A Celebration of Women Writers


The Book of Sun-dials.
By Mrs. Alfred Gatty [aka Margaret Scott Gatty] (1809-1873).
Enlarged and re-edited by H. K. F. Eden (1846-) and Eleanor Lloyd (fl.1900).
London: George Bell & Sons, 1900. Fourth edition.



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THE BOOK OF SUN-DIALS
Fugit Hora Ora



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THE BOOK OF SUN-DIALS



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Nicholas Kratzer
from the Portrait by Holbein in the Louvre



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THE BOOK OF

SUN-DIALS

ORIGINALLY COMPILED BY THE LATE

MRS. ALFRED GATTY

 

NOW ENLARGED AND RE-EDITED BY

H. K. F. EDEN AND ELEANOR LLOYD

 

LONDON: GEORGE BELL AND SONS

MDCCCC



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Original edition published 1872.
Second edition, revised, 1889.
Third edition, enlarged, 1890.
Fourth edition, re-arranged and enlarged, 1900.

CHISWICK PRESS: CHARLES WHITTINGHAM AND CO.
TOOKS COURT, CHANCERY LANE, LONDON.



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[ORIGINAL DEDICATION]

TO THE DEAR HUSBAND
TO WHOM I AM INDEBTED FOR THE BEST HAPPINESS OF
THE HOURS OF EARTHLY LIFE,
AND WITH WHOM I HOPE TO SHARE THE EXISTENCE
IN WHICH
TIME SHALL BE NO MORE,
I DEDICATE THIS VOLUME,
IN THE COMPILATION OF WHICH HE HAS TAKEN SO GREAT
A PART AND INTEREST.
M. G.


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PREFACE

THE original edition of this Book of Sun-dials was written by my Mother, Mrs. Alfred Gatty. It was published in 1872, only a year before her death; but she had begun the work many years previously, whilst she was still unmarried, and living with her father, the Rev. Alexander J. Scott, D.D., Vicar of Catterick.

During the last few years of her life she was unable to travel much, owing to illness, but the number of her dials continued to increase, thanks to the kindness of friends, who sent additions to her unique collection from different parts of the world.

In Mrs. Gatty's Preface she specially mentioned one dear friend, "without whom it is probable that the work would never have appeared – Miss Eleanor Lloyd. To her the reader is indebted for by far the greater number of the continental mottoes, and for much of the pleasant notices which accompany them, as well as for general, unwearied enthusiasm in her researches. Being an artist too, she has adopted the habit which we ourselves had pursued, for so many years, and made sketches of all the dials she saw, both at home and abroad."

These introductory details will explain a further quotation from Mrs. Gatty's words:

"The present collection of dials, with their mottoes, was begun about the year 1835. Perhaps the presence of a curious old dial over our church porch (Catterick), with something like a punning motto, Fugit hora, ora, may have had somewhat to do with originating the idea. Also at the home of some dear friends, a few miles off, the porch of their picturesque little church (Wycliffe) on the banks of the Tees, bore another inscription, Man fleeth as a shadow. A third motto surmounted an archway in a stable-yard (Kiplin), Mors de die accelerat. A fourth was over the door of a cottage in a village (Brompton-on-Swale), bearing the warning words, Vestigia nulla retrorsum, which shone out in gold and colour amidst evergreens. Here lived the venerable sister of a canon of Lincoln, which may perhaps account for the presence of the dial. A fifth looked out from the depths of pyracanthus on a house



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at Middleton-Tyas, hinting to callers not to waste the precious hour, with its Maneo nemini; while last, and not least in our esteem, stood the touching inscription, Eheu, fugaces! on a pillar dial outside the drawing-room at Sedbury Hall, Yorkshire, where it betokened the scholarly character of the hospitable owner. These six mottoes (all, somewhat remarkably, in one neighbourhood) made an admirable beginning of a list which soon swelled to twenty or thirty pages by taking a wide circuit, and with the assistance of the contributions of friends. And thus the matter went on from more to more; but the great impulse was given when the friend alluded to in the preface, undertook to collect in the south of France and Italy, a fair field indeed and one even yet imperfectly explored. As to these dial mottoes, there are perhaps as many differences of opinion, as there are differences of character, in those who read them. We, who have studied them for so many years, feel with Charles Lamb, that they are often "more touching than tombstones," while to other people they seem flat, stale, and unprofitable. One correspondent describes them as a 'compendium of all the lazy, hazy, sunshiny thoughts of men past, present, and in posse,' and says, 'the burden of all their songs is a play upon sunshine and shadow.' But this is no fair description; the poet's words:

'Liberal applications lie
In art as nature,'
have never been more fully realized than in the teachings which have arisen from dials, as we trust the following pages will prove beyond a doubt. So far from the burden of all their songs being a play upon sunshine and shadow, one of the most fertile subjects of thought is the sun's power, as being his own timekeeper, which he certainly is, whilst the mottoes constantly assert the fact.

"The sun describes his own progress on the dial-plate as clearly as he paints pictures on the photographer's glass – human art assisting in both cases. Solis et artis opus, says the dial in a street at Grasse, near Cannes – somewhat baldly, perhaps. More refined is the Non sine lumine of Leadenhall Street; and perhaps higher still the Non nisi coelesti radio, of Haydon Bridge. Non rego, nisi regar is the modest avowal of another dial in a street at Uppingham, acknowledging itself to be but an instrument governed by an overruling power. And these are but a few of the many 'applications' the poet speaks of."

After my mother's death (1873) Miss Eleanor Lloyd and I continued to collect notes on dials, with the result that in 1889 we published a second edition of the book nearly twice as large as the first. This was followed, in 1890, by a reprint, to which new mottoes and other



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matter were added; but as these had to take the form of Addenda the arrangement was not satisfactory, and we are glad now to be able to bring out a new book in which the materials have been entirely re-arranged and classified. Miss Eleanor Lloyd has accomplished nearly the whole of this task of reconstruction, and a large number of new mottoes are also due to her diligent research. She discovered that whilst Mrs. Gatty was making her collection, a similar one was being gathered together in France, unknown to her, by the Baron Edmond de Rivière, and published at intervals in the "Bulletin Monumental de la Société Française pour la conservation des monuments," under the title of "Devises Horaires." This collection included several mottoes copied by M. G. de Vallier, and published in the "Revue de Marseille et Provence," 1875.

That the Baron was not acquainted with "The Book of Sun-dials," is evident from the fact that it contained several French mottoes which are not given by him, and that he mentions no English dial except the one at Kirkdale. The papers on "Devises Horaires" were followed by a collection made by Dr. A. Blanchard entitled "L'Art populaire dans le Briançonnais," and published in the "Bulletin de la Société des Etudes des Hautes Alpes." A great number of the additional mottoes in the present volume have been drawn from these sources. The writers in most cases gave the localities where they had seen the mottoes inscribed; many of them are in French. I have also taken about fifty Italian and Latin ones from another source, an interesting MS. notebook on dialling, "Notizie Gnomoniche," which Mr. Lewis Evans recently bought in Italy. The notes and diagrams are very elegantly penned, but the writer's name does not appear; only the initials, D. D. G., and the date 1761. It is not stated whether the mottoes were copied from dials, or merely suggested as suitable inscriptions, but some of them are taken from the Italian poets, so I have decided to give them the benefit of the doubt and to insert them in the Book.

Many of the early writers on dialling, Johannes Paduani, Seb. Münster, and others, give lists of suitable mottoes; and in books of emblems and devices, such as Père le Moyne's "L'Art des Devises" (1688), the dial, and the lessons to be drawn from it, are constantly found; but if all of these were to be added the list would be endless. Want of space likewise makes it impossible to give a quaint letter of seventeenth century date, written by the Norman poet Garaby de La Luzern to the Comte de Matignon, who had asked him to write mottoes for four sun-dials which were being erected on the Comte's stables, at the Château de Torigny. The letter was guoted by Baron



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de Rivière in his "Devises Horaires;" he did not know whether the inscriptions had been put up, but stated that there are no traces of sun-dials left now at the château.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, one William Rhodes, a tobacconist and pewterer, was living in Liverpool, and he possessed several works on the art of dialling, by Fale, De la Hire, and others, which he annotated in his own writing with mottoes from dials. He bought Fale's work in 1802, but the copy had belonged, in 1675, to "Thomas Skelson," who had copied into it from Lilly's "Merlini Anglici for 1650," some curious astrological calculations as to "whether King Charles ye first should live or Dye; being Friday ye 19th of January 1648-9." It is rather curious that an exact science such as mathematics should have been often associated with superstitions.

In a paper on Manx sun-dials, which was read by Miss A. M. Crellin in 1889, before the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society, she gave a short account of a dial maker named Ewan Christian. He made a dial at Kirk Michael (see No. 1330), and lived at Lewaigue. Miss Crellin says he was "commonly known by the name of 'Kione Prash,' or Brass Head, and was perhaps so named from the colour of his hair, or he may have been Ewan Prash from the metal that he worked in." Another possibility is that he earned the title from the story told of him, that "like Roger Bacon he attempted to make a brazen head, which having uttered the words, Time is, Time was, Time is past, fell to pieces."

The descriptions of remarkable dials without mottoes, which in previous editions were given partly in the "Introduction" and partly in "Further Notes," have now been re-arranged and placed together. So many discoveries of these sculptured stones have been made of late years, since the attention of archæologists was directed to them, that it has been possible to gather a considerable amount of information, both as to early dials and to the more beautiful and elaborate works of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This part of the book has therefore been re-written and greatly enlarged, and the dials arranged to some extent in chronological order, or otherwise with regard to their different types. It would have been impossible to bring the Book of Sun-dials abreast with the archæological knowledge of the day without the help of those who had personally examined the dial stones, and this has been most kindly and freely given. Miss Eleanor Lloyd, who is mainly responsible for this part of the work, joins with me in especially thanking Thomas Ross, Esq., F.S.A. (Scotland), to whom we owe the greater part of the notices of Scottish dials, as well as the drawings



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which accompany them. For descriptions and figures of other early dials we are indebted to the late Sir Henry Dryden, Bart., F.S.A., Robert Blair, Esq., F.S.A., Christopher Markham, Esq., F.S.A., W. G. Collingwood, Esq., C. Hodges, Esq., the Rev. H. Lang, and many others.

A new and most valuable addition to this edition is the Chapter on Portable Dials, by Lewis Evans, Esq., F.S.A. Many of the illustrations are drawn from specimens in his own magnificent collection. Portable dials form a complete group, and it is a great advantage to have them described by a master-pen. The few specimens that were mentioned in previous editions have now been included in Mr. Evans' chapter.

The short article on the Construction of simple forms of dials has been revised by the writer, J. Wigham Richardson, Esq.

For the translations of the Latin and Greek, French and Italian mottoes added to this edition, we are indebted to Professor Robinson Ellis, Maurice L. Waller, Esq., C. E. Noel James, Esq., W. Dewar, Esq., and B. B. Dickinson, Esq. Mr. Waller has had the further difficult task of interpreting some extracts from Nicholas Kratzer's MS. work on Dialling, to which we had access, through the courtesy of the Rev. Thomas Fowler, D.D., President of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and F. Madan, Esq., of the Bodleian Library.

Very grateful thanks are also due to those who have helped us by supplying information, or by lending blocks of illustrations, especially to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, the Council of the Yorkshire Archæological Society, the East Riding Antiquarian Society, Messrs. Macmillan and Co., Mr. W. Mark of Northampton, Messrs. F. Barker and Co. (12, Clerkenwell Road, London), the late Chancellor Ferguson, F.S.A., and the editor of "The Wilts Archæological and Natural History Society's Magazine." We have also to thank Miss Adeline Illingworth for her sketches, and last, though not least, Miss Margaret A. Meyler, without whose valuable aid in verifying references and correcting inaccuracies I could not have completed my share of the Book. She has further assisted me by making the Index.

HORATIA K. F. EDEN.

June 30th, 1900.



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CONTENTS

CHAP.   PAGE.
I. INTRODUCTION 1
II. ANTIQUE DIALS 29
III. EARLY ENGLISH DIALS 49
IV. EARLY ENGLISH DIALScontinued 62
V. EARLY IRISH DIALS 82
VI. RENAISSANCE DIALS, DETACHED 88
VII. CYLINDRICAL, GLOBE CROSS AND STAR-SHAPED, FACET-HEADED, AND HORIZONTAL DIALS 102
VIII. VERTICAL DIALS, DETACHED 116
IX. VERTICAL DIALS, ATTACHED 132
X. SCOTTISH DIALS 140
XI. FOREIGN DIALS 166
  PORTABLE SUN-DIALS. BY LEWIS EVANS, F.S.A. 183
  SUN-DIAL MOTTOES
Pages:   From:     To:
201-220 1. A CLOCK ... 101. BREVIS
221-240 102. BREVIS ... 216. DIGITUS
241-260 217. DILIGE ... 323. FUERAT
261-280 323. FUERAT (cont.) ... 437. HORAM
281-300 438. HORAM ... 533. JAM
301-320 534. J'ATAN ... 676. LUMEN
321-340 676. LUMEN (cont.) ... 809. NON
341-360 809. NON (cont.) ... 932. ORIENS
361-380 932. ORIENS (cont.) ... 1051. QUID
381-400 1052. QUID ... 1176. SIC
401-420 1177. SIC ... 1306. TAK
421-440 1306. TAK (cont.) ... 1416. TIME
441-460 1417. TIME ... 1549. UTERE
461-486 1550. UTINAM ... 1682. ZEIG
201
  ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF SUN-DIALS. BY J. WIGHAM RICHARDSON 489
  SUN-DIAL TABLES 500
  NOTES 504
  INDEX 505

 



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LIST OF PLATES

PLATE   TO FACE PAGE.
I. NICHOLAS KRATZER. (From the Portrait by Holbein in the Louvre). Photogravure plate. Frontispiece
III. FACSIMILE OF PAGE FROM KRATZER'S MS. "DE HOROLOGIIS" 21
III. FACSIMILE OF PAGE FROM KRATZER'S MS. "DE HOROLOGIIS" 23
IV. SAXON DIAL AT KIRKDALE, YORKS 54
V. SUN-DIAL AT MOCCAS COURT, HEREFORDSHIRE 100
VI. ENGRAVED DIAL-PLATE IN THE POSSESSION OF MESSRS. BARKER, CLERKENWELL 134
VII. PORTABLE DIALS 185
VIII. ASCOT CHURCH, EYAM CHURCH 286
IX. OLD PLACE, LINDFIELD 424

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

  PAGE
TURKISH WALL DIAL 13
SIGNAL-GUN SUN-DIAL 14
CASTLEBERG, SETTLE 17
HAND DIAL 22
ZOCCOLO DIAL 22
GREEK DIAL, LEYDEN MUSEUM 31
GREEK DIAL, BRITISH MUSEUM 32
GRÆCO-ROMAN DIAL, VATICAN 34
GREEK DIAL, BERLIN 35
ROMAN DIAL FROM TOR PATERNO 36
PHŒNICIAN DIAL, LOUVRE 37
GREEK DIAL, LOUVRE 38
TOWER OF THE WINDS, ATHENS 39
GREEK DIAL, BRITISH MUSEUM 40
GREEK DIAL, ORCHOMENES 41
ROMAN DIALS, VILLA SCIPIO 42
WIND AND SUN DIAL ROME 45
ANTIQUE DIAL, MADRID 47
BEWCASTLE CROSS 50
ESCOMBE 52
PITTINGTON 52
ST. CUTHBERT'S, DARLINGTON 53
WEAVERTHORPE 54
   
GREAT EDSTONE 56
OLD BYLAND 56
ALDBROUGH 57
SCHEME OF THE DIAL AT SKELTON, CLEVELAND 58
BAMBURGH 62
ISEL 63
CALDBECK 65
WEST KIRBY 65
BISHOPSTONE 67
ST. MICHAEL'S, WINCHESTER 67
STOKE D'ABERNON 68
HARDINGHAM 69
DAGLINGWORTH 70
SOUTH CERNEY 70
UPHILL 70, 71
LANGFORD 72
NORTH STOKE, OXFORDSHIRE 73
BARNACK 74
ECTON 76
POTTERSPURY 76
GRAFTON REGIS 76
HIGHAM FERRERS 77

 



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ST. SEPULCHRE'S, NORTHAMPTON 77
GEDDINGTON 78
DUNCHURCH 80
INISCALTRA 82
KILMALKEDAR 83
KILCUMMIN 84
SAUL, CO. DOWN 84
CLEOBURY MORTIMER 87
DOVER MUSEUM 88
IVYCHURCH PRIORY DIAL 89
KRATZER'S DIAL, CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE GARDENS 90
WESTWOOD OLD MANOR HOUSE, NEAR BRADFORD, WILTS 91
GREAT FOSTERS 92
MADELEY COURT 93
BADMINTON HOUSE 95
UPTON, NORTHANTS 97
PATRINGTON 98
ELMLEY CASTLE CHURCHYARD 99
WILTON CROSS 100
SUN-DIAL AT CHEESEBURN, NORTHUMBERLAND 103
HARTBURN 103
NEWCASTLE MUSEUM 103
DEANERY GARDEN 104
FELLSIDE 105
DIAL FROM WIGBOROUGH HOUSE 105
SAXMUNDHAM CHURCHYARD 105
BLEADON 106
SCOTSCRAIG 107
WALTON HALL 108
DALSTON 113
ST. MARY'S, SCILLY 114
CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE, OXFORD 119
THE COUNTESS' PILLAR 121
MARKET CROSS, CARLISLE 122
ASHLEWORTH CHURCHYARD 123
COVENT GARDEN, 1747 125
SEVEN DIALS COLUMN BEFORE 1773 125
STONE FORMERLY THE "SEVEN DIALS", WEYBRIDGE 126
LYDNEY 127
OVER THE DOORWAY OF A BOOT-SHOP AT RYE 133
BOLTON ABBEY 133
ABERDOUR 141
DIAL STONE FOUND IN TAYMOUTH CASTLE GARDENS 142
   
HERIOT'S HOSPITAL 144
OLDHAMSTOCKS 144
ALLOA 145
FOUNTAINHALL 146
AIRTH 148
KELBURN 150
TONGUE 151
WOODHOUSELEE 153
CARBERRY 155
LAINSHAW 155
HOLYROOD 156
LEE CASTLE 158
MOUNT MELVILLE 159
HADDINGTON 160
GLAMIS CASTLE 161
CHARTRES 167
LAON 167
CHÂTEAU DE JOSSELIN 168
FROM THE CHÂTEAU TOURNOUELLES 172
BUEN RETIRO, CHURRIANA 173
CHURCH NEAR BRIXEN 175
PALACE, SCHWERIN 176
ARAB DIAL, VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM 180
DIAL FROM HERCULANEUM 185
PILLAR DIAL, SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 186
MODERN PYRENEAN DIAL 187
GERMAN TABLETS 188
GERMAN NOCTURNAL DIAL 188
ENGLISH RING DIAL 188
GERMAN DIAL 189
DISC DIAL, FRENCH REPUBLIC 190
GERMAN CHALICE DIAL 190
ROMAN DIAL (circa A.D. 300) 191
GERMAN DIAL, 1713 192
ENGLISH UNIVERSAL RING DIAL (circa, 1620) 193
QUADRANT MADE FOR RICHARD II. 194
GERMAN SHIP-DIAL 195
BRASS BOX DIAL 195
FINGER RING DIAL 195
POCKET DIAL 196
NUREMBERG DIAL AND COMPASS 197
GERMAN METAL FOLDING DIAL 197
FRENCH SILVER DIAL 198
ITALIAN DISC DIAL 198
CRUCIFIX DIAL 198
JAPANESE SILVER DIAL 199
DESIGN BY REV. G. J. CHESTER 210

 



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LIBERTON HOUSE 214
MELBURY CASTLE, DORSET 223
HATFORD CHURCH 224
SIR FRANCIS HOWARD'S DIAL, CORBY CASTLE 233
BARNES HALL, SHEFFIELD 241
DUTCH CHURCH, AUSTIN FRIARS 243
WINDOW DIAL, HIGH STREET, MARBOROUGH 246
ROSENHEIM 249
ABBOTSFORD 252
TRELLECH CHURCHYARD 254
UNITED STATES NATIONAL NOTE 261
CATTERICK 263
MALVERN 273
SUN-DIAL AT WINDSOR CASTLE 276
CASTLETON, DERBYSHIRE 280
FROM THE "BOOK OF EMBLEMS" 285
ON THE PORCH OF BAKEWELL CHURCH 294
IN THE CLOISTER GARDEN, WINCHESTER COLLEGE 294
STANWARDINE HALL, NEAR BASCHURCH 294
AN INN IN ROUGEMONT 302
WALTHAM RECTORY 304
THE CLOSE, SALISBURY 316
ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST, MORWENSTOW 316
YORK MINSTER 320
STA. BARBARA MISSION, CALIFORNIA 322
WYCLIFFE-ON-THE-TEES 324
ABBEYFIELD, NEAR SHEFFIELD 334
HAYDON BRIDGE, NORTHUMBERLAND 341
NEAR DANBY MILL, YORKSHIRE 345
GREYSTOKE CHURCHYARD 345
   
FROM "DE SYMBOLIS HEROICIS" 347
IN PRIESTGATE, PETERBOROUGH 350
BROUGHAM HALL 354
ALL SOULS, OXFORD 365
LEYLAND CHURCHYARD 373
NUN-APPLETON HALL 379
DIAL HOUSE, TWICKENHAM 384
FOUNTAINS HALL, NEAR RIPON 399
INVERESK CHURCH 400
COMPTON WYNYATES 401
MONTHEY, CANTON VALAIS 413
SHENSTONE VICARAGE 414
MILLRIGG, CULGAITH 417
JOHN KNOX'S HOUSE, EDINBURGH 434
THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL, RYE 429
THORP PERROW, YORKSHIRE 435
ST. MARY'S CHURCH, PUTNEY 436
ROBINSON'S HOSPITAL, BURNESTON 440
NORMAN KEEP, NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE 442
VALCROSIA, NEAR BORDIGHERA 445
MOCCAS COURT 448
ST. BÉAT, HTS. PYRENEES 449
HELSTON CHURCHYARD 454
CAWSTON LODGE, RUGBY 455
ASHURST CHURCH, KENT 457
BELFRY AT PRA 465
WIGMORE GRANGE 468
YARROW KIRK 474
ECCLESFIELD CHURCHYARD 475
DRYBURGH ABBEY 476
CHURCH OF KING CHARLES THE MARTYR, TUNBRIDGE WELLS 483
SILVER POCKET DIAL IN THE POSSESSION OF THE REV. J. E. STACYE 486

 



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