plant" in The Woman's Home Companion, 1908, 6 (June), 14, pp. 48-49.
    • "A Garden of Babies" in Success, 1909, 12 (June), pp. 370-371, 410-411.
    • "What Diantha Did" first appeared in the Forerunner (November 1909-October 1910), reprinted as What Diantha Did New York: Charlton, 1910.
    • "Her Memories" in the Forerunner 1912, Vol. III (August), pp. 197-201.
    • "Maidstone Comfort" in the Forerunner 1912, Vol. III (September), pp. 225-229.
    • "A Strange Land" in Forerunner, Vol III., 1912. pp. 207-208.
    • "Bee Wise" in the Forerunner 1913 Vol. IV. (July), pp. 169-173.
    • "A Council of War" in the Forerunner 1913, Vol. IV. (August), pp. 197-201.
    • "Applepieville" in the Independent 1920, vol. 103 (25 September 1920), pp. 365, 393-95
  • Knowles, Mabel Winifred, 1875-1949
    • A Message from Mars by Lester Lurgan. London: Greening and Co., 1912.
  • Chester, Lillian and Chester, George Randolph, 1869-1924
    • The Ball of Fire by George Randolph Chester and Lillian Chester. New York: Hearst's International Library Co., 1914.
  • Suttner, Bertha von, 1843-1914
  • Dehan, Richard, 1863-1932 [Clotide Inez Mary Graves]
  • Harrison, Eva
    • Wireless Messages from Other Worlds. London: J. N. Fowler, 1915.
  • Albertson, Augusta
  • Fisher, Mary A. (Mary Ann), 1839-
  • Jones, Lillian B.
    • Five Generations Hence. Fort Worth, Texas: Dotson-Jones, 1916.
  • Shapiro, Anna Ratner
  • Wilson, Theodora Wilson, d. 1941
  • Snedeker, Caroline Dale, 1871-1956
  • Brémont, Anna (Dunphy), comtesse de
    • The Black Opal. London: Jarrolds, 1918.
  • Macaulay, Rose, Dame
  • McManus, L. [variously listed as MacManus, L. or McManus, Lily]
    • "The Professor in Ireland", first serialised in the newspaper Sinn Fein, ??; The Professor in Ireland Dublin: M. H. Gill and Son, 1918.
  • Bruère, Martha Bensley, 1879-1953
  • Chapin, Alice Earle
    • "When Dead Lips Speak" in The Thrill Book, 1 August 1919.
  • La Spina, Greye, 1880-1969 [Fanny Greye Bragg]
    • "The Ultimate Ingredient" by Greye La Spina in The Thrill Book 15th Oct., 1919.
  • Tweedsmuir, Susan, 1882- and Buchan, John, 1875-1940 [as 'Harmonia' and 'Cadmus']
    • The Island of Sheep by 'Cadmus' and 'Harmonia'. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1919. [Note: later, a totally different book was published by John Buchan under the same title.]

Gertrude Atherton (1857-1948)
Image from California Writers Club

US copyright status::
Works published before 1923 are in the public domain in the United States, and may be freely reproduced online. As of January 1, 2019, works published in 1923 entered the public domain in the United States, and may be freely reproduced online. As of January 1, 2020, works published in 1924 entered the public domain in the United States, and may be freely reproduced online.

  • Atherton, Gertrude Franklin Horn, 1857-1948 [United States]
    • Black Oxen by Gertrude Atherton. New York: A. L. Burt Co., c1923.
  • Doney, Nina Murnie, 1884-1958 [United States]
    • My Life on Eight Planets, or A Glimpse of Other Worlds . Berkshire, New York: Doney & Cashill, 1923.
  • Hunt, Laura Shellabarger [United States]
  • Thompson, H. Alfarata Chapman (Harriet Alfarata Chapman), -1922 [United States]
  • Coron, Hannah [England]
    • Two Years Hence? London: J. M. Ouseley & Son, Ltd., n.d. [1924].
  • Mills, Dorothy, Lady, 1889- [England]
    • The Arms of the Sun. London: Duckworth, 1924. [Lost race novel set in Africa; Public domain in the USA as of January 1, 2020.]
    • The Dark Gods. London: Duckworth, 1925. [probably not SF, also set in Africa] [GATT restoration?]
    • Phoenix. London: Hutchinson & Co., Ltd., 1926. [immortality through invention] [GATT restoration?]
  • Perkins, Violet Lilian and Hood, Archer Leslie [United States]
    • The Melody from Mars. By Lilian Leslie. [joint pseud.] New York: Authors' International Pub. Co., 1924.
  • Cleghorn, Sarah Norcliffe, 1876-1959 [United States]
  • Pettersen, Rena Oldfield [United States]
    • Venus. Philadelphia: Dorrance & Company, 1924.

US copyright status for works published in 1925 or later:
Works by Authors in the United States: Works published in 1925 or later may still be subject to copyright in the United States, depending on a variety of considerations. Works published from 1925 to 1963 by Americans had to be renewed in their 28th year to retain copyright past their initial 28-year term. Works published in a magazine may have been copyrighted either as part of the magazine, or as independent works. Where I was unable to find a renewal, and believe the work to be in the public domain in the U.S.A., I have marked it [copyright not renewed]. Where I have found a copyright renewal, either for a book or for an article or the magazine issue it appeared in, I have marked it [copyright renewed].

Works by Authors not living in the United States: Some works by authors living outside the United States were exempted from the copyright renewal requirement under GATT, an international agreement in 1947. Where works were published after 1925 and may be affected by GATT, I have noted [GATT restoration?] Death of the author and publication history of the work can also affect GATT restoration. For example, it does not apply to a work if the work was published in the U.S.A. before or within a month of its first appearance elsewhere. In some cases an author's home country may not be known, or an author may have lived in more than one country. Further work would be needed to definitely confirm the status of such works.

  • Chaney, Lenore [United States]
    • "White Man's Madness" (January 1925) in Volume 5, Issue 1 Weird Tales [copyright renewed].
  • Dell, Berenice V. [United States]
    • The Silent Voice. Boston: Four Seas, 1925 [copyright renewed].
  • Murray, V. Torlesse (Violet Torlesse), -1874 [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • The Rule of the Beasts. London: Stanley Paul, 1925.
  • Boswell, Diane [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • Posterity: A Novel. London: Jonathan Cape, 1926.
  • Grant, I. F. (Isabel Frances) [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • A Candle in the Hills. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1926.
  • Haldane, Charlotte Franken, 1894-1969 [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • Man's World. London: Chatto and Windus, 1926.
  • Harbou, Thea von, 1888-1954 [Germany] [GATT restoration?]
    • Metropolis (novel) Berlin: August Scherl, 1926; translation, London: The Reader's Library Publishing Company, 1927; screenplay and film release, 1927.
    • Die Frau im Mond (novel, Berlin: August Scherl, 1928); translation by Baroness von Hutten as The Girl in the Moon, London: Readers Library, 1930; vt. Rocket to the Moon, New York: World Wide Publishing Company, 1930; screenplay and film release as Frau im Mond, vt. Woman in the Moon, 1930.
  • Harris, Clare Winger [United States]
    • "A Runaway World" in Weird Tales, July 1926 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Fate of the Poseidonia" in Amazing Stories, June 1927 [copyright not renewed].
    • "A Certain Soldier" in Weird Tales, November 1927 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Fifth Dimension" in Amazing Stories, December 1928 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Menace From Mars" in Amazing Stories, October 1928 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Miracle of the Lily" in Amazing Stories, April 1928, pp. 48-55 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Artificial Man" in Science Wonder Quarterly, Fall 1929 [copyright not renewed].
    • "A Baby on Neptune" with Miles J. Breuer, M.D. in Amazing Stories, December 1929 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Diabolical Drug" in Amazing Stories, May 1929 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Evolutionary Monstrosity" in Amazing Stories Quarterly, Winter 1929 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Ape Cycle" in Science Wonder Quarterly, Spring 1930 [copyright not renewed].
    • Away from the Here and Now: Stories in Pseudo-Science. Philadelphia: Dorrance, 1947.
  • Jaeger, Muriel, 1892-1969 [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • The Question Mark. London: Leonard & Virginia Woolf at the Hogarth Press, 1926.
    • The Man with Six Senses. London: Leonard and Virginia Woolf's Hogarth Press, 1927.
    • Retreat from Armageddon. London: Duckworth, 1936.
  • Roger, Noëlle, -1874 [aka Pittard, Hélène Dufour] [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • The New Adam by Noelle Roger. London: Stanley Paul & Co. Ltd., 1926.
  • St. John-Loe, Gladys [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • The Door of Beyond. London: Duckworth, 1926.
  • Bower, B. M., 1874-1940 [United States]
    • The Adam Chasers. Boston: Little, Brown, and company, 1927 [copyright renewed].
  • Burdekin, Katharine, 1896-1963 ["Murray Constatine"] [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • The Burning Ring. London: T. Butterworth, 1927.
    • The Rebel Passion by Kay Burdekin. London: T. Butterworth, 1929.
    • Proud Man by Murray Constantine. London: Boriswood, 1934.
    • The Devil, Poor Devil! by Murray Constantine. London: Boriswood, 1934.
    • Swastika Night by Murray Constantine. London: Victor Gollancz Ltd,. 1937.
    • The End of This Day's Business. Written 1935, published New York: The Feminist Press, 1989.
  • Christie, Agatha, 1890-1976 [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • The Big Four. London: Collins, 1927.
  • Crawford, Isabell C.
    • The Tapestry of Time. Boston: The Christopher Publishing House, 1927. [copyright not renewed]
  • Miller, Elizabeth York [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • The Mark of Yekel: a story of mystery, romance and adventure. London: Geoffrey Bles, 1927.
  • Borden, Mary [United States, France, England] [GATT restoration?]
    • Jehovah's Day. London: W. Heinemann, 1928 [copyright renewed].
  • Campbell, Alice, 1887- [United States, France, England] [GATT restoration?]
    • The Juggernaut. First appeared serially in Pall Mall Magazine [Britain], 1927-1928. vt. Juggernaut. Garden City, N.Y.: Published for the Crime Club, Inc., by Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1928. [c. 1928 by Campbell, A. O.; copyright not renewed]
  • Garby, Lee Hawkins [United States]
    • The Skylark of Space with Smith, E. E. (Edward Elmer), 1890-1965
      Originally appeared in serial form in Amazing Stories, August, September and October 1928 [copyright not renewed]
      Revised, in book form, as The Skylark of Space: The Tale of the First Interstellar Cruise. Cranston, R.I., The Southgate Press, Inc. / Buffalo Book Company, 1946. [revisions copyright renewed]
  • Gazella, E. V. [aka Gazella, Edith Virginia] [United States]
    • The Blessing of Azar, A Tale of Dreams and Truth. Boston: Christopher, 1928. [copyright not renewed]
  • Merriman, Effie Woodward, 1857- [United States]
    • Rejuvenated. Minneapolis, Minn., The Midwest Co., c1928 [c. 1928 by Mrs. James C. Fifield; copyright not renewed].
  • Beauclerk, Helen, 1892–1969 [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • The Love of the Foolish Angel. London: Collins, 1929. Illustrator, Edmund Dulac.
  • Bowhay, Bertha Louisa [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • Elenchus Brown: The Story of an Experimental Utopia compiled by a Student of Battersea Polytechnic. Illustrations by Harvey Langdon. London: H.R. Allenson, Limited, 1929.
  • Comstock, Sarah [United States]
    • The Moon Is Made of Green Cheese. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Doran & compan, Inc., 1929 [copyright renewed].
  • Crane, Nathalia [United States]
    • An Alien from Heaven. New York: Coward-McCann, 1929 [copyright renewed].
  • Ellis, Sophia Wenzel [United States]
  • Hansen, L. Taylor (Lucile Taylor) [United States]
    • "The Undersea Tube." in Amazing Stories, November 1929 [copyright not renewed].
    • "What the Sodium Lines Revealed." in Amazing Stories Quarterly, Winter 1929 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The City on the Cloud." in Wonder Stories, October 1930 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Man from Space" in Amazing Stories, February, 1930 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Prince of Liars" in Amazing Stories, October 1930 [copyright not renewed].
  • Irving, Minna, d. 1940 [United States]
  • Lorraine, Lilith, 1894-1967 [aka Wright, Mary Maud Dunn, 1894-1967] [United States]
    • The Brain of the Planet. New York: Stellar Publishing Corp., 1929. Editor Hugo Gernsback. First edition in book form, published as "Science Fiction Series" No. 5. [copyright not renewed].
    • "Into the 28th Century" in Science Wonder Quarterly, 1930, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 250-267, 276 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Jovian Jest" in Astounding Stories of Super-Science, May, 1930 [copyright not renewed].
    • Banners of Victory. Emory University, Atlanta [etc.]: Banner press, c1937 [copyright not renewed].
    • The Avalonian, New Orleans: Lilith Lorraine, 1952. Editor Lilith Lorraine, only issue of magazine. [copyright not renewed].
  • Nisot, Mavis Elizabeth Hocking [aka Penmare, William], 1893-1973. [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • The Man Who Could Stop War by "William Penmare". London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1929.
  • Roy, Lillian Elizabeth, 1868-1932 [United States]
    • The Prince of Atlantis. New York: Educational Press, 1929 [copyright not renewed].
  • Stone, Leslie F. (Leslie Francis), 1905-1991 [United States]
    • When the Sun Went Out. New York: Stellar Publishing Corp., 1929. Editor Hugo Gernsback; Frontis by Frank R. Paul. First edition in book form, published as "Science Fiction Series" No. 4. [copyright not renewed]
    • "Men With Wings" in Air Wonder Stories 1:58-87, July 1929 [copyright not renewed].
    • "Out of the Void." Serialized in Amazing Stories August 1929, Vol. 4, No. 5. [part 1 of 2] and September 1929, Vol. 4, No. 6. [part 2 of 2]; [copyright not renewed]. Expanded version published in 1967 as a stand-alone novel.
    • "Letter of the Twenty-fourth Century" in Amazing Stories, December 1929, Vol. 4, No. 9. [copyright not renewed].
    • "Women With Wings" in Air Wonder Stories 1:985-1003, May 1930. Sequel to "Men With Wings" [copyright not renewed].
    • "Through the Veil" in Amazing Stories 5:174-181, May 1930, Vol. 5, No. 2., pp. 174-180 [copyright not renewed].
    • "Across the Void" in Amazing Stories 5:6-27 + 142-86, April, 1931 [part 1 of 3]; Amazing Stories, May 1931 [part 2 of 3]; Amazing Stories, June 1931 [part 3 of 3]. Illustrated by H. W. Wesso. Sequel to Out of the Void. [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Conquest of Gola" in Wonder Stories, April 1931 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Hell Planet" in Wonder Stories, June 1932 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Man Who Fought a Fly" in Amazing Stories, October 1932, pp. 610-621 [copyright not renewed].
    • "Gulliver, 3000 A.D." in Wonder Stories, May 1933 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Rape of the Solar System" in Amazing Stories, December 1934 [copyright not renewed].
    • "When the Flame-Flowers Blossomed" in Weird Tales, November 1935. [copyright not renewed]. Reprinted in The Avon Science Fiction Reader No. 2, Edited by Donald A. Wollheim, New York: Avon Novels, Inc., 1951.
    • "Cosmic Joke" in Wonder Stories, January 1935 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Man With the Four Dimensional Eyes" in Wonder Stories, August 1935 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Fall of Mercury" in Amazing Stories, December 1935 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Human Pets of Mars" in Amazing Stories 10:83-120, October, 1936 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Great Ones" in Astounding Stories, July 1937 [copyright renewed]: Copyright was renewed for the periodical Astounding Stories for 1937; it therefore applies to "The Great Ones".
    • "Death Dallies Awhile" in Weird Tales, June 1938 [copyright not renewed].
    • "Gravity Off!" in Future Fiction, July 1940 [copyright not renewed].
  • West, Rebecca, 1892-1963 [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • Harriet Hume: A London Fantasy. London, Hutchinson & co., Ltd., 1929.

Ellen Olney Kirk (1842-1928)
Image from Farmer, Lydia Hoyt. ed. The National Exposition Souvenir: What America Owes to Woman. Chicago: Charles Wells Moulton, 1893.
  • Black, Pansy E. (Pansy Ellen), 1890-1957 [United States]
    • The Valley of the Great Ray. New York: Stellar Publishing Co, 1930. Editor Hugo Gernsback. First edition in book form, published as "Science Fiction Series" No. 11. [copyright not renewed].
    • The Men from the Meteor. New York: Stellar Publishing Co, 1932. Editor Hugo Gernsback. First edition in book form, published as "Science Fiction Series" No. 13. [copyright not renewed].
  • Eberle, Merab, 1891-1959 [United States]
    • "The Mordant" in Amazing Stories, March 1930, pp. 1181-1184.
    • The Thought Translator. New York: Stellar Publishing Co, 1930. Editor Hugo Gernsback. First edition in book form, published as "Science Fiction Series" No. 9. [copyright not renewed]. (Published with "The Creation" by Milton Mitchell.)
  • Long, Amelia Reynolds, 1904-1978 [United States]
    • The Mechanical Man. New York: Stellar Publishing Co, 1930. Editor Hugo Gernsback. First edition in book form, published as "Science Fiction Series" No. 7. [copyright not renewed]. (Published with "The Thought Stealer" by Frank Bourne.)
    • "A Leak in the Fountain of Youth" by A. R. Long. in Astounding Stories, August 1936 [issue copyright renewed].
    • "Cosmic Fever" by A. R. Long. in Astounding Stories, February 1937 [issue copyright renewed].
    • "Reverse Phylogeny" in Astounding Stories, June 1937 [issue copyright renewed].
    • "Bride of the Antarctic" by "Mordred Weir" in Strange Stories, June 1939, pp. 72-76. [issue copyright renewed].
  • Ludwick, Kathleen [United States]
  • Rice, Louise Guest and Tonjoroff-Roberts [United States]
  • Rupert, M. F. [United States]
  • Saltoun, M[ary Helena] [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • After. London: Duckworth, 1930.
  • Stephens, I. M. [aka Clark, Inga Marie Stephens Pratt] with Pratt, Fletcher
    • "The Pineal Stimulator" in Amazing Stories, November 1930 [copyright not renewed]
    • "A Voice Across the Years" in Amazing Stories Quarterly, Winter 1932 (later expanded as Alien Planet)
    • See ISFDB for further titles.
  • Tillyard, Aelfrida, 1883-1959 [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • Concrete: A Story of Two Hundred Years Hence. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1930.
    • The Approaching Storm. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1932.
  • Vassos, Ruth, 1893- [United States]
    • Ultimo: An Imaginative Narration of Life Under the Earth. New York: E.P. Dutton & Company, Inc., 1930. Illustrated by Art Deco painter John Vassos [copyright renewed].
  • Kirk, Ellen Olney, 1842-1928 [United States]
    • A Woman's Utopia, by a Daughter of Eve. London: Ernest Benn, 1931. Published posthumously [copyright not renewed].
  • Lee, Norman, Mrs.
    • A Woman -- or What? London: Alston Rivers, 1931.
  • Stuart, G., Mrs.
    • On the Shores of the Infinite. London: Simpkin Marshall, Ltd., Norwich: Jarrold & Sons, Ltd., 1931.
  • Heald, Hazel, 1896-1961 [United States] [revision client of H. P. Lovecraft]
    • "The Man of Stone", in Wonder Stories, October 1932, Volume 4, No. 5, 440-45, 470 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Horror in the Museum", in Weird Tales, July 1933, 22, No. 1, 49-68 [issue copyright renewed].
    • "Winged Death", in Weird Tales, March 1934, 23, No. 3, 299-315 [copyright not renewed].
    • "Out of the Aeons", in Weird Tales, April 1935, 25, No. 4, 478-496 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Horror in the Burying-Ground", in Weird Tales, May 1937, 29, No. 5, 596-606 [copyright not renewed].
  • Holden, Inez, 1906-1974 [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • Born Old, Died Young. London, Duckworth, 1932.
  • Cost, March, -1973 [aka Morrison, Margaret Mackie] [Scotland] [GATT restoration?]
    • A Man Named Luke. London: Collins, 1932; New York, A.A. Knopf, 1933 [copyright renewed].
    • The Dark Glass. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1935 [copyright renewed].
    • The Dark Star. New York: The Vanguard Press, Inc., 1939 [copyright not renewed].
    • The Bespoken Mile. London: Collins, 1950; New York: Vanguard Press 1959 [copyright renewed].
  • Brash, Margaret Maud [aka Kendell, John], 1880-1965 [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • Unborn Tomorrow. London: W. Collins Sons & Co. Ltd., 1933.
  • Moore, C. L. (Catherine Lucile), 1911- [United States] [C. L. Moore generally renewed her copyrights.]
    • "Shambleau" in Weird Tales, November 1933 [story copyright renewed].
    • "Julhi" in Weird Tales, March 1935. [story copyright renewed]
    • "Nymph of Darkness" with Forest Ackerman in Fantasy Magazine, April 1935 [copyright not renewed].
    • "Yvala" in Weird Tales, February 1936 [copyright not renewed].
    • "Lost Paradise" in Weird Tales, July 1936 [copyright not renewed].
    • "The Tree of Life" in Weird Tales, October 1936 [copyright not renewed].
    • "Quest of the Starstone" with Forest Ackerman in Weird Tales, November 1937 [copyright not renewed].
    • "Werewoman" with Harry Kuttner in Leaves #2, 1938 [copyright not renewed].
    • "Song in a Minor Key" in Scienti-Snap, February 1940 [copyright not renewed].
    • "No Woman Born" in Astounding Science Fiction, December 1944 [copyright renewed].
  • Curtis, Monica, 1892- [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • Landslide. London: V. Gollancz, 1934.
  • Broster, D. K. (Dorothy Kathleen), 1877-1950 [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • World Under Snow. London: Heinemann, 1935.
  • Cross, Victoria [aka Cory, Vivian] [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • Martha Brown, M.P.: A Girl of Tomorrow. London: F. Werner Laurie, 1935.
  • Ertz, Susan [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • Woman Alive. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1935.
  • Gresswell, Elise Kay [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • When Yvonne Was Dictator. London: John Heritage, 1935.
  • Meynell, Esther [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • Time's Door. London: Chapman & Hall, 1935.
  • O'Nair, Mairi [Canada, England] [GATT restoration?]
    • The Girl with the X-Ray Eyes. London: Mills and Boon, 1935.
  • Owens, Claire Myers, 1896-1983 [United States]
    • The Unpredictable Adventure: A Comedy of Woman's Independence (Utopianism and Communitarianism) by Claire Myers Spotswood. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1935. copyright renewed]
  • Jameson, Storm, 1891-1986 [aka Lamb, William] [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • In the Second Year. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1936; London: Cassell & Company Ltd, 1936.
    • The World Ends by William Lamb. London: J. M. Dent, 1937.
    • Then We Shall Hear Singing: A Fantasy in C Major. London: Cassell & Company, 1942; New York, The Macmillan company, 1942. [copyright renewed]
    • The Moment of Truth. London: Macmillan, 1949; New York, The Macmillan company, 1949.
  • Stevenson, D. E. (Dorothy Emily), 1892-1973 [Scotland] [GATT restoration?]
    • The Empty World: A Romance of the Future. London: H. Jenkins, ltd., 1936; vt. A world in spell. New York, Farrar & Rinehart, inc., 1939.
  • Adam, Ruth, 1907-1977 [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • War on Saturday Week. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1937; London: Chapman & Hall, 1937.
  • Frankau, Pamela, 1908-1967 [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • Some New Planet. London: John Lane, 1937.
  • Von Ravn, Clara, 1870- [aka Von Ravn, Clara Iza, 1870-1942] [United States]
  • De Forest, Eleanor [United States]
    • Armageddon; A Tale of the Antichrist. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1938. [copyright not renewed.]
  • Morris, Martha Marlowe and Speer, Laura B. [United States]
    • No Borderland. Dallas: Mathis, Van Nort & Company, 1938. [copyright not renewed].
  • Newton, Bertha [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • My Life in Time. London: C.W. Daniel Company, 1938.
  • Quick, Dorothy, 1900-1962 [United States]
    • Strange Awakening. New York: House of Field, Inc. Publishers, 1938. [copyright not renewed].
  • Raleigh, Hilary Mason, 1893- [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • The Machinations of Dr. Grue. London: Geoffrey Bles, 1938.
  • Weinbaum, Helen [aka Kasson, Helen] [United States]
    • "Tidal Moon" with Stanley G. Weinbaum in Thrilling Wonder Stories December 1938. [Issue copyright renewed]
    • "Honeycombed Satellite" in Thrilling Wonder Stories, July 1940. [Issue copyright renewed]
    • "The Radium-Bugs" in Super Science Stories, September 1940. [Issue copyright renewed]
    • "Bargain with Colossus" in Science Fiction, Vol. 2 No. 4, March 1941. [copyright not renewed]
    • "The Genius Bureau" in Future Fiction, Vol. 1, No. 5, April 1941. [copyright not renewed]
    • "Devil Dogs of Space" in Science Fiction, Vol. 2, No. 6, September 1941. [copyright not renewed]
    • "Double Destiny" in Science Fiction Quarterly, No. 2, Winter 1941. [copyright not renewed]
  • Farnsworth, Mona [aka Newhall, Muriel] (ca.1904-ca.1981)
  • Garfield, Frances [aka Wellman, Frances Obrist; Wellman, Manley Wade, Mrs.]
    • "The High Places" in Weird Tales April 1939, pp. 123-127. [copyright not renewed]
    • See ISFDB for further titles.
  • Howorth, Muriel [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • This Is Armageddon. London: Arthur H. Stockwell, Limited, 1939.
  • Pargeter, Edith, 1913-1995 [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • The City Lies Four-Square: A Novel. London: William Heinemann, 1939.
  • Spiers, Hetty and Langford Reed, Herbert [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • The Mantle of Methuselah: A Farcical Novel. London: Rich & Cowan, 1939.
  • Uttley, Alison, 1884-1976 [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • A Traveller in Time. London: Faber and Faber, ltd., 1939.

Fannie Hurst (1889-1968)
Photograph by Carl Van Vechten,
from Wikimedia Commons.
  • Metlova-Kearns, Maria [aka Hathaway, Louise] [United States]
    • The Enchanted Hour by Louise Hathaway. San Francisco: John J. Newbegin, 1940. [copyright not renewed].
  • O'Hearn, Marian [aka Allen, Anita] [United States]
  • Brackett, Leigh [United States]
    • "Martian Quest" in Astounding Science Fiction, February 1940. [Issue copyright renewed]
    • "Water Pirate" in Super Science Stories, Vol. 2, No. 2, January 1941, pp. 35-45. [Issue copyright renewed]
    • "The Halfling" in Astonishing Stories, Vol. 4, No. 3, February 1943. [Issue copyright renewed]
    • See UNZ.org for further publications and Wikipedia for additional titles.
  • Rice, Jane [United States]
  • Livingston, Marjorie Prout [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • The Future of Mr. Purdew: A Novel. London: Wright & Brown, Ltd., 1941.
  • Ronan, Margaret [United States]
  • Perri, Leslie [aka Baumgardt, Doris Marie Claire] [United States]
    • "Space Episode" in Future combined with Science Fiction, Volume 2, number 2, December 1941. [copyright not renewed]
    • "In the Forest" in If (Worlds of If Science Fiction) Vol 2, No 4., September 1953. [copyright not renewed]
    • "Under the Skin" in Infinity Science Fiction, June 1956; vt. The Untouchables in New Worlds Science Fiction, #49 July 1956. [copyright not renewed]
  • Rosmond, Babette (1917-1997)
    • "Are You Run-Down, Tired-" by Babette Rosmond Lake with Leonard M. Lake in Unknown Worlds, October 1942 [issue copyright renewed].
    • "One Man's Harp" in Unknown Worlds, August 1943 [issue copyright renewed].
    • "Error Hurled" in Science Fiction Discoveries New York: Bantam Books, 1976 [copyright renewal not required]
    • See ISFDB for further titles.
  • Hull, Edna Mayne [United States]
    • "The Flight That Failed" vt. "Rebirth: Earth" by E. M. Hull and/or A. E. van Vogt in Astounding Science Fiction, Vol 30, No 4, December 1942. [Issue copyright renewed]
    • See Wikipedia for additional titles.
  • Dardanelle, Louise
    • World Without Raiment, A Fantasy. New York: Valiant, 1943. [copyright not renewed]
  • Thomas, Doris [aka Vancel, Doris]
    • "The Bracelet" in Fantastic Adventures, April 1943 [copyright not renewed]
  • Brown, Beth
    • Universal Station. New York: Regent House, 1944. [copyright not renewed]
  • Deegan, Frances M.
  • Law, Winifred [Australia] [GATT restoration?]
    • Through Space to the Planets Sydney: New Century Press, 1944.
    • Rangers of the Universe Sydney: New Century Press, 1945.
  • Page, P. K. (Patricia Kathleen), 1916-2010 [aka Cape, Judith] [England, Canada] [GATT restoration?]
    • The Sun and the Moon by Judith Cape. New York: Creative Age Press, 1944.
    • "Unless the Eye Catch Fire", written 1972, published in The Malahat Review #50, Special Issue, "The West Coast Renaissance II", April 1979.
  • Davy, Catherine Amelia [United States]
    • After the Clouds. New York, NY: House of Field-Doubleday, 1945. [copyright not renewed]
  • Hessenstein, Gabrielle, Countess [Hungary] [GATT restoration?]
    • Monkey Paradise: A Tale of the Jungle. London: Methuen & Co, 1945.
  • Hurst, Fannie, 1889-1968 [United States]
    • The Hands of Veronica. London: Jonathan Cape, 1945; London & New York: 1947. American copyright registered 22Jan47; renewed 25Jan74 [copyright renewed]
    • See UNZ.org for further publications
  • Kavan, Anna, 1901-1968 [France, England] [GATT restoration?]
    • I Am Lazarus . London: Jonathan Cape Ltd., 1945. First published in USA with Asylum Piece, 1946.
    • See UNZ.org for further publications and Wikipedia for additional titles.
  • Lurie, June
    • "New Faces for Sale" (essay) in Fantastic Adventures, July 1946 [copyright not renewed]
    • "Unwilling Exile" (story) in Fantastic Adventures, February 1950 [copyright not renewed]
    • See UNZ.org for further publications and ISFDB for further titles.
  • Stevens, Gale [United States]
  • de Courcy, Dorothy and de Courcy, John [United States]
    • "Don't Mention It!" in Amazing Stories, May 1946, pp. 134-148. [copyright not renewed]
    • "Foundling on Venus" in Fantastic Universe, March 1954 [copyright not renewed]
    • See ISFDB for further titles.
  • De Ford, Miriam Allen, 1888-1975 [United States]
    • "The Last Generation?" in Harper's, November 1946 [copyright renewed], reprinted in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, Winter-Spring 1950, reprinted in collection Xenogenesis, March 1969.
    • See ISFDB for further titles.
  • Du Bois, Theodora, 1890- [United States]
    • Murder Strikes an Atomic Unit. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1946. [copyright renewed]
    • High Tension. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1950. [copyright renewed]
    • Solution T-25. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1951. [copyright renewed]
  • Chetwynd, Bridget [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • Future Imperfect. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1946.
  • Holmberg, Millicent [United States]
    • "To Whom It May Concern" in Amazing Stories, June 1946, pp. 118-127. [copyright not renewed]
  • Ferris, Fran [United States]
  • Norton, Andre
  • Rogers, Margaret [United States]
    • "I Have Been in the Caves" in Amazing Stories, January 1947, pp. 8-27. [copyright not renewed]
  • St. Clair, Margaret [United States]
  • Bayliss, Marguerite F. (Marguerite Farlee), 1895- [United States]
    • Earth Eagles. New York: Henry Holt & Co.:, 1947. [copyright renewed]
  • Barnard, Marjorie, 1897-1987 and Eldershaw, Flora, 1897-1956 [Australia] [GATT restoration?]
    • Tomorrow & Tomorrow & Tomorrow by M. Barnard Eldershaw. Melbourne, Australia: Georgian House, 1947.
  • Yerxa, Frances [aka Hamling, Frances Deegan]
    • "Negative Problem" in Amazing Stories, August 1947 [copyright not renewed]
    • "One More Spring" in Amazing Stories, September 1947 [copyright not renewed]
    • "I Wake Up Dreaming" in Fantastic Adventures, June 1948 [copyright not renewed]
    • See UNZ.org for further publications and ISFDB for further titles.
  • Ben, Lisa [Pseudonym; anagram of "lesbian"] [United States]
  • Bradley, Marion Zimmer
    • "Outpost" in Spacewarp (fanzine), December, 1948, reprinted in Amazing Stories, December 1949
    • "Keyhole" and "Women Only" in Vortex Science Fiction, winter 1953 [copyright not renewed]
    • "Year of the Big Thaw" in Fantastic Universe, May 1954 [copyright not renewed]
    • "The Planet Savers" in Amazing Stories, November, 1958 [copyright not renewed]
    • The Door Through Space New York: Ace Books, Inc., 1961.
    • The Colors of Space Derby, Connecticut: Monarch Books, Inc., 1963.
    • See ISFDB for further titles.
  • Burton, Elizabeth, 1908- [aka Kerby, Susan Alice] [England, Canada] [GATT restoration?]
    • The Roaring Dove by Susan Kerby, New York: Dodd, Mead, 1948. vt. Gone to Grass by Susan Alice Kerby. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1948.
    • Mr. Kronion: A Novel by Susan Alice Kerby. London: Werner Laurie Ltd., 1949.
  • Chapin, Maud Hudnut, 1872- [United States]
    • The Lost Star and Other Stories. Portland, Me.: Falmouth Pub. House, 1948. [copyright not renewed]
  • Claire, Molly
    • "Peril in Dragonia" in Fantastic Adventures, April 1949 [copyright not renewed]
  • Craigie, Dorothy, 1901- [aka Glover, Dorothy; Craigie, David] [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • The Voyage of the Lunar I by "David Craigie". London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1948.
    • Dark Atlantis by "David Craigie". London: Heinemann, 195l.
  • Hill, Dorothy
    • The Little Blue Man. London, New York: Skeffington & Son., 1948.
  • Jackson, Shirley, 1916-1965 [United States]
    • "The Lottery" in The New Yorker, 26 June 1948 [issue copyright renewed]
    • "One Ordinary Day, With Peanuts" in The Magazine of fantasy and science fiction January 1955 [issue copyright renewed RE0000151333]
    • The Sundial New York: Farrar, Straus and Cudahy, 1958 [copyright renewed RE292463]
    • See ISFDB for other works.
  • Merril, Judith, 1923-1997 [United States]
    • "That Only a Mother" in Astounding June 1948. [issue copyright renewed]
    • See ISFDB for additional titles.
  • Shiras, Wilmar H. [United States]
  • Cradock, Fanny, 1909-1994 [England] [GATT restoration?]
    • Gateway to Remembrance. London: Andrew Dakers, 1949.
    • The Eternal Echo. London: Andrew Dakers, 1950.
  • Easton, Norma Lazell [United States]
    • "The Avenger" in Amazing Stories, November 1949 [copyright not renewed]
  • MacLean, Katherine
    • "Defense Mechanism" in Astounding, October, 1949 [issue copyright renewed]
    • "And Be Merry..." in Astounding, February 1950 [issue copyright renewed]
    • "Incommunicado" in Astounding, June 1950 [issue copyright renewed]
    • "Contagion" in Galaxy, October 1950 (first issue of Galaxy) [issue copyright renewed]
  • Short, Gertrude, 1902-1968 [United States]
    • A Visitor from Venus. New York: William-Frederick Press, 1949. [copyright not renewed]
  • Sutton, Paralee Sweeten [United States]
    • White City: A Novel. Palo Alto, Calif.: Palopress, 1949. [copyright not renewed]

Carol Emshwiller
from Wikimedia Commons.
  • Standish, Lynn [United States]
    • "Joyboy - 3000!" in Fantastic Adventures, February 1950 [copyright not renewed]
    • See UNZ.org for further publications and ISFDB for further titles.
  • Jacobs, Sylvia [United States]
  • Henderson, Zenna [United States]
    • "Come On, Wagon!" in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, December 1951 [issue copyright renewed RE0000035496]
    • See ISFDB for further titles.
  • Brown. Florence Verbell
  • Buck, Doris Pitkin [United States]
    • "Aunt Agatha" in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, October 1952 [issue copyright renewed RE0000068554]
    • See ISFDB for further titles.
  • Chase, Helen Reid [United States]
    • "Night of Fire" in The Avalonian, New Orleans: Lilith Lorraine, 1952. Editor Lilith Lorraine. [only issue of magazine] [copyright not renewed].
  • Clingerman, Mildred McElroy [United States]
    • "Minister Without Portfolio" in Invaders of Earth edited by Groff Conklin. New York: The Vanguard Press, Inc., 1952. [copyright renewed]
    • See ISFDB for further titles.
  • Drussaï, Garen [United States]
    • "Extra-Curricular" in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, August 1952 [issue copyright renewed RE0000068552]
    • "Grim Fairy Tale" in Vortex Science Fiction, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1953 [copyright not renewed]
    • "The Closet" in Vortex Science Fiction, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1953 [copyright not renewed]
    • "The Twilight Years" with Kirk Drussaï, in If, June 1955 [copyright not renewed]
    • Woman's Work (1956) in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, August 1956 [issue copyright renewed RE0000216995]
  • Hamm, T. D. [aka Evans, Thelma Hamm; Evans, Mrs. E. E.] [United States]
    • "The Last Supper" in If, September 1952 [copyright not renewed]
    • "Native Son" in Imagination, July 1953 [copyright not renewed]
    • See ISFDB for further titles.
  • Griffith, Ann Warren [United States]
    • "Captive Audience" in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, August 1953 [issue copyright renewed RE0000108876]
  • McCaffrey, Anne [United States]
    • "Freedom of the Race" in Science-Fiction Plus, October, 1953. [copyright not renewed]
    • See ISFDB for further titles.
  • Emshwiller, Carol [United States]
    • "Built for Pleasure" in Long Island Suburban, November 1954 [copyright not renewed]
    • "This Thing Called Love" in Future Science Fiction, #28, Dec 1955 [copyright not renewed]
    • See ISFDB for further titles.
  • Jones, Alice Eleanor [United States]
    • "Life, Incorporated" in Fantastic Universe, April 1955 [copyright not renewed]
    • "Created He Them" in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, June 1955 [issue copyright renewed RE0000181346]
    • "Miss Quatro" in Fantastic Universe, June 1955 [copyright not renewed]
    • "Recruiting Officer" in Fantastic, October 1955 [copyright not renewed]
    • "The Happy Clown" in If, December 1955 [copyright not renewed]
  • Urban, Helen W.
    • "Pass the Salt" in Science Fantasy, April 1955 [copyright not renewed]
    • "The Glory of Ippling" in Galaxy, December 1962 [copyright not renewed]
    • See ISFDB for further titles.
  • Downe, Kathleen [United States]
    • "Why Not a Woman?" (essay) in Authentic Science Fiction Monthly, #57 May 1955 [copyright not renewed]
  • Wilhelm, Kate, (debut 1956) [United States]
    • "The Pint-Size Genie" in Fantastic, October 1956 [copyright renewed RE0000229524]
    • See ISFDB for further titles.
  • Reed, Kit [United States]
  • Ashwell, Pauline [aka Whitby, Pauline] [United States]
  • Gotlieb, Phyllis, 1926-2009 [aka Gotlieb, Phyllis Fay Bloom] [United States]
    • "A Grain of Manhood" in Fantastic Science Fiction Stories, September 1959 [copyright not renewed]
    • See ISFDB for further titles.
  • Russ, Joanna, 1937-2011 [United States]
    • "Nor Custom Stale" in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, September 1959 [issue copyright renewed RE0000362926]
    • See ISFDB for further titles.

Ursula K. Le Guin
from Wikimedia Commons.
  • Armock, Mary [United States]
    • "First Born" in Fantastic Science Fiction Stories, February 1960 [copyright not renewed]
  • Dorman, Sonya, 1924-2005 [aka Sonya Dorman Hess] [United States]
    • "Harry the Tailor" in Cosmopolitan, 1961 [issue copyright renewed] except for October and November.
    • "The Putnam Tradition" in Amazing Stories, January 1963 [copyright not renewed]
    • See ISFDB for further titles.
  • Anderson, Karen, 1932- [United States]
  • Constant, Barbara [United States]
  • Le Guin, Ursula K., 1929-2018 [United States]
    • "April in Paris" in Fantastic Stories of Imagination, September 1962 [copyright renewed RE0000648874]
    • See ISFDB for further titles.
  • Tiptree, James, Jr., 1915-1987 [aka Sheldon, Alice] [United States]
    • "Birth of a Salesman", in Analog, 1968 [copyright renewal not required]
    • "Fault" in Fantastic, August 1968 [copyright renewal not required]
    • See ISFDB for further titles.

Local Editions

Texts are listed chronologically, with multiple works by the same author grouped together in order of appearance. I've tried to give publication information for the first appearance of each book, but may not have found both American and British editions. If you don't find something where you expect to see it, try searching for part of the title or the author's name.

Author names are listed in bold according to the Library of Congress' authority controlled form of the name, where one is available. Unauthorized forms, or additional information not in the authorized form, appear without boldface. Where the title page shows that a work appeared under a variant form or pseudonym, that original attribution follows the title: e.g. "A Vision of our Country in the Year 1900" by "Miss J. A. E." Where a work was co-written with a man, it is listed under the woman's name first, and the attribution following the title indicates the original publication order of the authors.

I have listed several works which often appear in bibliographies of women's works, but whose attribution to a women is questionable, using a grey font to distinguish them from the rest of the list, and indicating their probable authorship. I've also grey-fonted male co-authors, to make it easier to distinguish between actual male authors and women's pseudonyms.

I've concentrated on pre-1925 works which are no longer under copyright. For works published from January 1925 to December 1963, U.S. copyright renewal requirements take effect. Works by women become more frequent after 1924, but are also less likely to be in the public domain and available online due to copyright.

Copyright information given here relates to copyright laws of the United States of America: Copyright laws in other countries are different. Also, while I have tried to accurately document copyright status based on renewal information, it is always possible that I have missed something. If you are interested in reprinting the works listed here, be sure to do your own checking first!

I would like to thank L.Timmel Duchamp for Science Fiction and Utopias by Women, 1818-1949: A Chronology, which inspired me to start this list. I found additional useful information in

Note that some of these authors may have included a broader range of utopian materials than I have chosen to include in this list.

Editor: Mary Mark Ockerbloom